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/^'/  INDUSTRIES  OF  PITTSBURGH. 


Trade,  Commerce  and  Manufactures. 


HISTORICAL    AND    DESCRIPTIVE   REVIEW. 


For 

1879. 


For 

1880. 


Pittsburgh  Chamber  of  Commerce — Germaula  £aiih  Building,  corner  Wood  and  D iamond  Strtets, 


Officers  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  for  i8yg-8o. 


WILLIAM  E.  SCHMEKTZ, 
JOHN  H.  RICKETSON, 


Secretary, 

s.  L.  Mchenry. 


WILLIAM  FREW, 
R.  C.  CiRAY, 
BIMON  BEYMER, 
JOHN  B.  JACKSON, 
GEORGE  A.  KELLY, 
CHARLES  ME Y RAN, 


President, 
J.  K.  MOORUEAD. 

Vice  Presidents, 
HENRY  IIOLDSniP, 
REUBEN  JNIILLER, 
H.  W.  OLIVER,  Jk. 

Treasurer, 
CHARLES  MEYRAN. 

Directors, 
JOSEPH  G.  SIEBENECK, 
JOHN  S.  SLAGLE, 
C.  A.  CARPENTER, 
GEORGE  H.  ANDERSON, 
RALPH  BAGALEY, 
T.  BRENT  SWEARINGEN, 


JOHN  F.  DRAVO, 
JOHN  R.  McCUNE, 

Superintendent, 
N.  G RATTAN  MURPHY. 


JAMES  n.  HOPKINS, 
JAMES  LAUGHLIN,  Jr:., 
A.  D.  SMITH, 
WILLIAM  A.  McINTOSH, 
FRANK  S.  BISSEL. 


PITTSBURGH: 
RICHARD  EDWARDS,  EDITOR  AND  PUBLISHER. 


Entered  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  1879,  by  R.  Edwards,  in  the  Office  of  the  Librarian  of  Comf^Kt.i,  at  Wnshington: 


'0VVHSO^T^. 


PREFATORY. 

In  placing  this  work  in  the  hands  of  the  public,  the  publisher  feels  no  hesitancy  in  expressing 
the  assured  conviction  that  no  volume  heretofore  issued,  relating  to  Pittsburgh  and  its  industries, 
contains  so  great  an  amount  of  useful,  if  not  indispensable  information. 

For  nearly  six  months  a  staff  of  reporters  and  writers^  numbering  at  times  more  than  a  score, 
representing,  in  their  separate  departments,  unusual  abilit}',  have  been  engaged  in  obtaininir  all 
possible  facts  within  the  compass  of  our  design,  and  giving  them  a  readable  and  orderly  con- 
struction. 

Embracing  both  cities  and  their  environs  within  a  radius  of  many  miles,  ever}-  trade,  manu- 
facture or  mercantile  enterprise  has  been  sedulousl}-  and  fully  depicted — no  firm  or  establishment 
of  any  prominence  being  willingly  excluded  from  these  pages. 

No  small  expense  has  been  entailed  upon  the  publisher  in  providing  the  illustrations  with 
which  the  work  is  embellished,  and  no  efforts  have  been  spared  to  secure  such  excellence,  so  far  as 
its  mechanical  production  is  concerned,  as  shall  give  it  an  attractive  appearance  to  ever}-  reader. 
A  careful  perusal  of  this  volume,  on  the  part  of  those  residing  at  a  distance  or  unfamiliar  with  the 
marvelous  diversitj-  of  the  resou^-ces  of  Pittsburgh,  is  earnestly  commended  as  certain  to  excite 
interest  and  likely  to  suggest  experimental  relations,  at  least,  that  must  conduce  to  the  future 
profit  of  all  parties. 

The  acknowledgments  of  the  publisher  are  due  to  the  Pittsburgh  Chamber  of  Commerce  for 
the  aid  and  co-operation  extended  in  the  task  undertaken,  without  which  the  enterprise  would 
have  been  shorn  of  no  small  part  of  the  brilliant  success  that  has  attended  it.  To  Hon.  J.  K. 
Moorhead,  President  Chamber  of  Commerce;  Wm.  E.  Schmertz,  Esq.,  President  Third  National 
Bank;  J.  D.  Weeks,  Esq.,  Associate  Editor  Iron  Age;  Frederick  K.  Saward,  Esq.,  Editor  Coal 
Trade  Journal;  Hon.  Thomas  W.  Davis,  Collector  Internal  Revenue;  American  Almanac  for 
1879,  by  Ainsworth  R.  Spafford,  Librarian  of  Congress;  Wm.  G.  Johnston  &  Co.,  Stationers;  and 
Geo.  A.  Kelly,  of  Geo.  A.  Kelly  &  Co.,  for  substantial  encouragement  and  highly-valued  assist- 
ance, the  publisher  also  returns  the  most  cordial  assurances  of  appreciation,  and,  with  the  belief 
that  his  labors  will  prove  not  altogether  ineffectual  in  conducingto  the  general  welfare  of  the  busi- 
ness community,  he  subscribes  himself 

RICHARD  EDWARDS. 


Industries  of  Pennsylvania,  Statistical  and  Historical  Review. 

BSS"  THIS  PAMPHLET  IS  COMPLETE,  and  is  a  poriion  of  a  large  Illustrated  Volume  of  about  2,000  pages,  of 
great  value  and  importance  to  Farmers,  Merchants,  Travelers,  Emigrants,  and  all  residing  in  or  interested  in,  the  growth 
and  prosperity  of  Pennsylvania  and  its  various  Lidustrial  and  Professional  pursuits. 


Communication   from   Gov.    Henry  M.    Hoyt, 

,    EXE( 

Harrisbukq,  June  3,  18 


Commonwealth  op  Pennsylvania,  Executivb  Chamber,  ) 

-      -79.    I 


Mr.  Richard  Edwards: 

<■**<'*=!'*  Knowing  vonr  great  experience  and  ttie  success  and  value  of  your  former  publications, 
I  can  most  cordially  commend  the  undertaking  to  the  public,  and  respectfully  request  all  those  in  charge  of  the  various 
public  and  private  institutions  and  enterprises  of  the  State,  to  extend  to  you  the  facilities  necessary  to  enable  you  to 
prosecute  the  work,  and  give  you  such  encour- 
agement as  will  guarantee  its  speedy  publica- 
tion. 

Yours  Very  Truly, 


Resolution  of  the   Pittsburgh   Chamber  of   Commerce. 
Resolved,  That,  appreciating  the  laudable  character  and  magnitude  of  this  undertaking,  the  Pittsburgh  Chamber  of 
Commerce  cordially  recommend  this  enterprise  as  conducive  to  the  public  good,  and  suggest  such  co-operation  and 
encouragement  by  our  business  community  as  shall  ensure  its  early  publication  and  its  success. 

J.  K.  Moorhead,  President. 
Geo.  a.  Kelly,  Secretary. 


PROMINENT  SCENERY  OP   PITTSBURGH. 


ALPHABETICAL    INDEX. 


PAGE 

Atwood      Paxon,   FinoSliivts 2n4 

ArinsiroDR  Frank,  Coal  Dealer.. JOl 

Aiken  &  Wallace,  Produce  Commission  Merchants 102 

Albree  &  Co.,  Boots  and  Shoes 112 

Allegheny  Insurance  Co 113 

AhlersC."F.,  Merchant  Tailor 113 

Anderson  Walter,  Merchant  Tailor 115 

Ayers  D.  &  Co.,  Live  Stock  Central  Yards,  etc 122 

Arrott  Jas.  W.,  Fire,  Marine  and  Life  Insuranco  Ag't..  131 

AvermannA  Co.,  Dry  Goods,  Carpets,  etc 137 

Allegheny  Collegiate  Institute 140 

Agnew  &  Co.,  Fiint-Glass  Vials,  etc 144 

Artisans'  Insurance  Co 149 

Armstrong  Chas  H.  &  Son 150 

Armstrong  S.  P.  &  Co.,  Wholesale  and  Retail  Grocers  153 

Acker  &  Carr,  Stoves,  Ranges,  etc 157 

Atchison  Thos.,  Teamster 1U3 

Allegheny  Gun  Works 3G4 

Appel  Henry,  Boots,  Slioes  and  Gaiters 177 

Andriessen  Fred.,  Wines  and  Liquors 178 

Alter  0.  T.,  Tinware.  Stoves,  etc 173 

Allinder  D.  G.,  M.  D 179 

Anderson  W.  B.,  Oyster,  Produce  and  Commission....  200 

Artisans'  Deposit  B:ink 87 

Armstrong  Bro.  &  Co.,  M'f 'rs  Corks  and  Bungs 88 

Adams  &  Co.,  Table  Glassware 89 

Andriessen  A.,  Wines  and  Liquors ill 

Armor  A.,  Druggist 92 

Arnold  J.  Mrs.,  Books,  Stationery,  etc 95 

Alhanibra  House 193 

Allegheny  Steam  Laundrv 210 

Abel  Kim  &  Co.,  Window'Glass 211 

Axthelm  Ernst,  yEtna  Sewing  Machine 217 

Armstrong  it  McKelvy,  M'f 'rs  White  Lead,  etc 220 

Allegheny  Brewer 223 

Allegheny  Citv  Flour  Mills 22t 

Abel  it  Voellger,  Bottlers  Best's  Lager  Beer 227 

Aland  .Tns.  J.,  Merchant  Tailor 228 

Anderson  A.  A.  &  Son,  Book  and  Job  Printers 241 

Anderson  &  Co.,  Pittsburgh  Steel  Works 242 

Albee  S.  V.,  Practical  Business  Photographer 252 

American  Bank 261 

Arsenal  Bank 262 

Brown  Brothers,  Family  Groceries 255 

Bown  James  &  Son,  Enterprise  Gun  Works ICO 

Berkshire  Life  Insurance  Co lOj 

Beymer,  Bauman  &  Co.,  White  Lead lOG 

Bernd  J.  D.  &  Co.,  Importers  and  Milliners Ill 

Barrett  (t.  B.  &  Co.,  Wholesale  Jewelers 114 

Bennett  Wm.  P.,  Blank  Books,  Binding,  etc 113 

Boyd  S.  &  Co.,  Looking  Glasses,  Pictures,  et* 116 

Brown,  Murphy  &  Fertig,  Sewer  Pipe,  etc 113 

Bunting  W.  A.,  Stencil  Work.s 123 

Boas  D.  K.,  Druggist  and  Chemist 126 

Bricker  A.  &  Sons,  Commission  Merchants 126 

Bridge  &  Bowman,  Practical  Plumbers 136 

Bakewell,  Pears  &  Co.,  Glass  Works 136 

Birmingham  Foundry  and  Machine  Shop 138 

Beatty  R.,  Son  &  Co.,  Wholesale  Commission,  etc 141 

Burn  Wm 264 

Bakewell  VV.  H.,  Awnings  and  Awning  Frames 141 

Boyd  Brjs.,  Fine  Confections 143 

BecfcertitBros.,  Florists  and  Seedsmen 152 

Brown  Thomas,  Plumber,  etc ir^i 

Barker  G.  B.,  Grocer 101 

Beattie  H.,  Groceries  and  Provisions 16i 

Bepler  Hotel , Kit 

Bauer  Wm.,  Hats,  Caps  and  Furnishing  Goods ]6'i 

Berger  Titus,  House  and  Sign  Painter... 16^ 

Bostwick  Wiu.  S.,  Magnese  Bronze  Factory 1*9 

Beiter  R.  Jk  Co.,  Brush  Block  Manufacturers 170 

Brown  Wm.  C,  Marble  and  Granite  Works 171 

Beringer  W.  C.  A  Co..  Claim  and  Patent  Agents 172 

Easier  Horace  R.,  Music  Publisher,  etc. 172 

Bvme  &  McCabe,  Liverv  and  Sale  Stable 17t 

Barker  Wm.,  Jr.,  WoolDealer 174 

BuvingerC.  W.,  M.  D..  Phvsician  and  Surgeon 175 

Bidwell  D.  W.  C.  <t  Co.,  Powder  Co 175 

Bates  G.  S.,  Fire  Insurance 175 

Boehme  Mrs.  E.  J.  A  Son,  Watchmaker.s  and  Jewelers  175 

Bleil  H.  F.,  Dry  Goods.  Groceries,  etc 175 

Byrne  P.,  Groceries  and  Provisions 175 

Bartels  August,  Florist ]7') 

Breitweiser  M.,  Groceries,  Flour,  Spices,  etc 191 

Bell,  Thompson  A  Co 216 


Baxmyer&Co 210 

Be.-'t  Jame«.  (-Groceries.  Selected  Teas,  etc 196 

Beeson  &  McMorris,  Designers  and  Engravers 200 

Bown  W.  T.  &  Bro.,  Cofiee  Roasters 201 

Blaney  Gibson,  Flour  and  Feed 206 

Benz  L.  &  Bros.,  Contractors  and  Builders 207 

Bruggemau  H.  F.,  Grocer,  Whole&ile  and  Retail 207 

Barr  John  U.,  Architect 208 

Bauer  G.  F.,  Ixioking-Glass  Frames,  etc 92 

Balsley  &  Lutton,  Notions,  Druggi  ts,  etc 93 

Boyle  A  Co.,  Granite  and  Marble  Works 94 

Beck  Washington,  M'f'erof  Glass  Molds 95 

Buflfum  J.  C.  &  Co.,  Manufacturers  and  Bottlers 95 

Beinhauer  L.  &  Son,  Livery  and  Sale  Stable 210 

Ballard  John  J.,  Manufacturer  Cigars  and  Tobacco.....  210 

Bragdon  John  C,  Wood  Carver 212 

Bedilion  T.  P.,  Jeweler 219 

Bates  Jolin,  Stoves  and  Furnishing  Goods 219 

Billing's  Patent  Horse  Shoe 221 

Birmingham  Fire  Insurance  Co 223 

Barckley  Sam'l,  Grocers'  Produce,  etc 225 

Boyle  &  McGlinchey,  Undertiiking  and  Liverv 225 

Best  &  Co.,  Printers '. 227 

Butz  Edward  M.,  Architect 228 

Brant  John  G.,  Leather,  Hides,  etc 233 

Beach  C.  H.,  Practical  Druggist 243 

Byers  A.  M.  &  Co.,  Wrought  Iron  and  Lap-Welded 

Galvanized  Iron  Pipe 246 

Borger  Jno.  Jr.,  Cigar  Manufacturer 252 

Bussman  F.  H.,  Groceries  and  Produce.. 252 

Briggs&  Drum, Com. Merchants  of  Cattle, Hogs  &  Sheep  262 

Baxmyer  F.  &  Co.,  Flour,  Feed,  Groceries,  etc 262 

Bissell  &  Co.,  Stoves,  Ranges,  Grates,  Fenders,  etc....  262 

Campbell  C.  P.,  Insurance  Agent 97 

Caskey  W.  .T.,  Groceries  and  Provisions 98 

Cunningham  &  Co.,  Glass  Works 99 

Cain  Thos.  A.,  Fine  Boots  and  Shoes 101 

Cadman  A  Co.,  Brass  Works 102 

Crawford  John,  Stencils,  Steel  Stamps,  etc 104 

Central  Refining  Co 113 

Collins  H.  E.  &  Co.,  Brokers  in  Pig  Iron,  etc... 114 

Campbell,  Williamson  &  Dick,  Drv  Goods 117 

Carroll  D.  W.  C.  &  Co.,  Fort  Pitt  Boiler,  etc 118 

Cassidv,  M.  F.,  Alderman 128 

t;hilds"H.  &  Co.,  Wholesale  Boots  and  Shoes 128 

Clay  Epliraim,  Hosiery,  Gloves,  etc 130 

Cirter  Bros.  &Co.,  Wholesale  Grocers 135 

Carter  H.,  .Sewing  Machine  Bazar 142 

Cooper  Wm.  A  Co.,  Wholesale  Grocers 142 

Crea  Graham  &  Co.,  Stoves,  Ranges,  etc 148 

Culmer  Spring  Co.,  Spiral  Springs 151 

Colebaugh,  W.  H  ,  Photographer 153 

Curry  George,  Flour,  Grain,  Hay,  etc 156 

Clark  H.  H.,  M.  D.,  Physician  and  Surgeon IGO 

Crawford  Harris,  Groceries 106 

Connelly.).  H.  A  Son,  Agents  Fire  Extinguishers 170 

Gushing  A  Fox,  Real  Estate  Brokers 170 

Campbell  &  Lauffer,  Jlarble,  Granite,  etc 170 

Clulev  J.  F.,  House  and  Sign  Painter 171 

Cain  M.  B.,  Shoe  Store 184 

Casey  &  Fogarty,  Wines  and  Liquors 184 

Cruikshank  Z.,  Groceries 195 

Cowley  D..  M.D.,  Homeopathic  Physician  and  Surgeon  195 

Cosgrove  ,Tno.  S.,  Undertaker  and  Embalmer 199 

Cruikslv.mk  Bros.,  Grocers,  Wholesale  and  Retail 2110 

Charles  &  McMurtry,  Patent  Hot-Pressed  Nuts 203 

Clark  A.  li..  Carpenter  and  Builder 205 

Connelly  Peter,  Blacksmith 205 

Cruikshank  Z.,  Flour  and  Produce 201 

Coyne  &  Hatry,  Patent  Automatic  Nail  Selectors 125 

Croner  A.  G.,  Tin,  Copper  and  Sheet-Iron  Ware 87 

Central  Bank 94 

Cruikshank  Bros.,  Grocers 95 

City  Insurance  Co ; 95 

Collins  John  K.,  Cigar  Factory 219 

Chautauqua  Lake  Ico  Co 220 

Chestnut  1).  A  Co.,  Leather,  Hides,  etc 221 

Chessman  Rob't,  Livery -nd  Sale  St.ables 221 

Cook  F.,  Minufactiirer  of  Cigars 227 

Cochran  A  Bro.,  Contractors  and  Builders 213 

Consolidated  Gas  Co 211 

Cillery  James  &  Co..  I>eather,  Hides,  Pelts,  rtc 252 

C.isay  W.F.,  Carpenter,  Contractor  and  Builder 252 


INDEX. 


rAHK 

Craig  AAVilson,  Grocaries  and  Feed 260 

Central  Hotel,  Goo.  J.  Bridge,  Proprietor 2G1 

Dilworth  J.  8.  &Co.,  Wholesale  Grocers 100 

Dun  R.  G.  &  Co.,  The  Mercantile  Aj^ency 108 

Duncan  A  Thompson's  Brush  Manufactory 109 

DiehlJ.  P.  &Son,  Wall  Paper llo 

Druvo  Win..McC.,  Oib 117 

Dawes  Jolin  Jj.  Sons  &  Co.,  Druggist's  Glassware 119 

D;tbbsB.  L.  H.,  Photographer 120 

Denison  Lewi.s  A.,  Grocer 123 

Duncan  Geo.  &  Sons,  Glass  Manufacturers ir>3 

Dobba  &  Risinger,  B.^nt   Wood  Work 142 

Davis  A.  P.,  General  Insurance  Agent 157 

Durlcin  M.,  Dealer  in  Coal 159 

Davis  Thos.  D.,  M.  D 1G6 

Darragh  Mrs.  S.  L.,  Artist 1C8 

Dunlevy  J.  B.,  Dental  Depot 171 

Dithridge  Chimney  Company 172 

Douglass  W.  &  Sons,  Steam  Boiler.s,  etc 178 

Donaldson  John  L.,  Wines  and  Liquors 181 

Dickson,  Stewart  &  Co.,  Coal  Office 184 

Dietrich  Frank,  Butcher  and  Dealer  in  all  Meats 195 

Duquesne  Boiler  Works 87 

Drape  Jas.W.,  Auctioneer,  Real  Estate,  etc 90 

Deebold  Joseph,  Groceries  and  Provisions 91 

Dietz  R.  &  Bro.,  Boot  and  Shoe  Man'frs 92 

Delaware  Mutual  Safety  Ins.  Co 95 

Diamond  National  Bank 96 

Daub  Henry,  Fashionable  Mtrchant  Tailor 96 

Dean  John  H.,  Groceries  and  Flour 96 

Dormer  M.  J.,  Marble  Works 210 

Dunran  James,  Family  Groceries 215 

Doerfiinser  Theo.,  Druggist 226 

Davis,  Chambers  &  Co.,  Lead  Works 231 

Dougherty  M.  J.,  Ci^ar  Maker 232 

Diehl  Albert,  Photographer 214 

Dutf,  McKeaa  &  Co.,  Implements  and  Seeds 245 

East  End  Hotel 141 

East  End  Marble  Works 162 

Eilenberg(>r  O.,  Log  Cabin  Cigar  Store 1G3 

East  End  Carriage  Manufactory 1C> 

East  End  I'laning  Mill  170 

Ede  George,  Carpets.  Oil  Clotiis,  etc 172 

Evans  T.  R  ,  M.  D  ,  Physician  and  Surgeon 177 

Eichenlaub  W.  F.,  Furniture  Warerooms 177 

Ehlers  A  Herman,  Undertakers 185 

ICxcelsior  Planing  Mills 190 

Eberliart  &  Ober,  Lager  Beer  Brewers,  etc 203 

Eberhart  A  Ober,  Brewers  and  Maltsters 81 

Elwood  it  McCracken,  Grain  Merchants 96 

Enterprise  Planing  Mill 216 

Edgar  Thompson  Steel  Co 213 

I'Jmpire  Oil  Works 232 

Evans  J.  T.,  Marl)l0  and  Stone-Cutter 250 

Ehrstein  Joseph,  Drugccist 253 

Eagle  Cornice  Works,  Thomas  W.  Irwin 259 

Eagle  Cotton  Mills  Co 264 

Fullerton  &  .Son,  Tobacco  and  Cigars 99 

Fleming  A  Oglevee,  Wholesale  Hats,  Caps,  etc 108 

Fairbanks  Standard  Scales 110 

Fleishman  Bros.,  Trimmings,  Millinery,  etc 1'4 

l'"undis  L.  A  Son,  Clothing,  otc. 122 

Farrell  M.  J  ,  Plumbing,  Gas  Fitting,  etc 122 

Freehold  Bank,  Discount  and  Deposit 129 

Favvcett  Thos.  A  Sons,  Bituminous  Coal 130 

Freil  Chas.,  Soda,  Mineral  Waters,  etc 133 

Fairman  Wm.,  Undertaker,  etc _ 133 

Fire  M.  A  Bro.,  Dry  Goods,  etc 143 

Froehlich  John,  Wines  and  Liquors 147 

)'"inch  Jos.  S.  A  Co  .  Distillers   150 

Fickeisen  H.,  Hats  and  Furnishing  Goods IGl 

Fetzer  J.  J.  &  B'O.,  Groceries,  Teas,  etc 1G5 

Frauenheim  A  Vilsack,  Brewery 1G7 

Faust  Thos  ,  Baker  and  Confectioner 167 

l''oerster  B  hvard.  Wall  Paper IGO 

Fetzer  A.  M.,  House  Furnishing  Goods,  etc 176 

Ferguson  A  ("o..  Book  and  Job  Printers 177 

First  National  Bank 77. 179 

Farmers  and  .Mechanics  Bank 179 

FuhrerJos.,  Foreign  and  Domestic  Wines 179 

Fifth  Avenue  Hotel ISI 

French  A.  A  Co.,  Cast  Steel  Spring  Works ISG 


PAGE 

French  Gale,  Surgeon  Dentist 188 

Flower  J.  O.,  M.  D.,  Dentist 190 

Fort  Pitt  Coal  Co.,  Miners  and  Shippers  of  Gas  Coal....  191 
Forster  J.  .1.,  Groceries,  Dry  Goods,  Wall  Paper,  etc...  195 

Flanagan  A  Kling,  Horse  Slioers 199 

Fleming,  Agnew  A  Co.,  Stamped  and  Japanned  Ware.     82 

Fichtel  F  ,  Grocer 91 

Flaccus  Wm.  A  Son,  Tauners 225 

Fleck  F   R.,  Druggist 216 

Fitz  Jolin  H.,  Tobacco  and  Cigars 222 

Fleming  Thos.,  Grocer  and  Baker 223 

Fiedler  .-V-lbert,  Manufacturer  Swiss  Bitters 224 

Franz  A  Deutenberg,  Carriage  Builders 225 

First  National  Bank  of  Allegheny 231 

Fulton's  S  )n  &  Co.,  Bell  and  Brass  Founders 253 

Frick  H.  G.  &  Co.,  Manufacturers  of  Connellsville  Coke  257 


Grabowsky  Wm.,  Silk  Hat  Manufacturer 103 

Grogan  A  Merz,  Jewelers 105 

Gray  David,  Practical  Watchmaker  and  Jeweler 108 

(Tilliam  Manufacturing  Co 109 

Getty  A  Co.,  Distillers  A  Wholesale  Liquor  Dealers Ill 

Guckort  Wni.  A  Co.,  Desks,  Tables,  etc 112 

Griffith  W.  L.  A  Co.,  Millinery  and  Trimmings 130 

Gray's  Iron  Line,  Freight  Transportation 134 

Gangwisch  .John,  Allegheny  Valley  Biewery 137 

Graham  A  Courtney,  Salt  Manufacturers 144 

Gleim  Perry  M.,  Druggist,  etc.; 146 

Greer  W.  P.,  Glass,  China,  etc 151 

Gross  E.  W.  Fire  Insurance  Agency 1.55 

Gregg  .Fas.  P.  Jr.,  Fashionable  Halter 162 

Girard  Hotel 164 

Gwynne  Wm.  A  ,  Baled  Ilay  and  Feed 168 

Guckeulieiiner  A.  A  Bros.,  Whi..kie3 176 

German  Savings  and  Deposit  Bank 178 

Goettnian  Jacob,  Baker  and  Confectioner 178 

German  Fire  Insurance  Co 184 

(ielloland  J.  A.,   Dry  Goods,  Clothing,  etc 185 

Gardner  Bros.,  Fire  Brick,  'Tile  and  i-  uriiace  Blocks...  192 

Glesenkamp  L,  A  Co.,  Carriage  Manufacturers 199 

Greineisen  F.  C,  Druggist 208 

Gray  John  A  Co.,  Dry  Goods,  Notions,  etc 214 

Gray  Wm.  E.,  Dry  Goods  and  Millinery 214 

Gallagher  A  House,  Boots  and  Shoes 215 

Gardner  Chas.,  Merchant  Tailor 232 

Grim  David,  Carriage  Manufacturer 234 

Gardner  M.  F.,  Groceries 235 

Garrow  H.  S.,  Florist. 241 

Great  Western  Hay,  Grain  and  Feed  House,  Jas.  Gra- 
ham A  Son '. 250 

Greene  G.  W.  A  B.  F.  &  Co.,  M'f 'rs  of  Ingot  Brass 258 

Godfrey  A  Clark,  Paper  Flour-Sack  Manufacturers 263 


Holtzman  H.,  Practical  Decorative  Upholsterer 97 

Hutcliinson   A.  A.  A  Bro.,  Coal   and  Coke 97 

Hoting  C.  A  Sons,  (frain.  Hay,  Straw,  etc 99 

Hughes  J.  P.,  Cigar  Manufacturer 100 

Hublev  Jacob  B.  A  Co 101 

H  igue'Walter  E.,  Gold  and  Silver  Plater 101 

Hottnian  J.  M.  A  Co  ,  Pianos  and  Organs 104 

Hamilton  A.,  Fish,  Oysters  and  (Jame 104 

Hunter  Joseph  R.,  Merchandise  Broker lOG 

Hughes  Jas.  R.,   Wall  Paper,  etc 107 

Hartford  J.  M.,  Wholesale  Auctioneer 103 

Hamilton  S.,  Pianos  and  Organs 112 

Hare  Thomas,  S.iddlorv,  Hardware,  etc 114 

Head  A  McElroy,  Produce  Commission  Merchants....  118 

Hod.go,  Goddard  A  Co.,  Wholesale  Jewelers 121 

Hatry  A.  G.,  Iron  Commission 125 

Hostetter  A  Smith,  Stomach  Bitters 127 

HeckelC.  C,  Merchant  Tailor 1.38 

HareS.  W.  A  Co.,  Plumbers  and  Gas  Fitters 141 

HorneJos.  A  Co.,  Dry  (ioods.  Notions,  etc 145 

Hamilton  W.  H.  ACo.,  Glass  Manufacturers 145 

Henderson  A  Bro.,  Wholesale  Druggists 148 

Hiller  A.,  Tin,  Copper,  Sheet  Iron,  etc 148 

Hamilton,  Lemmon,  Arnold  A  Co   149 

Hay  .Tames,  Plumber,  .Sffam  and  0;is  Fitter 151 

Halpin  A  Humbert,  Plumt)ers,  etc 154 

Huesncr  Mrs.  C,  Groceries  and  I'roduce 156 

Hunter  David,  Cigars,  Tob:icco,  etc 153 

Harvey  L.,  Books  and  Stationery  159 

Hubuck  Peter,  Butter  and  Eggs 162 

HannaE.  S.,  M.  D 163 

Harbaugh  A.  J.,  Granite  and  Marble  Works 165 

Hager  M.  H.,  Wall  Paper,  Notions,  etc 166 

Ilaslett  F.  M.  A  Co.,  Nut  and  Bolt  Works 163 


INDEX. 


PAGE 

nauch  C.  Mrs.,  Watches,  Clocks,  etc 171 

Hitchcock,  McCreary  &  Co.,  Grain,  etc 182 

Hippelyl.,  Flour,  Grain  and  Mill  Fcntl 185 

Hirsch  Bros.,  Cigars  and  Tobacco,  Wholesale 188 

Holmes  W.  H.,  Kye  Whiskies,  Wines,  etc 195 

Hines  M.  J.,  Dry  Goods,  Millinery,  Notions,  etc 195 

Hughes  Geo.  W.,  Cigar  Manufacturer 197 

Hartdnng  Theodore,  Merchant  Tailor 198 

Hcckiuan  Adam,  Wine  and  Liquor  Saloon 199 

Haines  J.  B.,  Wholesale  Dry  Goods 202 

Home  Hotel .204 

Heintz  Mrs.  J.  C,  Dry  Goods  and  Notions 205 

Hussey,  Howe  &  Co  ,  Manfr's.  of  Steel 85 

Haslage  Win.,  Jobber  and  Betailer  in  Groceries,  etc...    86 
Hedges  S.  B.  &  Co.,  Com.  Merchants  for  Cattle,  etc....    86 

Holdship  &  Irwin,  American  Oil  Works 86 

Hechelman  W.W.,  M.  D 90 

Hollinger  J.  S.,  Merchant's  Dining  Rooms 91 

Hamburger  Ph.,  Kye  and  Bourbon  Whiskies 92 

Haldemaa  &  Johnston,  Coach  and  Wagon  Makers 211 

Hussey  C.  G.  &  Co.,  Rolling  Mills 212 

Helbling  W.,  Butcher 216 

Holzheiraer  J.,  Furniture  and  Chairs 223 

UosackWm.,  Flour,  Oats,  etc 232 

Howley  M.  1).,  Real  Estate  Securities,  etc 234 

Hampe  F  ,  Bottling  House 235 

Herron  Wm.  A.  &  Son,  Real  Estate  Agents 245 

Hussey  C.  G.  &  Co., Pittsburgh  Copper  and  Bi-ass  Works  246 

Heineman  Otto  E.,  Watchmaker  and  Jeweler 250 

Humboldt  Fire  Ins.  Co 253 

Hermes  Peter  &  Bro.,  Milk  and  Butter  Dealers 259 

Huntington  Dr.  J.  E.,  Dentist 259 

Hains  Geo.  S 239 

Irwin  Geo.  M.,  Grain  and  Provision  Broker 131 

Iron  City  Bridge  Wprks 139 

Irwin  John  M.  &  Son,  Furniture  Manufacturers 144 

Iron  City  Flour  Mills 162 

Ihmsen   Glass  Company,  Colored  Glassware 176 

Iron  and  Glass  Dollar  Savings  Bank 210 

Irwin  W.  H.,  Rosedale  Foundry 231 

Iron  City  Marble  Works 234 

Isabella  Furnace  Co.,  Manufacturers  of  Pig  Iron 245 

Iron  City  College,  J.  C.  Smith,  A.  M..  Principal 248 

Improved  Mercantile  Agency,  Bradstreet  Company...  251 
Irwin  James,  Globe  Street  Lamps,  Vapor  Burners,  etc.  259 


Jackson  I.,  Star  Clothier 123 

Jones  J.  B.  &  Bro.,  Wholesale  Iron  Metal,  etc 147 

•Tones  H.  A.,  Carpet  Weaver 148 

Jones,  Robert  M.,  Pattern  and  Model  Works 161 

Jenkins  M.  L.,  Boots,  Shoes,  Hats,  Caps,  etc 105 

Jacoby  G.  T.,  M.  D 163 

Jacobus  &  Nimick  Manufacturing  Co 180 

Jeffries  R.  B.,  M'f 'r  Cigars,  Wholesale  and  Retail 187 

JarvisA  Adams,  Manufacturers  Domestic  Hardware...  190 

Johnson,  Egve  A  Earl,  Wliolesale  Grocers 238 

Juniata  Bolt  Works,  Gillespie  Bros.  &  Co 241 

Jaekman  A.  &  Sons,  Exchange  Livery  Stables 250 


Kaufman,  Oppenheimer  &  Co.,  Wholesale  Clothiers....    99 

Kramer  &  Seil'ert,  Oysters,  Yeast,  etc 102 

Keyser  Geo.  M.,  M.  D.,  Physician 112 

Kelley  George  A.  &  Co.,  Wholesale  Druggists 116 

Kornbl  urn,  Optician 118 

Kaercher.T.  B.,  Hardware  and  Cutlery 118 

Kirk  Arthur,  Powder  and  Miners'  Supplies 119 

Keystone  Paper  Co 124 

Kleber  &  Brother,  Pianos  and  Organs 124 

Kincaid  .Tames  T.  Jr 129 

Kay,  McKiiight  &  Co.,  Machinery  and  Supplies 139 

Klemm  Wm.,  Plumber,  Gas-Fitter,  etc 140 

Kirkpalrick,  Beale  &  Co.,  Sheet  Iron,  etc., 145 

Kelley  A  Jones,  Steam-Warming,  etc 146 

Klinzing  &  Co.,  Boots,  Shoes  and  G.aiters 148 

Keil  P.  &  Son,  Commission  Merchants 152 

Kratzer  W.  N.  Jr.,  Mattresses,  Bedding,  etc 153 

Kann  W.  L.  &  Co.,  Leather,  Oils,  etc 155 

Koenig  J.  &  Bro.,  Watchmakers  and  Jewelers 156 

Kenngott  Geo.,  Tin,  Copper,  Brass,  etc 161 

King  Wm.,  Alderman  and  Police  Magistrate 162 

Kelley  Clias.  H.  &  Co.,  Sewing-Machine  Attachments  177 

Konstanzer  Otto,  Baker  and  Confectionery 188 

Keller  Jacob,  Wines  and  Liquors 189 

Kane  C,  Scrap  Iron,  Steel  and  Metal 189 

Keystone  Boiler,  Forge  and  Anvil  Works 191 


PAGE 

Kior  Bros.,  Manufacturers  of  Fire  Brick 196 

Kossler  Martin,  Baker  and  Confectioner 197 

Keil  Jno.  Sr.,  Flour,  Grain,  etc..  Wholesale  and  lietail  198 

Keil  Jno.  Jr  ,  Groceries,  Dry  Goods,  Notions,  etc 198 

Kaiser  F.,  Wines  and  Liquors 202 

Kennedy  C.  S.,  Wines  and  Liquors 203 

Keystone  Tannery 205 

Koch  Arnold,  Pharmaceutist 208 

Keystone  Gas-Light  Co 84 

Krehan  Ernest  G.,  Interpreter  of  Courts,  etc 86 

Keystone  Axle  Works 93 

Kemler  John  W.,  Watches,  Clocks,  etc 94 

Keystone  Chain  Works 209 

King  Son  &  Co.,  Crystal  Glassware 212 

Kerr  Wm.,  Carpenter  and  Builder 215 

Krebs  Otto,  Lithographer 218 

Kober  Frederick,  'Tanks,  Oil  Barrels,  etc 224 

Keil  J.  J.,  Druggist  and  Pharmacist 226 

Krut  A.,  Wagon-Maker 229 

Keystone  Bridge  Co 242 

Kreps  &  Bowers,  Hardware  and  Cutlery 243 

Kemper  John,  Boots  and  Shoes 244 

Kuhn  Bros.,  Wholesale  and  Retail  Grocers 247 

Kimmel  Joseph  &  Co.,  Druggists  and  Pharmaceutists  250 
Kuhlman  C.  F.,  Wholesale  and  Retail  Grocer 253 

Langenheim  &  Shepard,  Flour  and  Groceries 98 

Lyons  &  Co.,  Citizens  Oil  Works 103 

Loughridge  Jas.,  Brush  Manufacturer 107 

Lanz   H.,  Boots  and  Shoes 113 

Lea  Robert,  Engine  Builder  and  Machinist 115 

Lashel  &  Walter,  Commission  Merchants 120 

Laughlain  it  Dean,  Ship  Chandlers,  etc 123 

Lageman  A  Bro.,  Groceries,  Tea,  Flour,  etc 124 

Limegrover  Samuel  R.,  Baker  and  Confectioner 125 

Luelibe  &  Bro.,  Wholesale  and  Retail  Grocers 126 

London  Tea  House 127 

Lange  Kennedy  F.,  Eagle  Pliarmacv 123 

Lee  <t  Marshall,  Wool  Dealers ." 129 

Littell  .Tames,  Wholesale  Wines  and  Liquors 139 

Levis  &  Bickel,  Solicitors  of  Patents 146 

Logan,  Gregg  A  Co.,  Wholesale  Hardware 153 

Legge  J.  H.,  M.  D.,  Physician  and  Surgeon 166 

Lohmeyer  F.  A.,  Fancy  Confectioner. 172 

Land  G.  W.,  Tin,  Copper  and  Sheet  Iron  Ware 172 

Lawrence  Bank 177 

Lance  H.  J.,  Wooden  Pumps 180 

Levy  Henry,  Hosiery,  Notions,  etc 183 

Lindsay  S.  Jr.,  &  Co.,  Flour  and  Groceries 185 

Leslie  A.  H.,  Ins.  and  Real  Estate  Agent 189 

Lloyd  H.,  Son  &  Co.,  Kensington  Iron  Works 194 

Lusk  John,  Tin,  Copper,  Sheet  Iron  Ware,  etc 197 

Levy  J.,  Philada.  Branch  Clothing  House 203 

Lanz,  M.atthew  &  Son,  Bolts,  Nuts  and  Washers 207 

Livingston  &  Co.,  Novelty  Works,  Iron  Founders,  etc  208 

Lion  Brewery 82 

Lutz  D.  &  Son,  Lager  Beer  Brewers 82 

LibbyJ.  E.,  M.  D.,  Dentist 85 

Livingston  Novelty  Works 211 

Lutz  D.  tt  Son,  Brewers 220 

Lydick  John  A.,  Groceries 223 

Le  Moyne  Dr.  F.,  Surgeon  and  Physician 258 

Leatheroid  Manufacturing  Co 264 

Lubbers  B.  H.,  Wines  and  Liquors 260 

LudewigG., Bottled  Beer,  Foreign  and  DomesticWines  258 

Lindsay  &  McCutcheon,  Iron  Manufacturers 260 

Lupton  W.  B.  &  Co.,  Slate  Roofers 241 

Louder  Chas 264 

McKain  Bros.,  Dry  Goods  and  Carpets 263 

McKenna  A.  &  T.,  Brass  Founders 97 

Milliken  J;imes  &  Co.,  Furniture 98 

Mellof  &  Hendricks,  Pianos  and  Organs 98 

McAndrew  Tliolnas,  Livery  and  Sale  Stables 99 

Midglev  W.  H.,  Groceries  and  Confectionerv 102 

Myers  &  Co.,  Pork  and  Beef  Packers .'. 102 

Mceser  Louis,  Notary  Pulilic,  Ship  Agent,  etc 104 

McKee  James,  Watchmaker  and  Jeweler, 107 

McNish  A.  M.,  Sash,  Blind  and  Door  Machinery 108 

Monongahela  Insurance  Co 109 

McKni'ght  H.  D.  &  Co.,  Eclipse  Steam  Pump  Works..  110 

McCanillcss,  Jamison  &  Co.,  Dry  Goods,  etc 112 

McCormick  John  J.,  European  Steamship  Agent 114 

Miller,  Forse  <fe  Co.,  Wholesale  Liquors 119 

McElroy  &  Co.,  Brooms,  Brushes,  etc 120 

McNally  James  A.,  Importer  and  Jobber 125 

Maclean  Jos.   Bookseller  and  Bookbinder 130 

Metcalf,  Paul  &  Co.,  Verona  Tool  Works 133 

Maginn  Chas.  &  Co.,  Wholesale  Confectioner 134 


INDEX. 


PAOE 

McQuiston  Jas.  &  Co.,  Pitts.  Galvanizing  Works 135 

Moriow  i  Co.,  ManlVs.  Street  Lauijis 136 

McCanceT.  <t  J.  T.,  Mercliant  Tailois..-. 137 

Mercer  E.B.,  Teas  and  Groceries 144 

McGrathL.  T.,  Grocer 146 

Mitchell  &  Co.,  Stove  Manufacturer.=! 147 

Milligun  VV.  J.,  Groceries  and  Pro  vision;; 150 

Malscli  F.,  Meat  Market 152 

Manufacturers  and  Merchants  Ins.  Co 154 

McHenry  &  Hood,  Com.  and  Wholesale  Grain  Dealers  155 

McFerron  James,  Groceries  and  Provisions 150 

Moore  J.  W.  &  Co.,  Coach  and  Wagon  Builders 158 

Murdoch  John  R.  &.  A.,  Florists,  etc 159 

McNary  Wm.  H.,  Hats,  Caps,  etc 160 

Marsland  R.  S.,  Mercliant  Tailor 160 

McClaran  R.  M.,  Apothecary 161 

Metz  it  Reil,  Drugs,  Paints,  Oils,  etc 161 

McClelland  S.  T.,  Fashionable  Hatter 164 

Metzgur  D.  H.,  Surgeon  Dentist 166 

Martin  S.  &  W.  H.,  Lumber,  Sash,  Doors,  etc 169 

McDonough  A.,  Groceries  and  Liquors 169 

Mohrhoff  Mrs.  M.  L.,Milliner  and  Dressmaker 171 

Myrick  E.,  Hardware,  Farm  Implements 176 

Mclntire&  Brand,  Grocers 181 

Mueller  Louis,  Fancy  Furs,  Hats,  etc 181 

Mahatt'ey  W.  G.,  Boot  and  Shoe  Maker 182 

Mills  <fcCo.,  Chemical  Works 183 

Manley  AHill,  Dining  Rooms 183 

Manning  House 188 

McKee  J.  A.  &  Sons,  Oil  Refiners  and  Coopers 188 

Miller  Wm.,  Duquesue  Forge 189 

Maxwell  W.  H.,  Glass  Labels,  Glassware,  etc 190 

Mitchell  Geo.  B.  &  Co.,  Iron  Com.  Merchants 194 

McCrickart  W.  J.,  Wines  and  Liquor.s,  Wholesale 197 

Mclntyre  John,  Miner  and  Shipper  of  Gas  Coal 197 

McKelvey  J.  A.,  Carriage  and  Harness  Bazaar 197 

McQuigg"<Si  Grove,  Groceries  and  Teas 198 

Means  B.  W.,  Druggist 198 

Miller  J.  F.,  Pattern  and  Model  Maker 199 

McCracken   Wm.,  Dry  Goods 200 

Mav  M.,  Steam  Dyer  and  Scourer 200 

McCready  J.  A.,  M.  D 201 

Manchester  Ale  Brewerv 201 

Mundorf  A.  S.,  Planing"  Mill,  Lumber  Yard,  etc 204 

Monongaliela  House 204 

Moore  J.  F.,  Carpenter  and  Builder 207 

McConway,  Torley  &  Co.,  Eagle  Malleable  Iron  Works    SI 

McKeesport  Iron  Works 81 

Mackeown,     Thompson  &  Co.,  Drug  House 87 

McFarland  J.  W.  &Co.,  Carpets 88 

Mussler  John,  Meat  Market 90 

Mahood  Samuel,  Teas  and  Groceries 93 

McCord  v%  Co.,  Hats,  Caps,  Furs,  etc 96 

Marshall,  Kennedys  &  Co.,  Flour  Mills  aud  Elevator..  193 

Marine  National  Bank 216 

Merchants'  and  Manufacturers'  National  Bank 2  8 

McKibben  James,  General  Teaming 224 

MacCordGeo.  T.,  M.D.,  Phvsician  and  Surgeon 226 

Miller  Wm.  H.,  Builder  and  Contractor 228 

\  Meyer  A.  F.,  Drv  Goods,  Millinery,  etc 228 

McKee  S.  Penn.  Glass  Works 229 

Miller  &  Houston,  Groceries  and  Provisions 233 

MeClurg  Jas.  &  Co.,  Cracker  Bakers  and  Confectioners  234 

McSteen  M.,  Plumber,  Brass  Founder,  etc 235 

Mitchell  Wm.  &  Co.,  Hosiery,  Notions,  etc 258 

Milholland  Joseph,  Groceries  and  Produce 242 

Mills  &  Bro.,  Printers,  Stationers  and  Engraveis 243 

Moreland  Thomas  B.,  Agent,  Undertaking  and  Livery  244 

Manchester  Coal  Yard 244 

Metropolitan  National  Bank 245 

Malile"  Wm., Watches, Clocks,  Jewclrv  and  Silverware  2.50 
McMichael  Thos.,  Grain,  Flour  aud  Produce 256 

Nieman  &  Ahlers,  Merchant  Tailors 110 

Natcher  John  T.,  Carpenter  and  Builder 122 

Northrop  A.  &  Co.,  Sheet-Iron  Roofing,  etc 132 

N.  Y.  and  Cleveland  Gas  Coal  Co 149 

Nellis,  Shriver  &  Co.,  Agricultural  .Steels,  etc l.'iS 

National  Planing  Mill..." 164 

Nimick  W.  A.,  Transfer  Co 183 

Naser  M.  V.,  Clothing,  Furnishing  Goods,  etc 187 

Nobbs  .T  B.,  Stoves  and  House-Furnishing  Goods 194 

Nisbet  Wm.  W.,  Druggist 246 

G'Byrne  Bros.,  Publishers  and  Book-Binders 104 

O'Donnell  J.  C,  Groceries  and  Provisions 163 

O'Leary  A.,  China,  Glass  and  Queensware Ill 

OohmlerR.  C,  Paints,  etc ^ 113 

Orr  James,       M.  D.,  Dentist 145 

O'Mally  John  F..  Attorney-at-Law 158 

Oohse  Henry  W.,  Oil  Cloths,  Dry  Goods 163 

OiTord  E.,  Hardware.  Tinware,  etc 175 

Orr  James  L.,  Real  Estate  Agent  and  Broker 193 


Owens  James,  Plastering,  Cement,  etc 207 

Odd  Fellows'  Savings  Bank 211 

Oiiihausen  H.  F.,  Plumber,  Gas-Fitter,  etc 221 

O'Doherty  John,  Wines  and  Liquors 235 

Oi  luiau  J.  H.  A  Co.,  Wholesale  Grocers  and  Flour 236 

Paxson  Alwood,  Custom  Fine  Shirts 254 

Potzer  Alph  J.,  Hats,  Caps  and  Furnishing  Goods...    99 

Prentice  &  Hackett,  Cement,  Lime,  ei'; '. 100 

Pittsburgh  Show  Case  Co 103 

Paulson  F.  G.,  Fashionable  Haitci 105 

Pittsburgh  and  Connellsville  Coke  Co 107 

Porter  &  Donaldson,  Wholesale  Millinery 110 

Pickersgill  Wm.  Jr.,  Manf'r.  Boots  and  Shoes ill 

Pittsburgh  Tar  Chemical  Works 121 

Phelan  James,  Hosiery  and  Gents'  Goods,  etc 123 

Pennsylvania  Lead  Co.,  Smelters,  etc 124 

Pittsburgh  Wire  Works 126 

Porter  W.  H.,  Aldei-man  and  Deputy  Mayor 127 

Pennsylvania  Insurance  Co 151 

Patterson  Brothers,  Livery  St.able 157 

Pretshold  E.,  Tin  and  Hollow  Ware 367 

Pittsburgh  Car  Wheel  Works 174 

Pieper  August,  Boots  and  Shoes 188 

Pinkerton  Mrs.  M.  M.,  Fine  Millinery 198 

Porter  H.  K.  &  Co.,  Light  Locomotives 200 

Pittstmrgh  Planing  Mills,  Penn  Av.,  bet.  31st  and  32d  201 

Pittsburgh  Planing  Mills,  Penn  Av.  and  26th  St 205 

Peoples  Savings  Bank  of  Pittsburgh 84 

Park,  Scott  &  Co.,  Copper 85 

Pittsburgh  Bank  for  Savings 90 

Pfiel  Jacob,  Groceries  and  Provisions 92 

Peeples  Jolin,  Tobacco  and  Cigars 193 

Price  Wm.  G.  .t  Co.,  Iron  Founders,  etc 209 

Presbvterian  Book  .Store 210 

Patrick  R   &Co.,  Bankers 212 

Penn   Planing    Mill 213 

Palmer  R.    H.  A  Co.,  Hats,  Caps,  Furs,  etc 215 

Peoples  National   Bank 219 

Pennsylvania  Female  College 227 

Patterson   Robt.  C.  &  Bro.,  Florists 228 

Parslow  A.,   Barrel  Factory 229 

Pier,  Dannals  &  Co.,  Brewers 233 

Penn.  Bank 233 

Potzer  D.  J  ,  Hats,  Caps  and  Furnishing  Goods 2.34 

Pittsburgh  Acid  AVorks 235 

Patterson  Rody,  .Jr.,  Liverv  Stable 279 

Pittsburgh  Catholic  College". 247 

Pittsburgh  Encaustic  Tile  Co 248 

Paragon  Oil  and  Grease  Works,  W.  J.  Smith  &  Co 249 

Peoples  Wm.,  Stair  Builder 249 

Piitsh'gh  Steel  Casting  Co.,  Mfrs.  Imp.  Steel  Castings,  251 
Pittsburgh  Dry  Docks,  Reed  &  Kreps 255 

Runette  Wilson  &  Sons,  Dry  Goods 158 

Rankin  M.  W.,  Wholesale  Grocer  and  Commission 98 

Robison  Brothers,  Coal  Merchants 106 

Reineke  H.  A  Co.,  Gas  and  Steam  Filters 107 

Roberts  E.  P.  &  Son,  Jewelers 117 

Roller  Theophilus,  Wholesale  and  Retail  Furniture...  119 

Roller  Mrs.  S.  A.,  Millinery,  Dress  Making,  etc 119 

Rosenbaum  &  Co.,  Trimmings,  Millinery,  etc 120 

Reineman  A.  R.  ABro.,  Florists .". 123 

Rees  James,  .Machinery 125 

Rose  Thomas  &  Son,  Boots  and  Shoes 128 

Rowbottom  Wm.,  Practical  Plumber,  etc 140 

Rodrian  Adam,  Boots  and  Shoes * 142 

Risher  J.  C.  A  Co  ,  Coal  Office 1.53 

Rowswell  TIios.,  Livery  and  Sale  Stable 157 

Reed  &  Smith,  Seeds  and  Implements 139 

Runette  Charles,  Clothing,  Hats,  Caps,  etc 161 

Robison  James,    M.  D 162 

Rex  T.  A.    M.  D.,  Physician  and  Surgeon 169 

Russell  <6  Thomas,  Scrap  Iron 173 

Rossiter  E.  A.,  Boston  Clothing  House 174 

Robinson  S.  M.,  Photographer 174 

Renshaw  John  A.  A  Co.,  Grocers 180 

Risacher  M  .,  Dealer  in  Meats  of  all  kinds 186 

Rodney  R.  T.,  Undertaker  and  Embalmer 199 

Ritter  George,  Baker  and  Confectioner 199 

Reed  J.  S.  &  Son,  Planing  Mill,  Box   Factory,  etc 204 

Red  Ton  Bottling  Co 208 

Risher  D.  &  Co.,  L  X.  L.  Tug  Link  Co 82 

Ruch  Jacob  &  Bro.,  Carriage  Manufacturers 90 

Russell  James,  Boots  and  Shoes." 91 

Reinecke  E.  W.,  Eagle  Pharmacy 93 

Richards  W.  H.  A  Co.,  Turners  and  Machinists 214 

Robinson  James  A.,  Coal,  Lime,  etc 223 

Robinson  Bros.,    Bankers 232 

Roberts  C.  W.,  Groceries  and   Provisions 235 

Roiling  F.  &  Son,  Iron  Railing  and  Wire  Works 258 

Ruff  Herman,  Practical  Hatter 260 

Reed  >t  Co.,  Advertisers'  Agents 260 

Reed  James  R.  A  Co.,  Diamonds,Watches  and  Jewelry  243 
Robinson,   Rea  &  Co.,  Washington  Works 263 


INDEX. 


Snivply  &  Radeliile,  Wall  Paper 97 

Smith  L.  H.  &  Co.,   Stoves,  Grates,  etc 105 

.Stlimertz  W.  E.  &  Co.,  Boots,  Shoes  and  Rubbers 109 

Spcer  A.  M.,  M.  D.,  Oculist  and  Aurist 110 

Stevonson  J.  H.,  Attoniey-al-Lnw 113 

Slianlov  F.,  Boots  and  Shoes 115 

Steele  A.  J.,  Wagon-Maker IIG 

Soevyn  F.,  Mereliant Tailor 120 

Soiforth  John,  Wines  and  Liquors 120 

Somers,  Brother  &  Co.,  Produce  Dealers,  cic 121 

Schnabel  G.  A.   Carriage  Manufactory 137 

Smith,  Son  &  Co.,   Lamps  and  Glassware 139 

Stoughton  &  Haid,  House  and  Sign  Painters 141 , 

Schomaker  &  Co.,  Commission  Merchants 142 

St.  James  Hotel 142 

Suydam,  Lawrence  &  Co.,  White  Lead,  etc 143 

Sniidi  L.  H.,  Brooms,  Brushes,  etc 144 

Smith  J.  &  Son,  Steam  Dyers,  etc 146 

Schneider  Max,  Dveing,  Scouring,  etc 147 

Scott  Chailos  A.,  iJook  and  Job  Printer 148 

Smith  M.  P.,  Saddles,  Harness,  etc 150 

Smith  E.  J.,  Harness,  Saddles,  Trunks,  etc 152 

Schaub  A.,  Leaf  Tobacco 153 

Sleitz  Louis,  Druggist  and  Apothecary 155 

Spencer,  McKay  &  Co.,  Maltsters  and  Brewers 156 

Smith  Wm.,  Real  Estate  and  Insurance  Agency 100 

Schneider  Aug.,  Boots,  Shoes,  etc IGI 

Schwarz  Frwi.  C,  Cabinet-Maker 165 

Sarver  W.  J.,  Watches,  Clocks  and  Jewelry 165 

Spongier  A.  C.,  Hardware  and  Furnishing  Goods lOS 

Spring  Edward,  Pharmaceutist 169 

Shoffer  Samuel,  Grocer 169 

Smith  James  A.,  Saddlery,  etc 170 

Star  Fire.-Brick  Works 173 

Schmidt  E.  W.,  Wines,  Liquors,  etc 173 

Stuart  Jas.  H.,  Mantels,  Monuments,  etc 178 

Schleiter  G.,  Dry  Goods 180 

Seventh-Avenue  Hotel 183 

Sehimdt  A  Friday,  Wines  f  nd  Liquor.s 184 

Shade  Jolin  J.,  Bookseller,  Newsdealer,  etc 18  i 

Sippel  M.,  Merchant  Tailor 186 

Stutz  S.,  Mining  and  Mechanical  Engineer 187 

Spreon  Frci).,  Merchant  Tailor 188 

Smith  LeeS.,  Dental  Depot 191 

Steel,  Lane  &  Co.,  Produce  Commission 191 

Scott  Charles  S.,  Surgeon  Dentist 192 

Smith  H.  &Sons,  Merchant  Tailors 192 

Schmidt  Henry,  Pharmaceutist 194 

Smith  Wm.  FT.,  Flour  Commission 196 

Sperber  J.  &  A.,  Artists  and  Photographers 196 

Siierritfct  TIazelv,Iron  and  Wood- Working  Machinery  202 

Skyles  A  Co.,  Tallow  Chandlers 203 

Steven.son  J.  &  Co.,  Pork-Packers,  etc 205 

Straub  &  Co.,  Brewers 206 

Spang,  Chalfant  &  Co.,  Elm  Rolling  Mills.,  .,  84 

Solfcl  Peter,  Boots  and  Shoes 89 

Seilnig  William  A.,  Butclier 91 

Stewart  T.  B.  &  Son,  Dealers  in  Coal 91 

Stewart  Wra.  H.,  M.  D 93 

South  Pittsburgh  Planing  Mill 94 

Stahl  W.  G.,  Grain  and  Provision  Broker 94 

Schneider  J.,  DryGowls, Gents'  Furnishing  Goods,  etc.    94 

Speer  &  Morgan,"  Tin,  Copper,  etc 95 

Stewart,  Estep  &  Co.,  Druggists'  Glassware,  etc 212 

Staff,  John  A.,  Groceries  and  Provisions 214 

Sell  Joseph,  Hnts,  Caps  and  Furnishing  Goods 215 

Second  Ave.  Coacli  Lino 219 

Stoner  &  McCluro,  Saw  Mills 222 

Sliore  Wm.  &  Co.,  Groceries  and  Produce 226 

Storch  E.,  Marble,  Granite  and  Stono  Works 226 

Sadler  J.  F.  &  Co.,  Forwarding  and  Commission 226 

Schneiders.,  Boot»i  and  Shoes 229 

Sankey  Bros.,  Brick-Makers 230 

Stevenson  J.  M.,  M.  D 234 

Sands  Geor^'C,  Plumlier,  Gas  and  Steam-Filler 246 

Solar  Iron  Works,  Wm.  Ciark  &  Co. 247 

Shoe  and  Leather  Bank 248 

Smith  W.  S.,  Undertaker  and  Kmbalmer 2-50 

Snider  N.  IL,  Dealer  in  Groceries  and  Produce 251 

Scmnielrock  Wm.,  Undertaking  and  Livery  Stables...  251 

Sexaucr  Gust.  A.,  House,  Sign  and  Fresco  Painter 252 

Scliimiuel'a  Fruit  Butter 253 

Sisters  of  Mercy  Academy..  12 

Smith  Wm.  A,  Sons,  Natioinil  Foundry  and  PipeWorks  255 

Sweitzer  Eugene,  Dyer  and  Scourer 255 

Smith  llonry  J.,  Dry  Goods  and  Notion.s 256 

Sl;ul?rewery,C.Ba3u"erlein,Bro.&Co.,Bennett'sStation  257 
SI. Charles  Livery  and  SaleSlables,J.n.Skelton,Prop'r  258 
Seip  P.,  Confectioneries  and  Candies,  Bread  and  Cake  260 
Star  Fire  Brick  Works,  Harbison  &  Walker 173 

Thoma  John,  liOather  and  Shoo  Findings 97 

Towuseud  &  Co.,  Rivota  and  Wire 103 


PAGE 

Tiegel  B.,  Merchant  Tailor 116 

The  Enterprise  Exchange 128 

The  Westinghouse  Air  Brake  Co 132 

Totteu&Co.,  Fulton  Foundry 135 

Thompson,  Epping  &  Carpenter,  Pump  Works 138 

Taylor  Isaac,  Importer  Dry  Goods,  etc 138 

The  Singer  Mfg.  Co.,  Sewing  Machines 143 

Truxell    J.  II  ,  Tin  Type  Rooms 143 

Thomas  W.,  Merchant  Tailor 152 

Trimble  &  Co.,  Contractors  and  Builders 164 

The  United  States  Iron  and  Tin  Plate  Co 182 

The  Morris  Printing  House 186 

Thomas  E.  P.,  Groceries  and  Provisions 190 

The  Mutual  Glass  Company 197 

Thompson  A.  W.,  Tin,  Copper  and  Sheet  Iron  Ware.  200 

The  Rochester  Tumbler  Co.,  of  Pittsburgh S3 

Tradesmen's  National  Bank 88 

Third  National  Bank 92 

'The  Anderson  Sash  Balance 209 

Thomas  A.  J.,  Contractor  and  Builder 217 

TurnbuU  Jos.  &  Co.,  Miners  and  Shippers  of  Coal 221 

Tod  House,  Youngstown,  Ohio 230 

Thompson  Andrew,  Flint  and  Green  Glass  Moulds...  248 

The  Bank  of  Pittsburgh 261 

The  Pittsburgh  Cabinet  Co.,  (Limited) 261 

Union  Planing  Mill  Company ; 131 

Union  Chain  Works,  Reiier  &  Co 136 

Upperraan  &  Bro.,  Livery  and  Boarding 163 

Urbach  Frederick,  Saddles  and  Harness 163 

Union  National  Bank 92 

Ursuline  Academy 249 

Voigt,  Mahood  &  Co.,  Com.  and  Produce 100 

Vowinkel  &  Bivenour,  Wholesale  Liquors 104 

Vogel  Jos.   Dry  Goods,  Notions,  Carpets,  etc 129 

Veiock  M.,  Boots,  Shoes  and  Gaiters 152 

Voskamp  B.  H.  &  Co.,  Wholegalo  Grocers 181 

Volz  Louis,  Plain  and  Fancy  Job  Printing 185 

Voelker  A  Bruggeman,  Merchant  Tailors 187 

Vulcan  Steam  Boiler  and  Sheet  Iron  Works 83 

Voelter  Julius,  New  York  Trade  Stock  Yards 90 

Wolf,  Lane  &  Co.,  Hardware  and  Cutlery 98 

Weiler  Brothers,  Wholesale  Liq^uors 103 

Weisenberger  P.  S.  &  Co.,  Varnish  and  Japan  Works  103 

Webster,  Gray  &  Co.,  Importing  Tailors 105 

Wanamaker  John  &  Co.,  Clothie:«( 105 

Wells  C.  F.  &  Co.,  Penn'a.  White  Lead  Works 106 

White,  Orr&  Co.,  Dry  Goods 116 

Waring  E.  J.  &  Co.,  Star  Oil  Works 117 

Woodruff  Sleeping  and  Parlor  Coach  Co 122 

Wattles  W.  W.,  Jeweler 126 

Willison  J.  P.,  Undertaker  and  Embalmer 129 

Woodwell  &  Co.,  Hardware 131 

Western  In.surance  Company 131 

Whiteley  T.  W.,  Terra  Cotta  Ware,  etc 134 

Walker  T.  Mehln,  Marble  and  Granite  Works 139 

Weyraan  &  Bro.,  Tobacco 140 

Wattley  C.  ct  Co.,  Embroideries,  Laces,  etc 146 

Wilson  John  it  Son,  Wholesale  Grocers 147 

Wei.sser  G.,  Assent,  Watchmaker  and  Jeweler. 156 

We.st  Point  Boiler  Works 157 

Williams  W.  IL,  Commission  Mereliant 157 

Wittmer  Geo.  &  Co.,  Ice  Dealers 158 

Western  Exchange  Hotel 159 

Walters  P.  Jr.,  Druggist 165 

Williams  Jas.  L.,  Undertaker  and  Embalmer 171 

Walton  Wm.,  Dry  Goods,  Millinery,  etc 181 

AVilkinaon  Jas.  W.,  Stationer  and  Bookseller 182 

Wightman  Thos.  &  Co.,  Fruit  Jars,  Bottles,  etc 187 

Wallace  .Archibald,  Wholesale  Grocer 189 

Wilson  Thns.,  Manf'r.  Talfy  and  Candies 192 

Wilson,  Walker  &  Co.,  Union  Forge  and  Iron  Mill 89 

Wassoll  E.  D.  &  Bro.,  Scrap  Iron,  etc 213 

AVhiteT.  H.,  Groceries  and  Produce 214 

AValsh  M.  &  R.,  Grocers 215 

WadsworlhS.  F.,  Dealer  in  Coal 216 

Winterton  Ale  and  Beer  Brewery 217 

Wilson  J.  Parke,  Agent  Hardware,  etc 219 

Wilhelm  Henry,  Lager  Beer  Brewer 221 

Woodburn  James  W.,  Marble  Works 222 

White  Jay  M.,  Drugs,  Chemicals,  etc 225 

Wild    S.  C,  Drv  Goods,  Millinery,  etc.; 229 

W.ard  R.  B.,  London  Bakerv 232 

Yeager  C.  &  Co.,  Wholesale' Dry  Goods,  etc 117 

Young  James  B.  &  Co.,  Phconix  Roll  Works 154 

Y'oung  Jacob,  Groceries  and  Produce 83 

Y'oung  Mrs.  F.  M.,  Dressmaker  and  Milliner 225 

Young  James,  Liverv  and  Undertaking 230 

Zacharias  E.  &  G.  II',  Cigar  Makers 91 

Zeh  John,  House  and  Sign  Painter 2.')5 

Zern  Peter,  Tobacco  and  Cigars 261 


ADDITIONAL  INDEX. 


PAGE 

Alleghonv  Vallev  K.  R 255 

Allegheny  Cenlnil  Hotel 236 

Atlas  Woiks,  Machinery  and  Castings 2U8 

Anchor  Savings  Bank , 238 

Anshutz  >t  Co.,  Lafayette  Stovo  Works 233 

BiliusC.  U.,  (set  in  German) 2(iG 

Braun  Uaniel,  Groceries 206 

Brondei- .lacol)  J.,  Groceries .  2C6 

Brilliant  Ice  Co.,  Soelv  Bros 270 

Bailev  lieflector  Co 272 

Baldridgo  Robt.  S.,  McKeesport 250 

Blackley  .Toseph,  Coal  and  Coke 259 

Bradstreet  Mercantile  Agency 251 

Central  Hotel,  Walsh  &  Anderson,  l^roprietors 258 

Clark  iM.  !•:.,  McKeesport... 250 

Carter  Bros.,  American  S.  and  C.  Window  Glass 258 

Coleman  H.,  (iroceries 236 

Coyan  Ed.  T.,  Dry  Goods,  McKeesport 250 

Coyle  C.  S.,  McKeesport 250 

Chamlieis  J.  B.  it  Bro.,  Contractors  and  Builders 260 

Devore  W.  H.,  Undertaker 270 

Dietrich  W.,  Liverv 266 

Dilworth,  Porter  &  Co.,  Rail  and  Boat  Spikes 263 

Dexter  Spring  Co 256 

Duff  A.  IC,  Livery 200 

Davis.  Piof.  Slack,  Instructor 261 

Evans  it  Co 

Fitzpatrick  Joseph,  Groceries 270 

Fallert  Igniis,  Knoxville  Gardens 270 

Fulton  H    \V.,  M.  D 203 

Garrison  A.  it  Co 203 

Goeddel  A.,  Restaurant 208 

GruiidvT.,  Carpet  Weaver 200 

Gamltle  J.  N.,  McKeesport 206 

Garrett  D.  W.,  Ovster.s,  Ac 240 

Grair,  Bennett  it  Co.,  Iron  Mills 237 

Ganster  Joseph,  Union  Hotel 270 

Gibson  .t  Co.,  Merchant  Tailors 2.57 

Hampe  F.,  Mount  Oliver 203 

Hodgson   H.  M.,  McKeesport 2Gj 

Harrison  W.  E.,  McKeesport 206 

Horn  Martin,  McKeesport 266 

Hunter  W.  W.,  McKeesport 250 

Hoffman  A.,  McKeesport 250 

Hugusit  Hacke,  Drv  Goods 230 

Hemltip  R.  S.,  Drv  Goods,  etc 202 

Hall  W.  J.,  Agt.,  Tobacco  and  Cigars 270 

Henning  Adam,  Saddles  and  Harness 260 

Hoeveler  it  Co.,  Franklin  Glue  Works 200 

Howe  Sewing  Machine  Co 268 

Idlewood,  Summer  Resort,  W.  S.  Jackson 268 

Ittel  Philip,  Flour,  Feed,  etc 268 

.Tolmston  (leo.  B.,  Dry  Goods,  etc 270 

KirchhofF  C,  Translator 200 

Kdssler  Wm.,  Tin,  Copper,  etc 270 

Kno.K,  Morris  &  Co.,  Coal  and  Coke 239 

Kuehneisen  A.,  Hats  and  Caps 200 

Klein  Wm.  C,  Groceries 206 


Kelly  G.  M.,  M.  D 

Learn  J.  P.  Co.,  McKeesport 

Lang  A.,  Glassware,  Lamps,  Oils,  etc 

Lewis,  Oliver  it  Pliillips,  Iron  Bolts 

Lowe  Josiah,  Groceries,  etc 

McVay  ct  Walker,  Cars,  Castings,  etc 

Blartin  W.  A.,  Groceries 

Monongahela  Incline  Plane 

McKeever  Bros.,  Barrel  and  Keg  Manufacturers 

Manning  James  R.,  McKeesport 

Momyer  J.  B.,   McKiesjiort 

Miller  Reuben,  JIcKeesport 

Martin  II.  F.,  McKeesport  

Meahl  August,  Stoves  and  Tinware 

McCoy  Thomas,  Oysters,  etc 

McKee  Joseph 

McCully  Wm.  &Co.,  Glass  Works 

Mount-Oliver  Incline-Plane  Railway  Co 

National  Garden,  Mount  Oliver 

Neel  ct  Wampler,  McKeesport  Planing  Mills.... 

Now  York  Grai)hic 

Pittsburgh  Locomotive  and  Car  Works 

Passniore  Geo.  W.,  McKeesport 

Pittsburgh  and  Lake  Erie  Railroad 

Pittsburgh,  Ft.  W.  and  Chicago  Railway 

Priest,  Page  &  Co.,  Howe  Scales 

Phillips,  Nimick  &  Co.,  Sligo  Iron  Mills 

Price  W.  H.,  Banner  Tea  House 

Pittsburgh  Female  College 

Riggs  R.  L.,  McKcesi)()rt.'. 

Ryan  &  Son,  McKeespoit , 

Rankin  Manufacturing  Co.,  Butchers'  Supplies. 

Reuck  Harry,  Tobacco  and  Cigars 

Reiehenbacli  John,  Ale  and  Lager  Beer 

Richards  J.  B.,  Real  Estate 

Ramsey  ct  Co.,  Druggists 

Sehoeller  ct  Bro,  McKeesport 

Stratton  James,  McKeesport 

Skelley  H.  C,  McKeesport 

Shaw  J.  D.,  Taxidermist 

Second  National  Bank 

St.  Clair  Hotel,  C.  P.  Bailey,  Prop'r 

St.  Vincent's  Abbey  and  College 

Starz  Christ.,  Baker,  etc 

Schuetz  Wm.,  Wagon-Maker 

Seely  C.  B.,  Real  Estate,  etc 

Tea  George  W.,  Druggist 

The  Amber  Brewery,  F.  L.  Ober  it  Bro 

United  States  Show-Case  Works 

Union  Chain    Works  

Velte  &  Co.,  Engine  Manufacturers 

Vierheller  John  P.,  Dry  Goods,  etc 

Watson  G.,  McKeesport 

West  W.  H.,  McKeesport 

Weaver  &  Co.,  Advertising  Agents 

Wilson  Albert  H.,  Druggist 

Wilson,  Snyder  &  Co.,  Brass  Founders 


PAGE 

...  274 

...  206 

...  204 

....  230 

...  257 

...  264 

...  260 

...  259 

...  2.59 

...  206 

...  266 

...  206 

...  250 

...  200 

...  240 


254 


..  259 

...  200 

...  255 

,..  240 

..  2CG 

...  230 

,..  255 

...  2.55 

,..  2;;o 

..  270 

,..  200 

..  200 

,..  260 

,..  266 

...  266 

..  257 

,..  270 

,..  260 

..  2.50 

..  250 

,..  204 

,..  101 

...  237 

...  240 

...  268 

...  270 

...  270 

...  270 

...  208 

...  264 

...  236 

...  no 


254 
2(  G 
2,''0 
239 
239 
2t5 


AddLson,  Wm 269 

Ayres,  N.  G 271 

Armstrong,  Frank B 

Agnew  it  Co C 

Ablers,  C.  F D 

Balph,  R.  A.  A  James 267 

Black,  James  L 207 

Barton,  A.  J 209 

Brown,  Marshall 269 

Brown,  A.  M 269 

Burgwin,  Hill 273 

Boothe  Willis  A 275 

Boothe  Wm 275 

Bigger  H.J 275 

BovdS.  &  Co A 

Bidwell  D.  W.  C.  <t  Co A 

Borland  J.  H.  A  Co D 

Bakewell  A  Kerr G 

Barton  A  Sons G 

Bruce  A  Negley (} 

Bissell  A  Co H 

Burgwin  H.  A  G.  C II 

Bowman  A  Frazier I 

Bfrt-inger  W.  C.  A  Co „ B 

Brown  Geo.  B 257 

Colter  James  P 267 

Cohen  Josiah 207  ' 


Christy  B.  C 271 

Comings  Ed.  G 273 

Cook  Newton  S 275 

Connelly  J.  H.  A  Sons,  Agents...     A 

Coyne  &  Hatry B 

Cunningham  S.  W K 

Ca.ssidv  M.  F.,  Esq F 

Chaifaiit  Wm.  L H 

Cadman  A.  W.  A  Co H 

Cuthbcrt  S.  A  Son H 

Caldwell  J.  M 257 

Curran  Wra.  J 257 

Cleveland  Paper  Co 257 

Davis  T.  H 267 

Dithridge  Chni.  Co.  (limited) C 

Evans  J.  A 267 

Ellis  Wm.  11 F 

Edmondson  .John  F F 

Fulton  W.  E.  F 267 

Fetterman  Gilbert  L.  B 267 

Frieiid  Kennedy  D 269 

Fox  John  A 271 

Flack  J.  B 271 

Frew  W.  N 273 

Fairbanks  A  Co A 

Ferguson  John  S F 

Flaccus  Wm.  A  Son II 

Frazier  Robt.  S 273 


Gray  A  Co.,  .John 

Gardner  O.  K 

Gray  Joseph  H 

Galbreth  E.  Edgar , 

Guthrie  Geo.  W 

Golden  J.  C 

Crray's  Iron  Line 

(iardner   Bros 

Guckert  Wm.  A  Co 

(Jrogan  A  Merz 

Grav  Wm.  E 

Godfrev  A  Clark 

Holland  R.  M 

Hersli  (Jeo 

Hay  A.  B 

Hazen  Geo.  W 

Houseman  M.  II 

Horner  C.  ^I 

Hasbrouck  C 

Holman    W.  A , 

Head  A  McElroy 

Holmes  W.  H 

Hutchinson  A.  A.  &  Bro. 

Haslage  Wm 

Hampe  F 

Hampton  A  Dalzell 

HoHman  J.  M.  A  Co 

Iron  City  College 


I 

E 

267 

271 

273 

275 

A 

B 

C 

E 

!■; 

H 

267 

209 

271 

271 

271 

273 

273 

273 

A 

C 

D 

D 

V 

F 

C 

E 


10 


ADDITIONAL    INDEX. 


Jack  Thomas  J 271 

Jones  E  P 271 

Johnston   A.  C 27i> 

Jordan   Wiu.  J 275 

Johnson,  Eagvo  .t  Earl D 

Johnston  A.  C 257 

Kay  Fredric  G 267 

Kerr  S.  W 269 

Kennedy  &  Doiy 273 

Kelly  Frank 275 

Keenan  Thomas  J 275 

Kay  James  1 275 

Kier  Bros B 

Kirkpatrick,  Beale  &  Co C 

Kaercher  J.  B C 

Keystone  Paper  Co D 

Kevstone  Gaslight  Co.  (limited)..     E 

Knox  it  Eeed F 

Kerr  John  H 273 

Knox 257 

Koethen  .T.  Ludewig 257 

Klonian  Chas.  II 257 

Lamhie  .lolm  S 269 

Lyon  Walter 271 

Large  John  R 271 

Lewis  W.  A 275 

Levis  &  Bickel B 

Lloyd  H.,  Son  &  Co D 

Luebbe  &  Bro E 

Livingstone  Novelty  Works E 

Llghtenheld  G.J 257 

McKelv  J.   Erastus 267 

McCombs  John  C 269 

McLean   G.  W 269 

McFarlandT.  M 269 

McCorkleK.  E 269 

McGeary   Bros 269 

McNally  James  A C 

Melnty're  John E 

McKenna  Charles  F G 


Miller  A.  S 273 

Milligan  S.  C 273 

Moroland  W.  C 273 

Moreland  John  D 569 

Moore  W.  D 271 

Magee  F.  M 271 

Martin  David  H 273 

Mills  &  Co D 

Mundorf  A.  S E 

^larron  John F 

Montooth  E.  A.  &  Bro G 

Morrison  J.  S.  &  A.  P H 

Milliken  C.  E.,  Esq I 

Metcalf,  Paul  &  Co I 

Mulholland  &  McGaflfick I 

Montooth  &  Brother G 

Meyer  Henry 257 

New  York  &  Cleveland  Gas  Coal  Co    A 

Over  James 269 

O'Brien  Chas 273 

O'Keefe  T.  J 257 

Pennock  Isaac  M G 

Plumer  Lewis 267 

Porte  James  H 269 

Purviance  W.  S •. 271 

Powers  Chas.  L 271 

Patterson  W.  S 273 

Powers  R.  J.  &  W H 

Porter  &  Donaldson I 

Patterson  A.  C 275 

Parker  T.  S 275 

Petty  Robt.   B 275 

Pickersgill  Wm.,  Jr B 

Pittsburgh  Car  Wheel  Works A 

Pittsburgh  Transfer  Co I 

Patterson  Rody,  Jr D 

Pittsburgh  Bank  for  Savings D 

Paxton  W.  N G 

Phillips  Ormsby 257 

Robinson,  Rea  &  Co H 


Rex  D.J G 

Reardon    Wui F 

Ramsey  J.  D „  267 

Rush  House 268 

Richards  &  Hartley 273 

Reese  Frank  M 275 

Risher  J.  C.  &  Co A 

Rees  James C 

Robb  &  Fitzsimmons 209 

Robb  J.  M.  &  W.  F 275 

Stone  L.  P 207 

Sipe  William  A 269 

Shaw  John  E 269 

Stewart  Robert  E 269 

Stone  William  A 271 

Speer  John  Ewing 273 

Slagle  A  Wiley 273 

Stoner  James  M 273 

Schoyer  S.,  Jr 275 

Smith  Frank  W 275 

Scott  Chas.  A B 

Stevenson  J.  H C 

Sewell  W.  R 271 

BEAVER  TALLS. 

Algeo  Burial  Casket  Works 59 

Beaver  Falls  Cutlerv  Co 60 

Beaver  Falls  Mills,Flour,Feed,eto.  61 

Co-operative  Flint  GlassCo.(Lim.)  63 

Co-operative  Foundry  Association  60 

Davidson,  A.,  Coal,  Coke,  etc 63 

Emerson  Saw  Works 62 

Hall,A.S.iR.W.,Buggies,Wagon3  62 

Penn  Bridge  Works 64 

Pittsbuvgli  Hinge  Co.  (Limited)...  64 

Wolf,  A^F.,  Stoves,  etc 63 

Western  File  Works  (Limited) 61 

Gardner  House,  Chicago 64 

St.  Charles  Hotel,  Columbus,  O....  59 


S.  M.  CHESSMAN  &  BRO.,  dealers  in  Hardware,  Farming  ICHAS.  BELTZ,  manufacturer  and  dealer  in  Saddles,  Har- 
Impleinents,  Iron,  Nails,  Glass,  &c.,  also  Flour,  Feed  and  ncss,  Robes,  Blankets.  Whips,  Fly  Nets,  &e.  Repairing 
Produce,  Bridge  Street.  I    fine  Harness  a  specialty.   Peun  Avenue,  near  Hiland,  E.  E. 

PHILIP  B.  McWILLIAMS,  dealer  in  Builders'  and  other 
Hardware,  Agricultural  Implements,  Fine  Tablo  and 
Pocket  Cutlery,  Window  Glass,  Putty,  &c.,  Cor.  Penn  Av., 
opposite  Collins  A  v. 


WALTER  I'ERGUSON  &  CO.,  wholesale  and  retail  deal- 
ers ill  Family  Groceries,  171  and  173  Chestnut  Street,  near 
Walnut.    Ask  for  Silver  Baking  Powder.    Best  in  use. 


J.  L.  W^LAND.  Established  1861.  Wholesale  and  retail 
dealer  in  all  kinds  of  Eastern,  Lake  and  River  Fish,  No. 
76  East  Ohio  Street,  Corner  Sandusky,  Allegheny,  Pa. 


UNION  BARREL  AND  CASK  FACTORY.  M.  Walsh, 
manufacturer  of  Flour,  Cement  and  Glass  Barrels,  Cor. 
9th  and  Washington  Sts.,  Pittsburgh,  South  Side. 


RICHARDS  &  HARTLEY  F.  G.  CO.,  Glass  Manufacturers. 
Cor.  Pride  and  Locust  Sts.,  Pittsburgh. 


A.  ^W.  SMITH. 

BuUder  of  CARRIAGES,  WAGONS  & 

SLEIGHS  of  all  descriptions, 

Cor.  Fourth  &  Walnut  Streets,  McKeesport,  Pa. 

C®"  Special  attention  paid  to  Custom  work  and  Repair- 
ing.  Ready  made  and  second  hand  work  always  for  sale. 


RICHARD  SIIAKP. 


SAMUEL  m'CUNE. 


SHARP  &  M'CUNE, 

Improved   Modoo    Black-Board    Liquid 
Slating, 

Nr.  128  Beaver  Avenue,  ALLE(JHENT,  PA. 


W.  HAECKLER,  Watchmaker  and  Jeweler,  dealer  in 
Watches,  Clocks,  Jewelry,  Spectacles,  &c.  Repairing  of 
Watches,  Clocks,  Jewelry,  Spectacles,  &e  ,  done  promptly. 
Terms  strictly  cash.  Near  corner  26th  and  Carson  Streets, 
No.  2527,  S.  S.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 


A.  B.  URBEN,  practical  Pharmacist  and  Druggi.st,  287 
Webster  Avenue,  corner  Roberts  Street,  Pittsburgh.  Pre- 
scriptions carefully  compounded  night  and  day. 


A.  J.  STEELE,  58  and  60  Anderson  Street,  near  the  Hand 
St.  Bridge,  Allegheny  City.  Pa.,  manufactures  all  descrip- 
tions of  Wagons,  Carts,  Drays  and  Spring  Wagons,  Wheel- 
barrows, Trucks,  Skids,  &c'  Particular  attention  paid  to 
repairing  and  Job  Black  Smithing. 


ERNST  LUFT,  English  and  German  Book  and  .Job  Printer, 
Book  Binder,  &c..  No.  135  Smithtield  Street,  Masonic  Bank, 
Pittsburgh. 


ROBERT  M'ELDOUNEY, 

House  and  Sign  Painter, 

Nn,  35  Seventh  Ave.. 


Otto  JE.  Heineman, 
WATCHMAKER  &  JEWELER. 

JVo.  118  OHIO  STREIST, 

Allegheny,  Pa. 


T*.  H.  ITTEL, 

Dealer  in 
FLOUR,  GRAIN,  SEEDS, 

Mill  Feed,  Potatoes,  Hay,  Straw,  Salt  &  Produce  generally, 
^ro.  3G2  Ohio  Street.  AlhghenT/  Citj/,  Vn. 


O'HARA  GLASS  CO.,  (Limited) -(/fl5.  B.  Lyon  &  Co.,  30th  St.  &  A.  V.  R.  R.. 

J^anzifaotiiTcrs  of  Flint   Glass. 
One  of   the  oldest  Glass   Manufactories  in   the  West, 


12 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


SISTERS  OF  MERCY  ACADEMY,  \Nebsier  A-o. 


VIEW  OF  ST.  XAVIER'S  ACADEMY,  WESTMORELAND  COUNTY,  PA. 


Through  the  kindness  of  the  Sisters  resident  at  the  Convent  of  Mercy  located  on  Webster  avenue,  we  are  enabled 
to  furnish  t.ie  following  slcetcli  of  that  order  as  it  exists  in  Pittsburgli,  showing  the  aims,  object,  and  benevolent,  ciiar- 
itable  and  educational  works  of  tliis  noble  band  of  self-sacrificing  women,  wliose  labors  among  the  poor,  destitute  and 
sutt'ering  at  home  as  well  as  on  the  battlefields  during  the  recent  War,  have  endeared  thi'in  to  the  hearts  of  Protestants 
as  well  as  Catholics  in  every  section  of  the  Union.  The  Sisters  of  Jilercy  first  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  December,  1843, 
at  the  invitation  and  solicitation  of  the  Rt.  Bev.  Dr.  O'Connor,  first  Catholic  Bishop  of  Pittsburgh,  to  estaL)lish  their 
order  in  that  then  newly-erected  diocese.  This  was  the  original  foundation  of  the  order  in  the  United  States.  Seveii 
Sisters,  tlie  Mother  Superior  being  Sister  Mary  Francis  Warde,  cm;inating  from  the  Convent  of  Mercy  at  Carlow,  Ire- 
land, volunteered  for  the  American  Mission  and  established  their  first  convent  on  Penn  avenue  in  a  building  rented 
from  Dr.  Speer  and  adjoining  liis  residence.  Two  years  later,  for  the  better  accommodation  of  their  increasing  num- 
bers and  their  scliool  which  had  been  opened  in  September,  1844,  they  were  compelled  to  seek  more  commodious  quar- 
ters and  removed  to  "Concert  Hall,"  on  the  site  of  tlie  present  "Library  Building."  The  special  objects,  or  "Works 
of  Mercy,"  to  whicli  the  Sisters  devote  themselves,  are  :  The  education  of  female  youth  in  every  gi'ade  of  society,  the 
poor  being  especially  cared  for — tlie  v^isitation  of  the  sick  and  the  protection  of  distressed  woraeri  of  good  character. 
Since  coming  to  this  country  until  the  present  time  the  Sisters  luive  labored  indefatigably  in  tliese  woiks,  and  have 
now  under  their  charge  the  following  charital)le  and  educational  institutions:  St.  Paul's  Roman  Catholic  Or- 
phan Asylum,  whicli  is  located  on  Tanna  Hill,  and  supports  annually  an  average  of  250  orphans  of  both  sexes  from 
tlie  age  of  two  years  upwards  until  suitable  homes  can  be  provided  or  they  are  enabled  to  support  iheniselves  respecta- 
bly. The  institute  is  supported  by  the  voluntary  coatributions  of  Catholics  and  the  benevolence  of  other  denomina- 
tions. The  Mercy  Hospital,  which  was  the  first  hospital  establislied  in  Pittsburgh,  opened  January  1,  1847,  at 
"Concert  Hall,"  the  spacious  apartment  styled  the  "ball  room"  being  appropriated  for  this  purpose,  tlie  select  school 
hitherto  occupying  it  being  removed  to  one  of  the  smaller  houses  adjoining.  The  principal  pliysicians  of  the  city  have 
ever  since  fornied  the  medical  staff  of  this  hospital.  The  first  who  volunteered  their  valuable  services  were  the  lateDrs. 
Gazzam,  Addison  and  Dan'l.  McMeal,  Sen.,  and  the  present  venerable  and  esteemed  Dr.  Bruce.  The  present  staff  is 
composed  of  Drs.  Jos.  Dickson,  Shaw,  Sargeants,  Christy,  March,  Ilengest  and  Lee.  The  building  now  occupied  as 
Mercy  Hospital  is  situated  on  Stephenson  street  and  was  built  by  the  people  of  Pittsburgh  and  opened  in  May,  1S48. 
The  Convent  of  Mercy,  which  is  located  on  Webster  avenue,  was  erected  by  the  community  from  means  brought 
to  it  by  its  members,  and  is  the  Mother  House  of  the  community.  The  Jlother  Superior  and  the  Sisters  who  form  her 
council  reside  here,  and  here  are  trained  tlie  young  ladies  who  enter  the  convent  with  the  intention  of  becoming 
members  of  the  community.  These  are  forbidden  by  rule  to  bind  themselves  by  any  obligation  for  two  years  and  a 
half,  this  time  being  devoted  to  study  and  the  practice  of  the  duties  to  which  they  are  to  devote  themselves.  Should 
they  become  members  of  the  community,  a  majority  of  wliose  votes  are  required  before  they  can  receive  the  habit  of 
theorder  and  for  their  profession.  The  Sisters  in  this  house  teach  the  following  parochial  schools :  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral  Schools,  the  girl's  department  of  whicli  is  attached  to  the  Convent  building,  and  was  erected  by  St. 
Paul's  congregation,  and  the  boy's  department  in  a  school  building  near  the  Cathedral — Our  Lady  of  IMekcy 
School  on  Second  street,  St.  Agnes'  School  at  Soho,  and  St.  Malaciii's  School  on  the  South  Side.  Connected 
witli  the  Convent  is  also  St.  Mary's  AcADE>fY  for  Young  Ladies,  where  may  be  obtained  a  complete  and 
thorough  education  in  the  higher  deiiartments  of  study,  as  also  in  vocal  and  instrumental  music,  drawing,  and  the 
various  branches  of  needlework.  Religious  instruction  to  Catholics  is  made  an  important  matter  wherever  tlio 
Sisters  teach,  while  children  of  Protestant  parents  are  neither  asked  nor  expected  to  participate  in  the  religious  ob- 
servances or  instruction.  At  the  Convent  of  Mercy,  St.  Patrick's  on  Seventeenth  street,  St.  Mary's  on  Forty- 
sixth  street  and  St.  Bridget's  Church  on  Enoch  street,  the  Sisters  have  also  schools  where  the  same  course  of 
study  is  pursued  as  at  the  Mother  House  on  Webster  street.  They  have  also  a  Convent  with  schools  connected  in 
Allegheny  City,  and  at  McKeesport,  Allegheny  County,  and  at  Latrohe,  St.  Xaviers.  St.  Xavier's  Academy 
is  situated  about  three  miles  from  Latrobe,  in"  one  of  the  most  healthy  sections  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  suflii- 
ciently  elevated  to  command  from  every  point  an  extensive  view  of  the  delightful  country  which  suiTounds  it.  The 
buildings  are  spacious  and  elegant,  capable  of  accommodating  upwards  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  boarders;  there  is 
amply  play  ground,  the  water  and  the  products  of  the  soil  are  excellent  and  abundant.  Parents  may  rest  satisfied  tluit 
every  attention  will  be  paid  to  the  comfort  of  the  children  placed  at  this  institution,  while  the  utmost  care  will  be 
taken  to  nourish  in  their  minds  those  principles  of  virtue  and  religion,  which  alone  can  make  education  profitable. 

The  number  of  pupils  receiving  instruction  from  the  Sisters  of  Mercy  in  the  Diocese  of  Pittsburgh  is  not  less  than 
five  thousand.  The  members  of  the  community,  at  present  numbering  one  hundred  and  seventy-five,  are  principally 
the  daughters  of  Irish  or  American  parents,  with  some  of  French,  (ierman  and  Belgian  origin,  while  not  a  few  are  na- 
tives of  Pittsburgh  and  daughters  or  some  of  the  oldest  and  most  respected  citizens. 


INDUSTRIES  OF  PENNSYLVAOTA. 


CIT7  OP  PITTSBURGH  AND  ALLEGHENY. 


HISTORICAL  AND  DESCRIPTIVE  REVIEW. 

INSTITUTIONS,    INDUSTRIES,    COMMERCE    AND    TRADE, 

Business    and    Progressive    Men. 


Allegheny  River. 


Ohio  liivtr. 

VIEW  OF  PITTSBURGH  IN  1817. 


Monongahela  River. 


In  the  compilation  of  this  work,  having  for  its  object  and  main  design  a  fair  delineation  of  the 
Pittsburgh  of  the  present,  it  is  not  intended  to  present  any  elaborate  history  of  the  past,  except  in 
so  far  as  it  may  be  found  necessary  by  statistics  and  other  means  to  exhibit  contrasts  that  shall 
make  the  salient  points  of  \\s  existing  characteristics  or  conditions  more  vivid  and  comprehensible. 
In  the  language  of  a  celebrated  American  writer,  "Pittsburgh  is  the  most  intense!}'  interesting  city 
on  this  continent,"  and  round  its  cradle  has  been  thrown,  by  poet  and  historian,  the  glamor  of  a 
romance  through  which  we  see  the  combat  of  two  mighty  trans-Atlantic  antagonists  and  distinguish 
the  war-cries  of  their  savage  adherents. 

This  spot  was  hallowed  by  the  adventurous  steps  of  the  youthful  Washington,  and  from  this 
point,  at  the  "meeting  of  the  waters,"  one  hundred  and  twenty-six  years  ago,  his  calm  eye  surveyed 
the  matchless  beauty  of  the  wintry  scene  before  him,  and  with  an  apprehension  that  grasped  as  by 
intuition  all  the  advantages  of  the  position,  he  "chose  the  station"  that  marked  the  very  westward 
boundaries  in  the  "  march  of  empire,"  the  skirmish  line  of  civilization.  Here  was  constructed  the 
fortress,  which  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy  at  the  beginning  of  the  seven-years'  French  and 
Indian  War,  was  christened  by  its  captors  "Fort  Duquesne,"  and  around  which  group  tales  of 
fortitude  and  foray,  "treason,  strategems  and  spoils"  that  still  haunt  the  imagination  and  read  like 
Oriental  fictions  to  the  rising  generations.  The  illustrations  present  views  of  Pittsburgh  as  it  ap- 
peared in  1817  and  the  old  Blockhonse  of  1764.  All  those  events,  however,  connected  with  the  early 
history  of  our  city  have  been  briefly  arranged  in  chronological  order  for  the  reference  of  the  reader, 
the  plan  of  this  work  not  involving  more  of  antiquity  than  is  necessary  for  a  copious  understanding 
of  the  Pittsburgh  of  to-daj"-,  its  commercial  advantages,  institutions  and  resources. 

GEOGRAPHICALLV, 

the  city  is  located  in  latitude  40°  26'  34''-^N. ;  longitude  80°  2'  38^'  W. ;  its  topography  being  marked 
by  many  peculiarities,  which  give  it  an  individuality  of  appearance  possessed  by  no  other  town  in 
America. 
(3)  33    . 


CITY   OP   PITTSBURGH. 


35 


Situated  at  tlie  confluence  of  the  Allegheny  and 
Mouongahela  rivers,  the  point  from  which  begins  the 
Ohio  is  the  west  extreme  of  the  city  proper,  and  the  spot 
where  a  century  ago  clustered  a  hamlet  of  less  than  a 
score  of  primitive  frontier  shanties  and  log  huts,  forming 
the  nucleus  round  which  clustered  and  grew  a  splendid 
municipality.  From  this  vantage  ground,  looking  to- 
wards the  great  receding  river,  the  national  highway  to 
the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  often  called  by  travelers  the 
"Rhine  of  America,"  the  observer  can  see  upon  his  right, 
across  the  commingling  waters  of  the  crystal  Allegheny, 
which  here  mei-ges  into  the  Ohio,  the  city  of  Allegheny 
lining  the  banks  of  the  streams  as  far  east  and  west  as 
the  eye  can  reach  and  stretching  back  over  a  rising 
plain  for  more  than  a  mile  to  the  hills  that  crown  the 
distance.  On  the  left  appear  the  tremendous  bluffs  that 
confront  the  Monongahela,  at  whose  base  along  the 
margins  of  the  yellow  water  are  strung  to  the  south- 
east further  than  can  be  seen  countless  manufactories 
for  iron,  stdel  and  glass,  the  noise  of  whose  machinery 
,  never  ceases,  the  incessant  crash  of  labor  and  dense 
volumes  of  smoke  filling  the  air  for  miles  in  every 
direction. 

The  tributary  rivers  diverging  from  this  point  at  a 
generally  obtuse   angle,   cause   it   to   widen '  rapidly,   a   „  The  Old  Block  House, 

rise  gradually  taking  place  from  the  level  of  high  water  ^-«  ^  ^^'-  ^^^p^^^^"^'  '"  ^'"■"' 
mark  to  an  elevation  of  several  hundred  leet,  lorming 

the  site  of  the  city  of  Pittsburgh,  the  line  of' which  extends  along  the  course  of  both  streams 
between  eight  and  nine  miles — a  direct  line  from  river  to  river  marking  the  eastern  boundary. 
'AH  those  thickly-settled  manufacturing  districts  lying  on  the  south  side  of  the  Monongahela 
river  have  been  within  the  past  few  years  consolidated  with  the  old  city.  They  embrace  a 
very  considerable  amount  of  territory,  and  were  formerly,  and  are  yet  casually  referred  to,  as  Bir- 
mingham, Brownstown,  Mt.  Washington,  Sligo,  Saw  Mill  Run,  etc. 

The  western  portion  of  the  city  is  densely  built,  and  from  the  contracted  ideas  of  the  early 
settlers,  each  of  whom  desired  to  live  within  range  of  the  fort,  the  streets  have  not  that  spacious 
breadth  so  characteristic  of  prairie  towns;  from  this  reason,  as  well  as  to  avoid  an  atmosphere 
never  entirely  free  from  smoke,  this  part  of  the  city  is  devoted  almost  exclusively  to  business  pur- 
poses, nearly  all  whose,  means  or  occupation  permit,  residing  either  at  the  East  End,  in  Allegheny, 
or  some  railway  suburb. 

This  change  has  taken  place  mostly  within  the  past  fifteen  or  twenty  years,  and  is  not  only 
advantageous  in  the  centralization  of  traffic,  but  highly  conducive  to  the  general  sanitary  condi- 
tion, placing  Pittsburgh  among  the  most  healthy  cities  in  the  country. 

IN     APPEARANCE,  , 

from  anj'^  surrounding  stand-point,  Pittsburgh  presents  a  most  striking  and  impressive  sight.  The 
graceful  grade  at  which  it  builds  up  from  the  point  and.,  water  levels  to  the  high  central  plateau  is 
extremely  attractive,  while  the  innumerable  spires  and  domes  produce  an  effect  of  architectural 
beauty  unusually  captivating.  The  public  and  private  edifices  are  both  numerous  and  costly,  many 
of  them  being  perfect  illustrations  of  the  adaptability  of  iron  for  building  purposes,  and  monuments 
worthy  of  the  Iron  City  in  this  direction.  Of  the  ten  bridges,  six  of  which  cross  the  Allegheny,  and 
four  the  Monongahela,  inside  the  city  limits,  five  are  of  this  material;  the  viaduct. spanning  the  lat- 
ter at  its  junction  with  the  Ohio  being  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  superb  triumphs  of  modern  engi- 
neering ;  new  in  design,  solid  in  structure  and  of  enormous  strength,  it  grasps  the  river  at  one  splen- 
did sweep,  and  imparts  a  feeling  to  the  mind  altogether  creditable  to 
the  engineer  who  projected  it  and  the  capital  that  made  its  erection 
possible. 

The  iron  bridges  of  the  P'gh,  Ft.  W.  &  C.  R.  R.,  and  the  P.  C. 
&  St.  L.  R.  R.,  respectively  crossing  the  Allegheny  and  Monongahela 
rivers,  are  also  masterpieces  of  engineering  science  and  mechanical 
art,  especially  in  the  case  of  the  former  which  was  erected  in  lieu  of 
a  wooden  structure,  the  demolition  of  the  old  and  the  construction  of 
the  new  proceeding  simultaneously,  without  interfering  for  one  hour 
with  the  regular  traflSc  of  the  road,  which  continued  to  run  its 
trains  as  usual. 

The  wjie  suspension  bridge  at  the  foot  of  Sixth  street,  connecting 
Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny,  formerly  known  as  the  St.  Clair  street 
bridge,    is    always    the   object   of    much   attention   on   the   part   of 


First  Log  Cabin  erected  in 
Allegheny,  1783. 


36 


ENDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


strangers  visiting  the  citj',  foi  its  massive  amplitude  and  graceful  lines.  It  was  the  design  of  the 
elder  Roebling,  and  when  finished,  in  1860,  was  considered  as  capping  the  climax  of  his  fame  in 
bridge  architecture. 

PUBLIC  WORKS  AND  BUILDINGS. 

Springing  from  a  thrifty  Scotch,  Welsh  and  Irish  ancestry,  the  Pittsburghers  have  given  more 
care  to  those  substantial  material  advantages  for  which  tliey  are  noted,  and  their  acquisition,  than 
devoted  themselves  greatly  to  the  outward  adornment  of  the  city,  or  schemes  involving  its  embel- 
lishment. Some  excuse  for  this  indifference  may  be  also  found  in  the  fact  that  the  soot  and  sulphur 
in  the  atmosphere  soon  militate  seriously  against  the  appearance  of  the  finest  structure,  and  more 
than  all,  the  bulk  of  the  populace,  especially  the  more  affluent  classes,  living  in  the  outskirts  or 
suburbs  of  the  city,  prefer  to  direct  their  attention  to  the  improvement  of  those  districts  rather  than 
to  the  scenes  of  their  daily  toil. 

Marked  advances,  however,  have  taken  place  in 
this  matter  during  the  decade  that  has  elapsed,  and  it 
is  now  confidoutly  asserted  that,  in  proportion  to  its 
population,  Pittsburgh  has  spent  more  money  on 
public  works,  improvements,  streets  and  buildings 
than  any  city  in  the  United  States. 

The  Municipal  Hall  is  one  evidence  oifered  of 
the  truth  of  the  above  statement,  and  as  the  seat  of 
the  city  government  is  worthy  of  a  more  detailed 
description  than  our  space  permits.  Architecturally 
the  building  is  one  of  the  most  handsome  in  Pitts- 
burgh ;  constructed  of  solid  white  sandstone,  at  a  cost 
of  $700,000,  every  convenience  and  modern  appliance 
was  introduced  necessary  to  make  it  complete  in  all 
respects.  Here  are  the  offices  of  the  Mayor,  Control- 
ler, Engineer  and  Chief  of  Police,  on  tiie  first  floor; 
to  the  second  are  allotted  the  Council  Chambers, 
City  Clerk  and  Attorney,  the  Boards  of  Viewers  and 
Health,  and  Water  Assessors.  Upon  the  mezzanine 
floor  will  be  found  the  offices  of  the  Street  Commis- 
sioner, Building  Inspector,  and  Council  Messenger. 
The  third  floor  is  devoted  to  the  uses  of  the  Boards 
of  Fire  Commissioners  and  City  Assessments,  Water 
Extension  Committee,  Mechanical  and  Civil  Engin- 
eers, Draughting  Rooms,  etc. ;  on  the  fourth  floor 
is  the  office  of  the  Fire  Alarm  Telegraph,  with  which 
the  city  is  supplied,  as  well  as  a  thoroughly  dis- 
ciplined paid  Fire  Department,  and  above  this  the 
cupola,   whicii   contains  the  turret  clock  and  alarm  bell. 


Shady-Side  Presbyterian  Church. 


This  clock,  b}'  a  system  of  telegraph 
wires,  and  arrangements  made  with  Prof  S.  P.  Langley,  of  the  Allegheny  Astronomical  Observ- 
atory, is  connected  with  the  stellar  clock  of  that  institution,  with  which  it  moves  in  exact  unison, 
affording  a  reliable  and  uniform  standard  of  time  for  the  entire  communitj^  from  which  all  railroad 
schedules  are  estimated,    labor  begun  and  ended,  and  all  the  machinery  of  life  regulated. 

In  the  construction  of  tiie  new  Water  Works  Pittsburgh  again  illustrated  a  decided  disinclina- 
tion to  do  anything  by  halves,  and  in  1872  a  system  of  water  improvements  was  inaugurated  on  so 
vast  a  scale  as  to  require  for  the  purpose  the  purchase  of  over  one  hundred  acres,  seven  j-ears  of 
constant  labor,  and  a  total  cost  of  over  $-1,000,000.  The  new  reservoirs,  of  which  there  are  two,  are 
situated  at  the  East  End,  about  five  miles  from  the  business  portion  of  the  city,  on  the  highest 
obtainable  elevation  above  the  Allegheny  river,  from  which  the  water  is  supplied.  The.*e  reservoirs 
have  an  aggregate  capacity  of  128,000,000  gallons,  the  mains  by  which  they  are  supplied  and  the 
engines,  boilers,  and  pumping  apparatus  being  upon  a  scale  simply  stupendous.  This  colossal 
project,  which  is  now  in  operation,  with  some  modification  of  the  original  plans,  together  with  one 
hundred  miles  of  pipe  with  which  the  city  is  Jaid,  will  afford  water  facilities  in  the  future,  amply 
sufficient  to  supply  a  population  three  times  as  great  as  at  present,  the  consumption  now  being 
about  15,000,000  gallons  per  day. 

This  thoughtful  provision  for  posterity  is  characteristic,  in  a  great  measure,  of  such  municipal 
legislation  as  has  obtained  under  the  enlarged  views  of  late  years,  and  stamps  the  citj-  government  as 
being  eminently  wi.se,  and  enlightenel  b}"^  a  policy  that  demands  more  scope  than  can  be  afforded 
by  the  narrow  limits  of  the  present  day  for  its  operation  and  completion. 

From  public  works  and  buildinjrs  to  those  resultant  from  private  enterprise,  the  transition  is  an 
easy  one,  and  here  the  many  beautiful  structures  scattered  throughout  the  city  present  a  wide  field 
for  comment  and  description.  Among  those  of  greatest  interest,  the  churches  naturally  come  first, 
and  of  these  in  both  cities  there  are  not  less  in  all  than  two  hundred — many  of  more  than  ordi- 
nary magnitude  and  architectural  magnificence.  Perhaps  the  mo.«t  perfect  in  regard  to  the  latter 
quality  is  the  Trinity  Episcopal  Church  on  Sixth  avenue,  which,  besides  having  the  finest  chime 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH. 


37 


of  bells  in  the  city,  has  no  superior  in  America  as  an  enduring  monument  of  artistic  design  and 
rare  excellence  in  execution. 

St.  Paul's  Catholic  Cathedral  is,  with  one  exception,  said  to  be  the  larjrest  church  in  the  United 
States,  and  is  a  very  imposing  structure,  having  an  interior  remarkable  for  its  pillared  vastness 
and  simplicity  of  style.  Of  other  churches  worthy  of  the  visits  and  attention  of  strangers,  the  fol- 
lowing are  but  a  few  of  the  most  prominent:  the  First  Presbyterian,  on  Wood  street;  the  Third 
Presbyterian  and  German  Lutheran,  on  Sixth  avenue;  Christ's  M.  E.  Church,  on  Penn  avenue,  &c. 

Of  its  commei-cial  buildings,  Pittsburgh  can 
boast  with  equal  truth — many  of  them  illustrat- 
ing the  best  styles  of  what  may  be  called  Amer- 
ican mercantile  architecture,  conspicuous  ex- 
amples being  seen  in  the  building  of  the  First 
National  Bank,  Dollar  Savings  Bank,  Exchange 
National  Bank,  Second  National  Bank,  Third 
National  Bank,  the  Iron  Bank  Block,  Fifth 
avenue,  the  Germania  Savings  Bank,  which  con- 
tains the  rooms  of  the  Chamber  ot  Commerce, 
the  Pittsburgh  Safe  Deposit  Company,  the  Bank 
of  Pittsburgh,  the  M.  and  M.  National  Bank, 
the  Dispatch  Building,  Hostetter's  Block,  Li- 
brary Hall,  the  First  National  Bank  of  Alle- 
gheny, the  building  of  Wm.  Semple,  and  otli- 
ers,  so  numerous  as  to  require  omission. 

In  its  business  portion  the  Iron  City  always 
wears  an  air  of  thrift  and  industry,  which  is  in 
marked  contrast  to  many  equally  large  but  less 
favored  places,  and,  in  its  suburbs,  the  truth  is 
evident  to  the  most  partial  observer,  that  no  city 
can  show  such  lovely  environs,  with  so  great  a 
diversit}"  of  ever  captivating  landscapes,  dotted 
so  profusel}'  with  the  homes  and  villas  of  her 
thousands  of  opulent  and  comfortable  citizens. 
•  No  description,  however  elaborate,  conld 
be  so  couched  as  to  give  a  stranger  an  adequate 
view  in  his  mind's  eye  of  Pittsburgh,  because  of 
its  vast  dissimilarity  to  ever}^  other  city  upon 
the  continent,  this  very  uniqueness  defeating 
all  comparison.  From  so  far  as  we  have 
cared  to  go  in  this  dii-ection,  the  non-resident 
reader  (and  this  work  is  designed  mainly 
for  such)  may  have  gleaned  some  approximate 
idea  of  the  general  plan  and  appearance  of  the  city,  the  accompanying  illustrations  rendering 
efficient  aid  in  this  direction,  and  leaving  him  with  these,  other  matters  of  more  interest  and 
import  arise  and  demand  attention. 

A  COMMERCIAL   CENTER. 

The  first  question  that  naturally  and  promptly  arises  in  regard  to  any  community  claiming  to 
be  a  trade  center,  is,  "  How  is  it  related,  and  what  are  its  connections  with  the  rest  ot  the  world  P" 
To  this  querj'  an  answer  with  reference  to  Pittsburgh  leads  to  a  discussion  of  those  facilities  by 
which  she  is  placed  in  communication  with  the  consumers  of  her  products,  who  are  found  in  every 
habitable  quarter  of  the  globe. 

The  river  highways  that  nature  furnished  are  in  the  first  instance  the  conspicuous  channels  by 
which  communication  is  most  easilj'  secured  and  maintained  with  remote  centers  of  traific,  and  by 
this  means,  and  with  the  advantages  thus  afforded,  Pittsburgh  commands  an  unequalled  position, 
gaining  uninterrupted  entrance  into  the  interior  of  not  less  than  eighteen  of  the  most  fertile  and 
wealthy  States  in  the  Union,  as  well  as  reaching  unchecked,  the  Central  and  South  American  States, 
which  already  form  an  important  objective  point  for  her  exports,  and  inviting  markets,  that  become 
annually  more  available.  This  field  alone,  for  commercial  operations,  opens  up  to  the  practical 
and  progressive  observer,  a  future  of  splendid  prosperity  for  Pittsburgh,  toward  which  she  is  rapidly 
bending  ker  steps,  and  for  the  attainment  of  which  her  energies  are  being'  exerted  to  the  fullest 
extent. 

The  firet  move  in  this  direction  has  been  taken  by  the  general  government,  by  the  inaugura- 
tion of  the  jetty  S3stem  at  the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi,  and  an  appropriation  for  the  improvement 
of  the  Ohio  river. 

The  former  enterprise,  under  the  charge  of  Capt.  J.  B.  Eads,  has  already  proved  successful  to 
an  nnlooked-for  degree,  while  the  worlts-upon  the  latter  project  are  yet  unfinished  and  untested. 

The  plan  for  the  improvement  of  the  Ohio  river  is  almost  too  well  known  to  require  extended 
notice  here.     It  ma}'  be  stated,  however,  that  the  scheme  involves  the  construction  of  dams  at  such 


Germania  Bank  Building,  cor.  Wood  St.  and  Diamond  Allen. 


38 


INBUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


intervals  along  a  great  part  of  its  course  as  shall  pre- 
serve a  uniform  stage  of  water,  and  thus  admit  of 
navigation  during  the  entire  year.  Heretofore  this 
has  been  impossible  on  account  of  low  water,  which 
for  many  months  put  a  period  to  all  traffic  by  this 
means. 

The  work  upon  the  first  dam  of  the  series  was 
commenced  in  1878,  at  Davis  Island,  a  point  about 
five  miles  below  the  city,  and  is  now  being  pushed 
rapidly  forward,  several  hundred  men  being  employed 
upon  the  works.  For  this  structure  the  French  plan 
has  been  adopted  by  the  best  engineers  in  the  employ- 
ment of  the  government  as  being  the  most  available 
and  altogether  practicable.  This  is  the  same  system 
used  to  slackwater  the  Seine,  and  affords  certain 
advantages  that  are  possessed  by  no  other  dam  in  so 
perfect  a  degree.  The  main  features  of  the  structure 
being  that  the  entire  dam  can  be  sectionally  and 
rapidly  depressed  till  it  lies  flat  upon  the  bed  of  the 
stream  when  the  natural  stage  of  water  is  sufficient 
without  artificial  aids,  and  its  equally  prompt  eleva- 
tion when  desired.  This  whole  operation,  as  well  as 
the  management  of  the  locks,  will,  it  is  said,  require 
the  labor  of  but  two  men,  so  admirable  are  the 
mechanical  appliances  by  which  the  entire  structure 
is  controlled  and  regulated. 

It  is  impossible  to  overestimate  the  advantages 
that  will  accrue  to  Pittsburgh  by  the  completion   of  ^^.^^  Pre^byteriaa  Ckurck. 

this  system  ot   improvements,  and  sate  to  assert  that 

under" its  influence  a  new  era  of  prosperity  will  dawn  upon  her  that  has  no  parallel  in  the  past. 
The  opening  of  a  cheap  and  reliable  means  of  shipment  to  those  countries  that,  with  an 
ordinary  course  of  development,  are  bound  to  become  our  most  profitable  customers,  will  have  an 
effect  upon  the  commerce,  trade  and  manufactures  of  Pittsburgh  not  yet  fully  realized  by  the 
strongest  advocates  of  the  improvement  of  the  Ohio  river.  _      ^^ 

Some  facts  collated  from  the  report  of  the  "Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Statistics,  on  commerce, 
navigation  and  foreign  commerce,  for  the  year  1878,  may  perhaps  convey  some  idea  of  the  increas- 
ing- magnitude  of  the  exports  of  the  United  States  to  those  countries  whose  ciiief  wants  lie  in  the 
direction  of  Pittsburgh's  products,  and  to  many  of  whom  we  shall  shortly  have  direct  access  by 

The  table  shows  the  comparative  difference  between  the  amounts  of  the  present  exports  and 
those  of  twenty  years  since,  and  must  convey  a  significant  lesson  to  every  intelligent  reader : 


EXPORTS    FROM    THE    UNITED    STATES.  18B8 

Argentine  Republic *  I'.f-r'o^ 

Brazil ■ ^'1-9'lfio 

Central  American  States ikt'T^r, 

Danish  West  Indies  (estimated) rS'in? 

French  West  Indies  and  French  Guiana r -2S'n  la 

West  Indies,  Honduras  and  Guiana  (British) o'^t  r'^ 

Havti  and  San  Domingo 0'000'Sc 

Mexico                                z,.iJA,<>-K> 

West  Indies'and"  Guiana  (Dutch) 12  268'202 

Porto'Rico.r.!".;'/."".Z!'.!Zr.'."".."'. f'^ro'ofi? 

United  States  of  Colombia 63o'3.56 

20'4ii9 


(1877) 
(1»77> 


Uruguay ^  "; 

V«Ti  07:11  Ala >'■ 


Venezuela 


187S. 
$  2,152,109 
8,686,704 
1,635,764 
2,000,000 
1,590,665 
9,60-1,655 
4,896,354 
7,492,884 
1,005,6.30 
13,162,382 
2,434.564 
4,692,429 
1,093,432 
3,040,359 


These  figures  afford  a  very  just  conception  of  the  rapid  increase  of  a  trade  to  which  Pittsburgh 
must  look  in  the  future  for  the' bulk  of  her  revenue,  and  to  which  she  is  invited  through  the  increased 
facilities  resulting  from  the  improvements  to  which  reference  has  been  made. 

The  Monongahela  river,  which  has  been  navigated  for  more  than  a  third  of  a  century  by  means 
only  of  a  system  of  locks  and  dams,  is  an  evidence  in  a^  comparatively  small  way  of  the^usefiilness 
of  .such  a  procedure,  and  its  ultimate  benefits  in  making  tributary  to  Pittsburgh  one  of  the  most 
productive  valleys  both  in  coal  and  agricultural  resources  to  be  found  in  the  Union. 

RAILROADS. 

Some  account  of  the  artificial  channels  to  the  outer  world  properly  follows  a  _  description  of 
the  natural  and  most  ancient  avenues ;  and  in  these  creations  of  toil,  capital  and  genius,  Pittsburgh 
is  certainly  not  behind  any  of  her  sister  municipalities,  being  the  point  of  junction  for  no  less  than 
ten  railroads,  most  of  them  trunk  lines. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH. 


39 


Of  these  roads,  the  Pennsylvania  Central,  as  beine  the  oldest  and  perhaps  the  most  important, 
should  be  entitled  to  the  first  position,  as  not  onlj-  affording  the  directest  route  to  the  seaboard 
cities,  but,  pursuing  a  course  through  the  most  materially  prolific  portions  of  the  State,  which  it 
traverses  latitudinally  for  three  hundred  and  fifty  miles,  this  great  artery  of  traffic  places  Pittsburgh 
within  ten  or  twelve  hours  of  the  Atlantic  ports,  and  connects  with  the  entire  system  of  eastern 
railroads. 

The  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Railroad  presents  another  favorite  outlet  to  the  East  hj  a  route  veering 
to  the  south-east  and  making  its  objective  point,  Baltimore,  through  the  Monongahela  and  Cum- 
berland valleys,  and  minei'al  lands  that  will  be  referred  to  hereafter  in  connection  with  natural 
products. 

Both  the  above  roads  are  active  competitors  for  the  trade  of  Pittsburgh,  and  are  justly  regarded 
as  two  of  the  best  managed  organizations  in  the  United  States,  combining  in  themselves  an  amount 
of  talent  and  capital  which  inures  greatly  to  the  benefit  of  the  commerce  of  this  cit3^ 

By  the  Allegheny  Valley  Railroad  north- eastwardly,  the  central  trunk  lines  of  New  York  are 
reached  and  connections  made  for  the  lake  routes  west,  or  all  points  east. 

The  most  important  outlet  to  the  West  is  afforded  by  the  Pittsburgh,  Ft.  Wayne  &  Chicago 
Railroad,  which,  in  operation  twenty-five  j^ears  or  more,  has  done  no  little  to  promote  the  commer- 
cial relations  of  Pittsburgh  with  the  West  and  North-West.  This  road,  at  various  points,  taps  the 
network  of  railways  which  ramifj^  over  the  whole  West,  and  proves  the  shortest  for  trans-continental 
travel. 

The  Pittsburgh,  Cincinnati  &  St.  Louis  Railroad  presents  another  channel  to  the  West  by  a 
southerly  course,  reaching  the  points  named  in  its  title  by  the  most  direct  and  available  routes,  con- 
necting and  interlacing  roads  that  place  the  States  of  Ohio,  West  Virginia,  Indiana  and  Illinois 
within  easy  reach  of  the  Iron  City. 

The  Cleveland  &  Pittsburgh  Railroad  opens  a  northern  track  for  travel  and  trade,  which,  with 
the  Pittsburgh  &  Erie  Railroad,  and  the  Pittsburgh  &  Lake  Erie  Road  (the  latter  being  the  last 
brilliant  evidence  of  Pittsburgh's  enterprise),  affords  such  ample  communication  with  the  lakes 
and  the  trunk  lines  to  the  North- West  as  leaves  nothing  in  this  direction  for  the  most  ambitious 
citizen  to  desire. 

Besides  the  roads  already  mentioned,  the  following,  of  a  present  local  character,  are  not  by 
any  means  to  be  ignored :  the  Pittsburgh,  Virginia  &  Charleston  Railroad,  whose  projected  point  of 
completion  is  indicated  in  its  title,  is  in  operation  only  for  about  twenty-five  miles  along  the  south- 
ern bank  of  the  Monongahela  river ;  the  West  Pennsj'lvania  Railroad,  which  traverses  the  north 
side  of  the  AUeghenj'-  river  for  an  equal  or  greater  distance,  an  outlet  from  the  great  oil  fields  of 
Pennsylvania;  and  the  Pittsburgh  &  Castle  Shannon  Railroad,  a  narrow  gauge  railway  connecting 
at  present  with  the  Pittsburgh  &  Southern  R.  R.,  local  environs,  and  coal  mines  of  great  magnitude. 

These  eleven  great  arteries,  through  which  the  vivifjdtig  tide  of  traffic  is  forever  streaming,  cer- 
tainly confer  a  position  upon  Pittsburgh,  so  far  as  these  facilities  extend,  that  can  not  be  otherwise 
than  of  the  highest  advantage  to  her  commercial  and  productive  thrift.  We  present  herewith  some 
statistical  facts  and  figures  in  connection  with  these  roads  that  will  prove  of  interest  to  the  reader 
as  showing  not  only  the  advantages  they  confer  upon  Pittsburgh,  but  the  wealth  and  resources  of 
the  regions  through  which  they  pass  within  an  established  trade  radius. 

From  the  report  of  Mr.  William 
Wilcox,  Inspector  of  the  First  Bitu- 
minous Coal  District  of  Pennsylva- 
nia, for  1878,  to  the  State  Secretary 
of  Internal  Affairs,  the  following  data 
have  been  collated:  This  district  em- 
braces the  counties  of  Allegheny, 
Washington,  Greene,  Fayette,  West- 
moreland, Somerset  and  Bedford, 
and  lies  to  the  south,  south-east  and 
south-west  of  Pittsburgh ;  the  two 
last  named  counties  being  the  most 
remote  easterly  and  possessing  in  all 
but  12  mines  worthy  of  record.  The 
whole  district  is  one  of  the  most  pro- 
ductive in  the  world,  and  contains 
inexhaustible  supplies  of  this  min- 
eral, the  quality  of  which  for  manufacturing,  illuminating  or  heating  purposes  is  unsurpased. 

Along  the  lines  of  these  various  railroads  are  placed  the  mines  which  supply  the  bulk  of  all  the 
bituminous  coal  consumed  in  the  United  Slates,  their  distribution  is  shown  by  the  following  table, 
the  trunk  lines  including  the  various  branches  in  brackets : — 


Picture  of  the  once  famous  Pittsburgh  and  Cincinnati  Packet  "Allegheny." 

Time  from  Louisville  to  Cincinnati^  9  hrs.,  50  min.,  Receiving 

the  Horns  from  the  celebrated  Steamer  Telegraph  No.  2. 


f  Pittsburgh,  Cinn.  &  St.  L.  R.  R. 
t  Chartier's  Valley  R.  W. 


22  Collieries. 


Pittsburgh  &  Castle  Shannon 2 


do. 


40  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

Pittsburgh,  Washington  &  Balt'e.  E.  R. 

Hiclcman  Branch, 

Mt.  Pleasant  Branch, 

Berlin  Branch, 

Salisburg  Branch, 

Bridgeport  ABedford  Branch, 

Six  Mile  Run  Branch, 

Youghiogheny  Branch, 
Pennsylvania  Railroad,      >  4> 

South-west  Penu'a.  R.  R.  J ** 

West  Penn'a.  R.  W 4  do, 

f  Allegheny  Vallev  Railroad,)  f. 

I  Plum  Creek  Branch,  / " 

Little  Saw  iSIill  Run  R.  R 1  do, 

Montouss  Run  R.  R 4  do. 


69  Collieries. 


do. 
do. 
do. 


Besides  tlie  mines  above  enumerated,  all  of  wliicli  are  immediately  within  the  tributary  ranjie 
of  Pittsburgh,  it  may  be  well,  while  confined  to  the  first  bituminous  district,  to  state  that  there  are 
upon  the  Monon<i;ahela  rivfer  86  mines,  and  upon  the  Youghiogheny  river  3  mines,  independent  of 
railway  facilities,  making  a  total  of  244  bituminous  coal  mines,  the  aggregate  product  of  which  for 
the  year  1878  was,  as  closely  estimated  by  the  Inspector  from  satisfactory  data,  nut  coal  and  slack 
not  included,  9,372,881  tons  of  2000  pounds  each.  To  attain  this  result  is  required  the  labor  of  over 
18,000  operatives  directlj'',  besides  a  number  impossible  to  estimate  in  the  immediate  contingent 
occupations  of  shipping  and  maintaining  the  necessary  roads,  machinery,  barges,  steamers  and 
general  appliances.  Tlie  dependent  manufacture  of  coke  alone  engages  the  attention  of  forty-one 
firms,  who  operate  in  all  3,902  ovens  and  manufacture  annually  75,577,200  bushels  of  coke,  em- 
ploying directly  about  1,000  laborers  and  others.  The  prodigious  increase  that  has  taken  place  in 
this  branch  of  industry  may  be  more  readily  observed  bj'  a  comparison,  which  indicates  signifi- 
cantly the  vitality  inherent  in  the  resources  of  this  city.  In  1842  Messrs.  S.  &  J.  Cochran,  who  are 
still  engaged  in  the  business,  began  the  first  manufacture  of  coke  in  this  district  by  the  construction 
of  two  ovens  on  the  Youghioghenj",  the  product  of  which  as  a  very  hazardous  venture,  they  shipped 
on  a  flat  boat  to  Cincinnati,  where  it  arrived  in  safety,  and  found  a  more  ready  market  than  the 
projectors  of  the  enterprise  had  at  first  dared  to  expect.  This  cargo  consisted  of  six  thousand  bush- 
els, and  at  that  time  M'as  considered  a  very  considerable  one.  In  1878  the  shipments  of  coke  to 
western  and  south-western  parts  from  the  Monongahela  and  Youghiogheny  valleys  am.ounted  to 
65,697,000  bushels  with  every  appearance  of  a  substantial  and  continued  increase  in  the  tratlric,  and  a 
more  universal  demand.  1'hese  are  some  of  the  facts  presented  by  the  State  Inspector  of  mines  for 
the  First  Bituminous  Coal  District  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  report  of  the  Inspector  for  the  Second  District,  Mr.  J.  J.  Davis,  is  almost  equally  interest- 
ing as  this  section  lying  to  the  north  and  embracing  those  counties  situated  in  between  Lake  Erie 
and  the  New  York  line,  and  Allegheny  and  Westmoreland  counties  on  the  south,  is  also  a  territory 
over  which  extends  the  influence  of  Pittsburgh,  its  capital,  labor  and  commerce.  In  this  district  of 
the  bituminous  coal  divisions  of  the  State  are  58  mines,  nearly  half  of  •which  are  located  in  Clarion 
and  Mercer  counties,  which  are  directlj^  accessible  by  the  Allegheny  Vallej^  and  the  Erie  &  Pitts- 
burgh i-ailroads  and  their  branches.  In  the  operations  for  which  these  mines  form  a  basis  are  em- 
ploj'ed  over  2,000  workers  in  the  various  departments,  tlie  production  in  1878  being  about  675,000 
tons  of  coal,  exclusive  of  slack  and  nut.  The  manufacture  of  coke  in  this  district  is  a  very  large 
additional  item  to  swell  the  importance  of  the  natural  resources  in  this  department,  and  it  is  to  be 
regretted,  though  the  law  under  which  he  acts  does  not  require  it,  that  Mr.  Davis  failed  in  his  report 
to  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior  to  give  accurate  statistics  in  reference  to  this  important  depart- 
ment of  the  coal  trade. 

In  a  valuable  article  read  by  Wm.  P.  Shinn,  Esq.,  chairman  of  the  Edgar  Thomson  St«el 
Works,  (Limited, )  before  the  American  Institute  of  Mining  Engineers,  convened  in  this  city,  May 
13,  1879,  it  is  stated,  in  commenting  upon  the  coal  interest,  of  which  Pittsburgh  is  the  centre,  that 
the  surrounding  area  in  Pennsylvania  alone  of  bituminous  coal  is  not  less  than  15,000  square  miles, 
exclusive  of  the  tracts  easy  of  access  in  Ohio  and  West  Virginia.  From  the  same  authority  it  ap- 
pears that  the  total  production  of  coal  in  the  United  States  during  the  year  1878  was  49,130,584 
tons,  of  which  Pennsylvania  supplied  17,605,262  tons  of  anthracite  and  13,500,000  tons  of  bitumi- 
nous, or  over  63  per  cent,  of  all  the  coal  mined  in  the  United  States.  The  soft  coal  produced  in  the 
Pittsburgh' districts  representing  not  less  than  50  percent,  of  all  the  bituminous  produced  in  the 
country,  the  true  importance  of  which  is  not  thoroughly  understood  without  consideration. 

From  the  same  paper  some  figures  are  taken  with  reference  to  the  increase  in  the  manufacture 
of  coke  that  deserve  attention,  as  being  highly  indicative  of  the  vital  forces  constantly  operating  to 
enlarge  the  borders  of  Pittsburgh's  pi'osperity.  From  the  most  reliable  data,  and  in  accordance 
with  the  estimates  of  expert  and  experienced  producers,  it  appears  that  the  following  table,  stated 
in  tons  of  2,000  lbs.  is  as  nearly  correct  as  possible  : 

1875,  Coke  produced 666,495  tons. 

1876,  "  "         770,758     " 

1877,  "  "         869,429     " 

1878,  "  "         1,012,328     " 


CITY   OP   PITTSBURGH. 


41 


An  increase  of 
nearly  100  per  cent,  in 
the  short  period  of  four 
years,  and  with  no  evi- 
dences of  abatement  in 
growth  during  the  cur- 
rent twelve  months. 
Such  evidences  of  splen- 
did progress,  while  cal- 
culated to  fill  the  mind 
of  a  stranger  with  as- 
tonishment, has  no  such 
effect  upon  the  average 
Pittsburslier,   who      sur- 


Exposition  Buildings,  Allegheny  City. 


veys  such  results  with  a  calmness  devoid  of  enthusiasm,  as  being  quite  in  the  natural  order  of  his 
experience  in  the  past,  and  equally  to  be  expected  as  the  outcome  of  the  future. 

The  matchless  advantages  possessed  by  Pittsburgh  for  the  manufacture  of  coke,  is  an  ample  a.s- 
surance  that,  no  matter  what  unfortunate  contingencies  may  arise  in  time  to  come,  this  must  always 
be  the  main  source  of  supplies  for  the  entire  country  in  this  commodity,  which  also  guarantees  a 
perpetuity  to  this  location  as  the  centre  for  the  production  of  pig  iron,  a  reflection  which  suggests 
some  consideration  of  the  great  staple  and  ponderous  industry  wherein  lies  the  pith  and  puissance 
of  Pittsburgh  as  the  manufacturing  stronghold  of  America. 

THE  IRON  TRADE. 

Around  the  earh"  history  of  every  modern  industry  that  has  had  and  still  exerts  a  pregnant  in- 
fluence upon  the  condition  of  the  race  is  centered  an  interest,  an  absorbing  attraction,  that  manifests 
itself  in  the  significance  attached  to  the  labors  of  the  historian  and  archaeologist,  who  with  un- 
daunted resolution  delve  after  the  details  of  germinal  facts. 

The  circumstances  surrounding  the  erection  of  the  fir.st  blast  furnace  in  Pittsburgh,  the  nation- 
ality, characteristics  and  mental  complection  of  its  projector,  his  hopes,  fears,  first  trials,  struggles 
and  conquests,  would  furnish  matter  for  a  storj-  of  no  less  real  importance  tlian  that  of  many  a  half 
forgotten  empire,  and  would  assuredly  captivate  by  episodes  of  more  living  human  sympathy.  But 
little  of  such  material  however  has  been  pi-eserved,  and  as  the  last  competent  writer  on  the  subject 
we  borrow  from  the  paper  of  Mr.  Shinn  the  loUowing  succinct  sketch,  which  begins  in  this  con- 
nection upon  the  topic  of  Pig  Iron:  "The  first  blast  furnace  erected  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of 
Pittsburgh  was  located  on  Two-Mile  Run,  near  the  present  Shad3'side  station,  on  the  Pennsylvania 
railroad.  Is  was  built  by  George  Anshutz,  about  1792,  and  was  operated  only  about  two  j^ears,  as 
its  location  appears  to  have  been  a  mistake,  based  upon  the  supposition  that  iron  ore  was  to  be 
found  in  that  vicinity.  It  was  not  until  1859  that  the  second  blast  furnace — and  the  first  of  the  ex- 
isting furnaces  in  Pittsburgh — was  built  by  Graff,  Bennett  &  Co.,  on  the  south  side  of  the  Mononga- 
hela  river,  and  known  as  "  Clinton  "  Furnace.  The  pig  iron  industry  of  Pittsburgh  is  therefore  less 
than  twenty  years  old  at  this  date.  There  are  now  twelve  blast  furnaces  in  Pittsburgh  and  its  im- 
mediate vicinity,  and  three  more  in  progress;  the  annual  capacity  of  which,  when  the  three  named 
are  completed,  will  be  about  486,000  net  tons  of  2,000  pounds. 

The  furnaces  are  in  detail  as  follows  : 


Built 


Name. 


1859 Clinton. 

1861 Eliza  No.  1. 

1861 Eliza  No.  2. 


186:^ . 

1863 . 

1865. 

1865. 

1872. 

1872. 

1872. 

1872. 

1877. 

1879, 

1879 

1879. 


Superior  No.  1. 
Superior  No.  2. 
Shoenberger  No  1. 
Shoenberger  No  2. 


Isabella  No. 
Isabella  No. 
Soho. 

Lucy  No.  1. 
Lucy  No.  2. 
Furnace  A. 
Furnace  B. 
Furnace  C. 


Owned  by 


Graff,  Bennett  &  Co. 
Laughlins  &  Co. 

Superior  Iron  Co. 

Shoenberger,  Blair  &  Co. 

Isabella  Furnace  Co. 

Moorehead,  McLeane&  Co 
Lucy  Furnace  Co. 

Ed.  Thomson  Steel  Co.  (L) 


Annual 

Height. 

Bosh. 

( 

Capacity 
I'ons. 

45  feet. 

12  feet. 

14,000 

60     " 
60     " 

17     " 
14     " 

} 

70,000 

45     " 
45     " 

12     " 
12     " 

1 

25,000 

62     " 
62     " 

13     " 
13     " 

\ 
1 

48,000 

75     " 
75     " 

18     " 
20     " 

\ 
i 

80,000 

65     " 

19     " 

31,000 

75     " 

75     " 

20     '• 
20     " 

} 

85,000 

65     " 

13     " 

25,000 

80     " 

20     " 

45,000 

80     " 

20     " 

45,000 

The  following  table,  compiled  from  the  statistics  of  the  American  Iron  Trade  as  furnished  by 
James  M.  Swank,  secretary  of  the  American  Iron  and  Steel  Association,  shows  the  proportion  which 


42 


rNDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


the  product  of  Pennsylvania  pig  irOn  bore  to  that  of  the  United  States,  and  the  proportion  which 
the  pig  iron  produced  in  Allegheny  county  bore  to  that  of  Pennsylvania,  and  the  whole  United 
States  respectively,  during  the  j-ears  1874  to  1878  inclusive,  all  stated  in  tons  of  2,000  lbs.  : 


Year. 


1874 
1875 
1876 

1877 
1878 


Pig  iron 

made  in 

Unite'^    tates. 


2,689,413 
2,266,581 
.2,093,236 
2,314,585 
2,577,361 


Pig  iron 

made  in 

Pennsylvania. 


1,213,133 
960,884 
1,009,613 
1.153,356 
1,342.633 


Per  cent, 
of  total 
product. 


45.11 

42.40 
48.23 
49.83 
52.09 


Pig  iron  made  in  AUe- 
gheny  county. 


143,660 
131,856 
128,555 
141,749 
217,299 


C  a  " 
»  S  3 


11.84 
13.72 
12.73 
12.29 
16.18 


:P^n 


5.35 
5.82 
6.14 
5.12 
8.40 


From  this  statement  it  will  be  seen  that  the  pig  iron  product  of  Allegheny  county  has  steadily 
increased  from  5  34-100  per  cent,  of  the  product  of  the  United  States  in  1874  to  8  40-100  per  cent. — 
or  almost  exactly  one-twelfth — in  1878. 

The  amount  of  pig  iron  brought  into  Pittsburgh  by  rail  and  river  during  1878,  was  250,476  gross 
tons,  equal  to  280,533  net  tons;  adding  to  this  the  pig  iron  made  in  Allegheny  county  during  the 
year,  217,290  net  tons,  makes  a  total  of  pig  iron  made  and  brought  into  Allegheny  county  during 
the  year  1878  of  497,832  net  tons;  or  19  32-100  percent. — nearly  one-fifth  — of  the  total  product  of 
pig  iron  for  the  United  States.  To  this  add  muck  bars,  2,033  net  tons;  blooms  and  billets,  35,791 
net  tons  ;  scrap  iron,  64,536  net  tons,  and  we  have  a  grand  total  of  600,192  net  tons  of  pig  iron, 
muck  bar,  blooms,  billets  and  scrap,  most  or  all  of  which  was  consumed  in  Allegheny  countj-  during 
the  year  1878,  an  amount  nearly  equal  to  one-fourth  of  the  whole  pig  iron  production  of  the  United 
States  for  that  year. 

ROLLED  IRON. 

The  first  rolling  mill  in  Allegheny  county,  owned  by  Christopher  Cowan,  was  built  in  1812,  and 
known  as  the  Pittsburgh  Rolling  Mill.  And  the  second  the  Union  Rolling  Mill — not  the  present 
mill  of  that  name — was  built  in  1819,  and  was  accidentally  blown  up  and  permanently  dismantled  in 
1829,  the  machinery  being  taken  to  Covington,  Kentuckj'.  This  mill  had  four  puddling  furnaces, 
the  first  in  Pittsburgh ;  it  was  also  the  first  mill  in  Pittsburgh  to  roll  bar  iron,  and  was  the  largest 
and  most  extensive  mill  of  the  kind  in  the  western  country. 

The  Grant  Hill  Iron  Works  were  erected  in  1821,  by  William  B.  Hays  and  David  Adams,  near 
where  the  Court  House  now  stands. 

The  Juniata  Iron  Works  were  erected  in  1824,  and  were  owned  by  Dr.  Peter  Shoenberger. 
The  Sligo  Mill  was  erected  in  1825  where  it  now  stands,  by  Robert  T.  Stewart  and  John  Lyon. 

Pig  metal  for  the  supply  of  these  mills  was  mostly  brought  from  the  Juniata  Valley,  which  also 
supplied  them  with  blooms.  The  Juniata  pig  iron  and  blooms  were  hauled  over  the  Alleghenj' 
Mountains  to  Johnstown,  usually  on  sleds  in  the  winter  season,  and  taken  down  the  Conemaugh, 
Kiskimiuetas  and  Allegheny  to  Pittsburgh  on  the  spring  and  fall  freshets.  In  1821  Pittsburgh  had 
8  rolling  mills,  using  6,000  tons  blooms,  chieflj'  from  the  Juniata  Valley,  and  1,500  tons  of  pig  metal. 

In  1856  there  were  in  Allegheny  county  25  rolling  mills  and  33  foundries.  The  six  rolling 
mills  in  existence  in  1826  employed  281  hands,  and  made  5230  tons  of  iron,  valued  at  $559,000  and 
consumed  561,700  bushels  of  coal.     In  1879  the  situation  in  this  regard  is  as  follows  : 

• 

Number  of  rolling  mills  completed 34 

Number  of  rolling  mills  building  (at  McKeesport) 1 

Number  of  common  puddling  furnaces 769 

Number  of  Danks  puddling  furnaces 11 

Number  of  Siemens  puddling  furnaces 10 

Total  puddling  furnaces 790 

Number  of  employees 12,172 

Annual  capacity  in  tons 500,000 

The  number  of  single  puddling  furnaces  in  rolling  mills  in  the  United  States — counting  a  double 
furnace  as  equivalent  to  two  single — was  in  1878,  4463,  so  that  the  number  in  Allegheny  county  was 
17  7-10  per  cent,  of  the  number  of  puddling  furnaces  in  the  United  States,  while  the  number  of  roll- 
ing mills  in  the  United  States  being  340,  Allegheny  county  contained  10  per  cent,  of  their  number. 

The  following  table  shows  the  amount  of  rolled  iron,  including  sheets  and  nail  plates,  produced 
in  Allegheny  county  and  in  the  United  States  during  the  years  1874  to  1878,  stated  in  tons  of 
2.000  lb.  : 


CITY   OF  PITTSBURGH.  43 


TOTAL   ROLLED   IRON,    INCLUDING   NAILS. 


In  the  United  In    Allegheny 

Year.  States,  County,  Per  Cent,  of 

Tons.  Tons.  U.  S.  Product 

1874 1,110,447 274,625 24.73 

1875 1,097,867 239,069. 21.78 

1876 1,042,101.. 247,943 23.79 

1877 1,144,219 268,486.. 23.46 

1878 1,232,686 282,333 22.93 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  proportion  of  rolled  iron — exclusive  of  rails — made  in  Allegheny  county 
has  varied  from  24.73-100  per  cent,  in  1874  to  22.98-100  per  cent,  in  1878  of  the  whole  product  of 
rolled  iron — exclusive  of  iron  rails — made  in  the  United  States.  The  falling  off  in  percentage  of 
the  rolled  product,  indicated  since  1874,  is  mainly,  if  not  wholly,  owing  to  the  fact  that  the  wages 
paid  puddlers  and  other  rolling-mill  expert  labor  in  Pittsburgh  are  from  30  to  50  per  cent,  higher 
than  is  paid  for  similar  labor  in  rolling  mills  east  of  Pittsburgh.  Six  of  the  rolling  mills  have  con- 
nected with  them  nail  mills,  having  an  aggregate  of  472  nail  machines,  which  produced,  in  1874, 
562,995  kegs  of  nails  of  100  lbs.  each,  and,  in  1878,  441,013  kegs,  the  former  being  11.45-100  per 
cent.,  and  the  latter  being  10.10-100  per  cent,  of  the  product  of  the  United  States;  the  reason  for 
the  reduced  proportion  being  attributable  to  the  same  causes  as  that  given  for  rolled  iron. 

Allegheny  county  has  many  specialties  in  iron  among  its  manufactures,  prominent  among  which 
are,  Messrs.  Jones  &  Laughlins'  cold-rolled  iron,  for  shafting,  piston  rods,  etc. ;  Messrs.  W.  D.  Wood 
&  Co.'s  planished  sheet  iron,  the  only  successful  rival  of  the  Russia  sheet  iron ;  the  Tin  and  Terne 
Plate  Works  of  the  United  States  Iron  and  Tin  Plate  Co.,  and  Messrs.  Kirkpatrick,  Beale  &  Co., 
the  only  manufacturers  of  that  material  in  the  United  States;  and  Andrew  Kloman's  Universal  Mill, 
for  the  manufacture  of  weldless  eye-bars  and  other  bridge  material,  by  a  new  and  highly  successful 
process,  applicable  to  iron,  but  which  is  particularly  successful  with  steel. 

The  specialties  above  enumerated  are  only  such  as  are  found  nowhere  else  in  this  country,  there 
being  many  other  specialties  manufactured  here  which  are  not,  however,  exclusively  products  of  this 
county. 

In  glancing  at  the  iron  trade  of  Pittsburgh,  that  branch  of  it  which  relates  to  founding  and  cast- 
ing is  second  in  importance,  labor  and  capital,  to  the  rolling-mill  interests,  and  equally  prominent 
so  far  as  the  chief  celebrity  of  this  city  is  concerned  The  first  iron  foundry  was  established  in  Pitta- 
burgh  in  1803.  This  industry  having  effected  a  lodgement  here  grew  with  all  the  vitality  of  an  in- 
digenous plant.  So  considerable  has  been  the  advancement  made  in  this  direction  that  it  has  be- 
come an  accepted  fact  that  in  large  work  or  small,  from  a  thumb  latch  to  a  columbiad  carrying  a 
ball  weighing  1000  pounds,  the  facilities  which  Pittsburgh  enjoys  for  casting  iron  or  steel  are  not 
duplicated  on  this  continent.  From  the  first  foundry  erected  in  this  city  in  1803  and  the  direct  line 
of  its  business  successors,  has  been  turned  out  ordnance  that  has  bellowed  in  three  wars  of  the  Re- 
public. Over  2,000  guns  and  mortars  were  cast  during  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  and  from  Perry's 
victory  on  Lake  Erie  to  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness  the  resolute  "  dogs  of  war  "  cradled  in  Pitts- 
burgh ;  have  been  ever  ready  to  persuade  for  peace  with  most  eloquent  enunciation. 

A  detailed  history  of  the  first  Pittsburgh  foundry  would  make  interesting  and  instructive  read- 
ing, but  each  enterprise  of  this  description  is  filled  with  matter  to  attract,  and  the  general  plan 
must  in  this  department  of  the  work  be  adhered  to.  In  Pittsburgh  at  the  present  time  are,  includ- 
ing roll  and  heavy  machine,  general  stove  and  malleable  iron  founderies  and  machine  shops  and 
founderies  combined,  not  less  than  about  forty  separate  establishments  engaged  in  these  closely  al- 
lied industries,  besides  which  there  are  extensive  forges,  engine  and  machine  shops,  plows  and  agri- 
cultural implement  works,  manufactories  for  steam  pumps,  builders  and  domestic  hardware,  saddlerj' 
goods,  locomotives,  bolts  and  nuts,  spikes  and  rivets,  iron  bridges,  wrought  iron  pipe  and  boiler 
flues,  cast  iron  pipe,  boilers,  stills  and  tanks,  wire  iron  fences,  car  wheels,  chains,  horse-shoes, 
nails,  sheet  iron,  and  in  short  every  possible  article  for  the  construction  of  which  modern  skill  and 
invention  have  regarded  iron  as  the  best  or  cheapest  material.  These  operations  emploj'  thousands 
of  expert  artisans,  whose  wages  are  higher  than  paid  any  similar  class  of  workmen  in  the  world, 
creating  a  reactive  influence  upon  the  community  at  large  that  is  promotive  of  the  most  satisfactory 
results. 

STEEL. 

Pittsburgh  stands  pre-eminently  at  the  head  of  the  crucible  steel  production  of  this  country. 
In  1813  there  was  a  steel  furnace  here  owned  by  Tuper  &  McKowan,  probably  making  only  bli.«tcr 
steel.  In  1829  an  Englishman  named  Broadmeadow,  made  blister  steel  at  Pittsburgh,  and  about 
1831  made  a  cast  steel  of  low  grade  in  pots  of  his  own  manufacture.  His  works  were  located  at 
Bayardstown,  now  Fifth  wai-d,  near  the  old  Fifth  ward  Market  House.  Josiah  Ankrim  &  Sons,  file 
makers,  Pittsburgh,  are  said  to  have  succeeded  in  making  their  own  steel  about  1830.  In  1831 
Messrs.  Whitmore  &  Havens  successfuU}'  produced  blister  steel  at  Pittsburgh.     In  1833  the  firm  of 

Note. — The  product  given  for  Allegheny  county  in  Mr.  Swank's  report  includes  iron  rails ;  but  the  only  iron  rails 
made  in  Allegheny  county  from  1874  to  1878  were  of  very  light  patterns,  from  12  to  20  lb.,  and  but  very  small  in 
quantity. 


44 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


G.  &  J.  H.  Shoenberger  commenced  to  manufacture  blister  steel  here.  At  about  1840  the  firm  of 
Isaac  Jones  &  William  Coleman  was  formed  at  Pittsburgh,  and  manufactured  blister  and  spring 
steel,  which  business  they  successfully  prosecuted  until  1845,  when  they  were  succeeded  by  Jones  & 
Quigg,  who  built  the  Pittsburgh  Steel  Works.  In  1846  Coleman  &  Hailman  commenced  the  manu- 
facture of  blister  and  plow  steel,  and  subsequently  made  all  but  first-quality  cast  steel. 

In  1850  there  were  in  Pennsylvania  thirteen  works,  with  an  annual  product  of  6, 078  tons,  of 
which  six  works,  with  a  capacity  of  3278  tons,  were  in  Pittsburgh.  In  1853  the  firm  of  Singer,  Nim- 
ick  &  Co.,  which  had  been  organized  in  1848,  was  successful  in  producing  the  higher  grades  of  cast- 
steel  for  saw,  machinery  and  agricultural  purposes.  In  1859  Messrs.  Hussey,  Wells  &  Co.  were 
successful  in  making  crucible  cast  steel  of  the  best  quality;  and  in  1862  Messrs.  Park,  Bro.  &  Co. 
accomplished  the  same  result.     There  are  now  in  Allegheny  countj' : 

Crucible  steel  works 12 

Having  Siemens  pot  furnaces 33,  with  1123  pots. 

Coke  holes 223    " 

Total  pots 1346 

Open-hearth  furnaces,  4  completed,  2  erecting,  total 6 

The  erection  of  the  Edgar  Thomson  Steel  Works,  the  only  Bessemer  steel  works  in  Allegheny 
county,  was  commenced  by  Carnegie,  McCandless  &  Co.  in  the  spring  of  1873,  and  in  1874  the  or- 
ganization was  changed  in  name  to  "  The  Edgar  Thompson  Steel  Co.,  Limited."  Their  works, 
located  at  Bessemer  Station,  on  the  Penns3'lvania  railroad  and  Baltimore  and  Ohio  railroad,  and 
on  the  Monongahela  river,  commenced  operations  on  September  1st,  1875.  Thej'  have  two  Be.sse- 
mer  converters,  blooming  mill,  and  rail  and  billet  mill,  and  a  five-ton  forge  hammer.  The  company 
is  also  erecting  three  blast  furnaces  on  its  ground  near  the  steel  works.  This  company,  although 
its  works  have  been  in  operation  less  than  four  years,  reached  in  1878  the  largest  output  in  rails  and 
billets  made  by  any  works  in  the  United  States  in  any  one  year,  and  the  largest  output  of  Bessemer 
ingots  made  by  any  "  two  ccnverter  "  plant  in  the  world. 

The  production  of  the  various  qualities  of  steel  in  the  United  States,  and  in  Alleghenj'  county, 
respective  1}^,  during  1877  and  1878,  was  as  follows,  stated  in  tons  of  2000  lbs. : 


Kinds  of  Steel. 


Bessemer  steel  ingots 

Open-hearth  steel  ingots 

Crucible  cast-steel 

All  other  steel 

Bes.seraer  steel  rails 


United  States. 


Total  Product. 


1877. 


560,587 
25,031 
40,430 
11,924 

432,169 


1878. 


732,226 

36,126 

42,906 

8,556 

550,398 


Allegheny  County. 


Total  Product. 


1877. 


73,278 

800 

24,747 

8,323 

54,635 


1878. 


99,344 
1,025 

27,365 
6,579 

72,246 


Proportion  of 

United  States 

Product. 


Per  ct. 

1877. 


13.07 
3.20 
61.34 
70. 
12.65 


Per  ct. 

1878. 

13.57 
2.84 
64.95 
76.90 
13  13 


Of  the  total  product  of  Bessemer  and  open-hearth  steel  ingots  in  the  United  States,  in  1877, 
there  was  made  in  Alleghenj^  county  12.65  per  cent.,  and  of  the  total  product  of  the  United  States 
in  1878,  Allegheny  county  manufactured  13.06  per  cent.  Of  the  total  product  of  crucible,  cast, 
blister  and  puddled  steel  manufactured  in  the  United  States  in  1877,  Allegheny  county  produced 
63.16  per  cent.;  and  of  the  product  of  the  United  States  in  1878,  Allegheny  county  produced  66.93 
per  cent. 

The  percentage  of  product  in  open-hearth  steel  has  heretofore  been  low,  but  there  have  been 
erected  and  put  in  operation  since  January  1,  1879,  two  open-hearth  steel  furnaces — one  by  Ander- 
son &  Co..  and  one  by  Hussey,  Howe  &  Co.;  two  others  are  in  process  of  erection  by  Shoenberger, 
Blair  &  Co.,  and  Mr.  Thomas  S.  Blair  is  about  to  start  his  open-hearth  furnace  at  Glenwood,  here- 
tofore operated  in  connection  with  the  manufacture  of  iron  sponge.  When  the  open-hearth  furnaces 
now  being  erected  are  completed,  Alleghenj"  county  will  take  the  lead  ia  open-hearth  steel,  as  she 
has  heretofore  done  in  crucible  steel. 

Pittsburgh  has  many  specialties  in  steel  manufacture,  probably  the  most  important  of  which  is 
the  higher  qualities  of  tool  steel,  which,  during  the  past  ten  j'ears,  have  almost  entirely  supplanted, 
ill  the  markets  of  this  country  the  English  tool  steel — a  result  reached  only  after  the  most  patient 
effort  and  in  opposition  to  the  most  determined  prejudice  of  the  manufacturers  and  users  of  tool 
steels. 

It  is  notable,  also,  in  connection  with  the  Bessemer  steel  manufacture,  that  the  steel  for  the 
cables  of  the  East-river  bridge  was  manufactured  here  into  wire  rod  by  Anderson  &  Co.,  and  that 
the  steel  for  the  Glasgow  bridge  over  the  Missouri  river,  the  first  all-steel  bridge  in  this  country,  was 
manufactured  under  the  "Hay"  process  by  the  Edgar  Thompson  Steel  Co.,  Limited,  and  rolled  bj' 
Hussey,  Howe  &  Co.,  and  Andrew  Kloman,  into  the  various  shapes  used  in  constructing  that 
bridge. 


46  •  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

GLASS. 

In  that  part  of  this  work  which  is  devoted  to  the  details  of  the  various  industi'ial  enterprises  of 
Pittsburgh  will  be  found  much  matter  pertaining  to  the  glass  trade,  which  will  amply  repay  the 
perusal  of  the  reader  and  convej'^  a  very  satisfactory  idea  of  the  extent  and  importance  of  our 
resources  in  this  direction,  which  ranks  first  in  prominence  after  iron  and  steel. 

The  first  glass  house  in  Pittsbui-gh  is  said  to  have  been  in  operation  in  1795,  and  was  located 
near  what  is  now  called  "  Glass  House  Ripple,"  in  the  Ohio  river.  It  is,  however,  on  record  that 
Gen.  James  0  Hara  and  Major  Isaac  Craig  commenced  arrangements  for  the  manufacture  of  glass 
in  1796  with  an  eight-pot  furnace.  In  1807  George  Robinson  and  Edward  Ensel  commenced  the 
manufacture  of  flint  glass,  and  in  1808  they  were  sold  out  to  Messrs.  Bakewell  &  Page;  their  suc- 
cessors, Messi's.  Bakewell,  Pears  &  Co.,  having  carried  on  the  business  to  the  present  time.  In 
1826  there  were  in  operation  in  Pittsburgh  and  vicinity  seven  glass  works,  with  a  capacitj''  of  27,000 
boxes  of  window  glass,  and  of  flint  glass  to  the  value  of  $30,000.  The  number  of  glass  manufacto- 
ries now  in  Pittsburgh,  is  as  follows  : 

"Works.  Pots.  Hands.  Product. 

Table  Ware 24  242  1,895  $2,000,000 

Window  Glass 24  234  1,200  2,000,000 

Flint  Glass  Bottles 8  66  619  420,000 

Glass  Chimneys 9  90  790  500,000 

Green  Glass  Bottle 10  67  944  1,200,000 

Total 75  699  5,448  $6,120,000 

The  amount  of  glass  manufactured  in  Allegheny  county  is  about  one-half  the  total  production 
of  the  entire  United  States,  and  from  every  reasonable  indication  will  not  only  maintain  this  supre- 
macy, but  even  become  more  iDre-eniinently  prosperous  in  this  branch  of  manufactures.  A  con- 
clusion of  this  kind  seems  not  to  be  avoided,  from  the  fact  that  everj'^  year  marks  some  surprising 
improvement  for  the  rapid  and  accurate  manipulation  of  this  material,  under  patents  which  are 
held  exclusively  by  Pittsburgh  producers.  During  the  past  few  months  one  extensive  manufacturer 
on  the  South  Side  has  discovered  and  perfected  a  process,  by  which  goods  are  produced  in  almost 
exact  imitation  of  the  finest  French  ceramic  ware,  a  result  never  heretofore  obtained  in  glass,  and 
on  every  side  is  observed  the  sedulous  application  of  more  effective  appliances,  for  the  retention  and 
enlargement  of  this  staple  industry,  and  its  more  comprehensive  development.  One  fact  in  relation 
to  the  glass  trade  of  Pittsburgh  bears  more  than  ordinary  significance,  when  considered  with  refer- 
ence to  the  future  aggrandizement  of  this  department  of  our  resources,  and  that  is  the  gratifying  in- 
crease of  an  export  trade,  that  but  a  few  years  since  had  no  existence  whatsoever. 

In  accordance  with  the  annual  report  of  the  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Statistics  on  the  Commerce 
and  Navigation  of  the  United  States  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1878,  it  appears  that  in 
1871  the  exports  of  glass  and  glassware  amounted  to  $466,447,  and  for  1878  $869,682,  an  increase 
of  nearly  100  per  cent.,  making  the  prediction  a  safe  one  that  for  the  fiscal  year  jui^closing  the  ex- 
ports will  amount  to  over  one  million  dollars. 

These  figures  at  first  to  the  casual  observer  may  not  seem  to  carry  the  real  importance  that 
should  be  ascribed  to  them,  but  when  it  is  considered  that  England,  France,  Belgium,  Italy  and 
other  countries  are  largely  engaged  in  supplj'ing  the  world  with  glass  and  glassware,  under  the  pro- 
tection of  ancient  guilds,  and  the  advantages  of  cheap  labor,  materials  and  an  established  trade; 
the  progress  made  in  this  direction  by  a  far  removed  inland  city  of  a  new  continent,  should  be  re- 
garded as  little  less  than  mai'velous,  and  should  have  the  effect  of  inciting  renewed  and  active  ef- 
forts for  the  accomplishment  of  annually  greater  results. 

PETROLEUM. 

But  two  decades  have  passed  away  since  the  systematic  commercial  production  of  petroleum 
staggered  the  credulity  of  the  whole  world,  and  hurried  to  Western  Pennsylvania  all  the  drifting  ar- 
gonauts of  fortune  from  Nova  Scotia  to  New  Mexico. 

No  such  exodus  to  any  given  locality  had  hitherto  been  known  in  this  country  or  perhaps  in 
any  other.  Not  even  during  the  gold  excitement  were  the  shores  of  California  visited  with  crowds 
so  vast  or  heterogeneous.  Towns  of  no  small  magnitude  actually  sprang  into  existence  in  the  night 
like  mushrooms,  and  the  oil  regions  of  the  Ke.ystone  State  were  metamorphosed  almost  by  magic 
from  deserted  wilderness  into  thriving,  populous  communities,  while  sudden  wealth  poured  from  the 
punctured  bosom  of  mother  earth,  with  a  copious  prodigality  that  seemed  absolutely  limitless.  The 
consequent  excitement  of  that  period  in  which  Pittsburgh  was  deeply  involved  and  the  immediate 
conversion  of  numerous  refineries  which  had  been  erected  for  the  distillation  of  coal  into  refineries 
for  petroleum,  is  a  well  remembered  phase  of  local  history.  This  city  became  at  once  the  virtual 
centre  of  the  oil  trade  of  the  world,  a  position  still  sustained,  and  of  which  it  would  be  difficult  to 
deprive  her. 

The  production  of  petroleum  in  1859,  though  far  from  being  a  discover}'  in  one  sense,  was  in 
another  a  very  important  one.  As  earlj'^  in  the  historj'  of  America  as  1627  the  fact  of  its  existence 
was  made  a  matter  of  comment  by  a  French  missionarj',  Joseph  Dalaroche,  in  letters  written  from 
near  that  locality  which  has  lately  become  so  prolific  of  oil  known  as  the  Bradford  regions.     De 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  47 


Charlevoix,  a  French  historian,  traveler  and  Jesuit,  in  his  Historie  de  la  Nouvelle  Fi-ance,  recounts 
from  his  journal  of  May  1721,  the  fact  of  their  being  at  the  head  waters  of  the  Allegheny  fountains, 
which  are  like  oil,  having  the  taste  of  iron,  with  a  "  piquante  odeur,  "  and  being  used  by  the  natives 
for  the  alleviation  of  pain. 

This  is  regarded  as  the  first  reliable  mention  of  petroleum  in  Pennsylvania,  and  to  a  greater  or 
less  extent  from  that  time  its  existence  has  been  generally  recognized.  For  many  years,  prior  to 
1859,  it  was  gathered  from  the  pools  and  waters  of  oil  creek  by  absorption  in  blankets  or  woolen 
fabrics  which  were  spread  upon  the  surface  of  the  stream  and  at  intervals  wrung  out.  Bj  this 
tedious  process  the  annual  product  maj'  have  reached  perhaps  a  hundred  barrels,  which  was  known 
as  Seneca  oil,  rock  oil  or  naptha,  being  sold  as  a  medicament  for  certain  diseases,  especially  those 
of  a  rheumatic  character.  Kier's  Petroleum  Liniment  was  well  known  during  the  period  between 
1851  and  1859--60.  This  preparation  was  manufactured  by  Mr.  Samuel  Kier,  a  resident  of  this  city, 
b}'^  whose  advice  the  first  commercial  oil  producer  commenced  opei'ations,  and  in  whose  shop  was 
constructed  the  first  oil  rig,  primative  tools  that  would  now  be  regarded  as  curiously  obsolete. 

Supplied  with  these  implements,  Col.  E.  L.  Drake,  of  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  began  to  bore  for  oil 
at  Titusville,  exactly  twentj'  3^ears  ago  (June,  1859),  and  after  laboring  for  more  than  two  months  was 
rewarded  by  striking  a  twenty-five  barrel  well,  and  from  that  moment  began  the  prodigious  excite- 
ment before  referred  to,  and  petroleum  became  an  article  of  commerce  with  a  dominant  interest  of 
its  own.  Ten  years  from  the  date  of  its  first  production  on  this  basis  the  annual  amount  exported 
to  foreign  countries,  especial^  to  Europe,  in  crude,  refined  and  the  various  products  of  petroleum 
had  reached  the  sum  of  $31,122,338,  the  bulk  of  which  was  handled  in  Pittsburgh  and  controlled  by 
Pittsburgh  capital.  For  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1878,  the  export  of  this  commodity  had 
reached  the  amount  of  $4G, 574,974,  a  result  not  to  have  been  anticipated,  as  during  that  year  the 
production  had  more  than  ever  overstepped  the  bounds  of  demand,  reducing  the  value  of  petroleum 
to  figures  lower  than  had  been  known  up  to  that  period. 

The  following  table  presents  a  summary  of  the  production  of  petroleum  in  the  United  States, 
by  which  it  will  appear  that  from  Pennsylvania  emanates  98  per  cent,  of  all  the  natural  oil  found 
in  the  country : 

PRODUCTION  OF  CRUDE  PETROLEUM. 

1877.  1878. 

Pennsylvania 13,135,651  barrels.  15,165,462  barrels. 

West  Virginia 77,172        "  250,000 

Kentucky  and  Tennessee 73,000        "  75,000 

California 73,000        "  75,000 

Ohio 36,500        "  45,000 

13,490,171        "  15,608,462 

When  it  is  remembered  that  nearly  6,000,000  barrels  of  petroleum  were  refined  in  Pittsburgh 
during  the  past  year,  to  say  nothing  of  the  shipping  and  handling  of  other  vast  quantities,  some 
idea  may  be  gained  of  the  wealth  which  is  derived  from  this  source  alone  by  this  immediate  locality. 
The  largest  manufactory  and  market  contiguous  to  the  oil  regions  of  Pennsylvania,  Pittsburgh  has, 
from  the  supplj^  of  tools,  engines,  tubing,  barrels,  materials  and  merchandise,  secured  a  very  con- 
siderable annual  revenue,  which  seems  in  no  danger  of  immediate  reduction.  Such  being  in  brief 
the  history  of  the  oil  trade,  it  can  hardly  be  denied  that  it  forms  an  episode  in  the  annals  of  com- 
merce for  which  there  is  absolutely  no  parallel  and  no  precedent,  and  to  which  in  no  small  degree 
the  prosperity  of  Pittsburgh  may  be  readily  traced. 

MISCELLANEOUS    RESOURCES    AND    PRODUCTIONS. 

The  coal,  coke,  iron,  steel,  glass  and  oil  interests  of  Pittsburgh  have  now  been  passed  in  rapid 
review,  and  though  from  these  various  sources  are  formed  the  very  bulwarks  of  our  commercial 
thrift,  which  are,  fortunately,  staunch  enough  to  prevent  all  hostile  inroads,  still  there  are  innumer- 
able lesser  interests  which  all  converge  to  fill  out  symmetrically  the  full  development  of  Pittsburgh's 
resources  and  advantages,  and  are  well  worthy  of  attention. 

Among  these,  the  manufacture  of  cotton  goods  has  from  a  very  early  period  engaged  consid- 
erable capital,  and  furnished  occupation  for  a  large  number  of  operatives.  The  mills  in  this  local- 
ity are  situated  in  Allegheny  Citj^  and  are  five  in  number — two  being  of  extraordinary  magnitude. 
These  mills,  in  the  aggregate,  run  36,000  spindles,  800  looms  and  350  cards — the  total  number  of 
employees  ranging  between  1200  and  1500,  to  whom  are  paid  about  $250,000  annually;  the  produc- 
tion, during  the  same  period,  varjdng,  of  course,  in  value,  with  the  state  of  the  market,  but  consid- 
ered at  the  present  time  to  be  not  less  than  $1,000,000. 

The  manufactui-e  of  white  lead  is  carried  on  extensively  in  this  community,  and  with  uniform 
success  to  those  engaged  in  this  department  of  industry,  as  well  as  the  establishment  of  a  reputation 
for  a  superior  article  that  is  peculiar  to  Pittsburgh.  In  the  two  cities  there  are  eight  factories  for 
the  corroding  of  lead  and  the  making  of  derivative  contingent  products,  which  employ  not  less  than 
225  hands,  to  whom  is  paid  about  $125^^00  per  annum.  The  consumption  of  raw  material  by  these 
concerns  amounts  to  6,500  tons  of  pig  lead  annually,  200,000  gallons  linseed  oil  and  300,000  lbs. 


48  INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA, 

acetic  acid,  besides  kegs,  cans  and  boxes,  in  due  proportion — the  total  product  in  paint  leads,  &c., 
in  kegs  of  25  lbs.,  being  about  700,000  packages.  Many  of  these  works  also  prepare  paints  and 
colors  upon  a  scale  of  considerable  magnitude,  and  more  than  one  has  latelj'  given  attention  to  the 
manufacture  of  iron-oxide  paint,  which  is  establishing  a  superiority  for  certain  purposes  that  makes 
it  more  desirable  and  considerably  cheaper  than  lead  paints. 

The  production  of  salt  in  this  city,  which,  owing  to  the  low  price  of  this  commodity,  seems  to 
be  but  of  small  importance,  is  yet  attended  with  a  very  considerable  revenue,  and  is  obtained  with 
such  ease  and  convenience  as  to  attract  attention.  It  was  demonstrated  some  years  since,  in  mak- 
ing experimental  borings  for  oil,  that  saltwater  might  be  found  under  either  of  the  cities  almost 
anywhere  at  a  depth  of  from  800  to  2000  feet.  One  manufactory  of  this  description  possesses  a 
well  1600  feet  deep,  which  spouts  brine  at  the  rate  of  from  800  to  900  barrels  per  day,  the  water 
being  ejected  by  the  force  of  natural  gas,  which  is  collected  and  used  for  lighting  and  heating  the 
works.  Of  the  four  establishments  in  operation,  the  value  of  the  product  annually  is  about  $l;-iO,000, 
and  is  remarkable  for  purity  and  whiteness. 

In  alluding  to  natural  gas,  it  ma,y  be  said  that  it  is  more  than  a  conjecture  that,  at  from  2000 
to  3000  feet  from  the  surface,  exist  tliose  veins  of  carburetted  hydrogen  so  commonly  struck  in  the 
oil  regions  of  Butler  county,  where,  for  an  extended  period,  this  gas  has  been  burning  in  an  unin- 
terrupted and  unquenchable  stream.  Some  years  since  a  question  arose  in  regard  to  the  possible 
utilization  of  this  wonderful  product  for  purposes  of  iron  and  glass  manufacturing,  and  a  line  of 
pipe  was  laid  to  the  nearest  gas  well,  18  miles  distant,  connecting  at  this  end  with  the  extensive 
rolling  mills  of  Spang,  Chalfant  &  Co.,  which  are  located  on  the  north  side  of  the  Allegheny  river, 
above  the  city.  The  experiment  proved  a  complete  success,  and,  though  many  alterations  were 
required,  the  mills  from  that  time  have  been  operated  solely  by  this  novel  and  inexpensive  fuel. 
Some  idea  may  be  gained  of  the  enormous  pressure  exerted  by  this  gas  from  the  fact  that  an  India- 
rubber  ball  was  shot  through  the  entire  length  of  the  pipe  in  16  minutes.  The  Rochester  Tumbler 
Co.,  situated  about  25  miles  from  the  city,  on  the  Ohio  river,  is  also  supplied  from  two  wells  on 
the  premises,  with  the  same  convenient  combustible,  which  is  found  to  be  far  superior  in  the  process 
of  annealing  to  any  other  fuel.  Many  other  concerns  are  also  in  possession  of  this  advantage,  and 
the  presumption  generally  obtains  that,  at  no  distant  day,  a  complete  revolution  may  be  effected  in 
all  manufacturing  operations  requiring  heat,  by  this  means. 

Looking  at  the  ponderous  resources  with  which  Pittsburgh  is  naturally  endowed — coal,  iron, 
petroleum,  gas — it  is  impossible,  taking  into  account  her  felicitous  geographical  position,  to  avoid 
the  conclusion  that  she  is  but  in  the  very  morning  of  her  greatness,  merelj''  tipped  by  the  slanting 
beams  of  a  prosperity  that  shall,  in  coming  years,  deluge  with  golden  showers  of  unalloyed  success. 
The  rapid  growth  of  the  city  has  created  a  demand  for  building  materials  that  greatly  fosters  sev- 
eral important  industries  which  derive  from  this  development  a  continual  impetus.  First  among 
these  may  be  noted  the  manufacture  of  brick,  which  is  carried  on  upon  a  very  extensive  scale,  there 
being  not  le.ss  than  25  separate  manufactories  of  building  brick,  and  ten  of  fire  brick  and  tile, 
employing,  in  all,  from  800  to  1000  workmen;  the  products  realizing  not  far  from  $1,000,000  annu- 
ally. ...  .        .  .   ■         . 

The  lumber  interest,  in  this  connection,  is  also  of  conspicuous  importance,  and  involves  in  itself 
sufficient  capital  and  labor  to  make  it  of  no  small  import.  The  territory  in  Pennsylvania  and  New 
York  watered  by  the  sources  of  the  Allegheny  river  was  for  many  years  the  main  and  almost  only 
source  of  supply  for  timber  possessed  by  Pittsburgh,  and  so  great  was  the  drain  upon  this  section 
that,  in  1831,  the  amount  of  lumber  annually  floated  was  estimated  at,30,000,000  feet,  which,  for  10 
or  15  yeai-s,  gradually  increased,  till  the  probable  annual  receipt  of  lumber  by  the  Allegheny  river 
exceeded  50,000,000  feet.  Such  an  enormous  decimation  of  the  forests,  however,  could  not  continue 
always,  and  this,  together  with  the  devastations  of  fire,  impaired  materially  the  productive  i-ichness 
of  this  district.  The  demand,  however,  was  in  no  way  abated;  on  the  contrary,  the  nece.ssity  for 
lumber  became  more  urgent,  and. the  construction  of  railroads  through  western  Pennsj'lvania 
about  that  time,  fortunately,  opened  up  new  regions  in  this  State,  as  well  as  by  the  lakes,  secured 
connection  with  the  great  forest  of  Canada,  Michigan  and  the  Northwest.  In  this  city,  at  the 
present  time,  are  engaged  in  the  lumber  business,  having  saw-mills  and  yards,  or  planing-mills, 
sash,  door  and  box  factories,  not  less  than  75  different  concerns,  whose  operations  employ  about 
1300  laborers  and  artisans,  and  to  whom  is  psiid,  in  the  aggregate,  more  than  half  a  million  dollars 
annually — the  total  products  having  an  estimated  yearly  value  of  $3,500,000. 

As  contingent  industry,  consuming  a  large  amount  of  lumber  and  wood  of  various  kinds,  the 
manufacture  of  furniture  is  not  to  be  ignored.  Pursuing  this  industry  are  from  12  to  15  con- 
cerns in  the  cities,  whose  aggregate  output  is  estimated  at  nearly  a  million  dollars  annually, 
engaging  the  labor  of  from  300  to  400  artificers  and  others,  and  consuming  certain  classes  of  hard- 
ware, marble,  upholstery  goods  and  varnish,  to  a  large  amount. 

Another  interest  employing  considerable  quantities  of  lumber  and  hard  woods  is  that  related 
to  the  manufacture  of  wagons  and  carriages.  In  this  branch  of  industrial  art  are  found  in  tlie 
cities  about  thirty  establishments,  some  of  them  very  extensive  and  widely  celebrated  for  the 
elegant  finish  and  designs,  as  well  as  the  substantial  character  of  their  work.  More  than  400  ar- 
tisans are  engaged  in  the  various  branches  of  this  trade,  and  when  the  value  of  repairs  is  taken 
into  consideration  in  connection  with  the  manufacture,  the  aggregate  busines.s  of  these  concerns 
may  be  estimated  as  about  $750,000  per  year. 


CITY   OF  PITTSBURGH. 


49 


The  manufacture  of  barrels  and  kegs  forms  no  unimportant  factor  in  the  general  prosperity,  to 
which  it  adds  materially.  From  the  refiners  of  petroleum  and  manufacturers  of  nails  and  white 
lead  comes  a  great  demand  for  articles  of  this  description,  to  supply  which  there  are  about  twenty 
cooperages,  eitlier  independent  or  in  connection  with  oil  refineries,  involving  the  labor  of  not  less 
than  from  500  to  600  coopers,  whose  work  results  in  an  annual  product  valued  at  $1,250,000. 

Elsewhere  will  be  found  a  table  compiled  from  the  very  latest  and  most  reliable  sources  of  in- 
formation, showing  the  exact  number  of  Urms,  individuals  and  corporatioiis  engaged  in  each  sepa- 
rate manufacture,  vocation  or  mercantile  pursuit,  a  glance  at  which,  together  with  a  perusal  of  the 
detailed  descriptive  notices  contained  in  tliis  volume  will  afford  all  the  facts  upon  these  various 
matters  that  can  be  considered  practicable.  There  are  almost  innumerable  avenues  pertaining  lo 
manufactures  of  less  importance  through  which  we  have  conducted  the  reader  in  the  articles  above 
referred  to,  and  to  which  special  consideration  is  invited,  as  making  up  the  sum  of  Pittsburgh's 
stamina;  and,  as  before  remarked,  the  object  of  this  sketch  does  not  involve  minute  particulars, 
these  being  furnished  in  another  department,  but  rather  breadth  of  drawing  and  effect. 

MERCANTILE  AND  FINANCIAL. 

It  is  frequently  urged  by  comparative  strangers  with  regard  to  the  mercantile  interests  of 
Pittsburgh,  that  they  lack  force,  importance  or  aggressiveness,  and  while  freely  admitting  the  pre- 
eminent greatness  of  our  manufacturing  operations,  allege  that  in  trade  we  are  far  behind  other 
cities  of  like  or  less  population.  As  applied  to  the  past  the  truth  of  these  strictures  can  not  be 
readily  gainsaid ;  but  as  relating  to  the  present  condition  of  affairs  they  are  certainly  in  wide  con- 
travention of  the  facts. 

The  assertion  may  seem  startling  and  perhaps  paradoxical,  I  ut  it  is  nevertheless  a  verity  that 
heretofore  the  mercantile  interests  ot  Pittsburgh  have  been  retarded  by  too  much  prosperity.  In 
ordinary  business  ventures  Pittsburgh  merchants  absolutely  slept  upon  their  oars,  and  the  favoring 
trade-winds  of  smiling  circumstance  actually  wafted  them  into  snug  financial  harbors,  while  their 
only  knowledge  of  storms  was  confined  to  casual  dreams,  suggested  by  the  far  off  thunder  of  dis- 
asters elsewhere.  When  the  complications  arising  from  the  monetary  convulsions  of  1873,  involved 
Pittsburgh,  there  was  a  general  and  wide  awakening  of  these  somnolent  mariners,  and  a  struggle 
began  with  unpropitious  elements  in  which  many  seeming  goodly  crafts  were  swamped,  but  in 
which  was  displayed,  almost  for  the  first  time,  some  native  vigor,  resolution  and  laborious  activity 
which  saved  the  fleet  and  taught  a  salutary  lesson  worth  millions.  Under  the  influence  of  the  in- 
struction so  unwelcome  to  the  learner,  it  is  shown  that  during  the  past  six  or  seven  years,  in  the 
teeth  of  great  obstructions,  the  mercantile  strength,  influence  and  operations  of  this  city  have  pal- 
pably augmented,  and  that  an  era  of  undoubted  energy  has  begun  that  will  lead  to  the  most  satis- 
factory results.  In  the  departments  of  dry  goods,  boots  and  shoes,  hardware  of  all  descriptions, 
— much  of  which,  especially  in  fine  tools,  is  manufactured  here — leather,  liquors,  drugs,  clotiiing 
and  cloths,  groceries,  crockei'y  and  earthenware,  pork  and  provisions,  grain,  flour  and  malt  liquors, 
etc.,  in  a  wholesale  way,  there  has  been  a  marked  development  by  the  determined  extension  of  a 
trade  radius  which  has  been  aided  in  no  limited  degree  by  lately  acquired  advantages  in  railroa  J 
competitions  of  unusual  importance.  The  outlook  fur  the  future  with  reference  to  tlie  commercial 
thrift  of  this  city  has  never  appeared  in  such  luminous  colors,  and  the  field  for  enterprise  in  this 
direction  presents  as  many  solid  inducements  for  tlie  investment  of  pluck  and  capital  as  any  in  the 
country.  With  the  experience  of  the  past  as  a  guide,  Pittsburgh  is  fast  achieving  a  position  in  this 
regard  to  which  she  has  always 
been  justly  entitled  ;  from  which 
she  has  been  debarred  only  by  a 
sentiment  of  intense  conservatism 
and  too  much  good  fortune.  As 
tliey  stand  to-day,  the  character 
of  the  fit  ancial  institutions  of  this 
city  will  compare  favorably,  for 
solvent  stability  and  correct  man- 
agement, with  the  monetary  con- 
cerns of  any  city  in  the  world, 
and  their  prosperity  may  be  taken 
as  a  sure  barometer,  indicative 
of  the  general  condition  of  affairs. 
As  a  conclusive  evidence  that  they 
are  prosperous  it  may  be  stated 
that  there  are  in  Pittsburgh  sev- 
enty-one banks  and  banking  insti- 
tutions with  an  aggregate  capital 
of  about  $20,000,000  and  an  a.-rgre- 
gate  surplus  of  over  $4,000,000, 
which  is  a  showing  that  must  be 
taken  as  proof  of  robust  finan- 
cial health.     Many  of  these  banks 


(4) 


View  on  Wylie  Avenue — BuHness  Iwuse  of  H.  Smith  &  Sons.    {Seepage  192.) 


60 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


are  of  such  antiquity  as  to  be  ind'ssolubly  identified  with  not  only  the  history  of  this  city, 
but  that  of  the  nation.  The  Bank  of  Pittsburgh  in  a  career  of  sixty-five  years  has  made 
in  trying  times  advances  to  the  general  Government,  and  through  every  financial  crisis  that 
has  occurred  during  its  existence  has  paid  its  circulation  liabilities  in  gold,  except  in  1837  when  it 
suspended  specie  payments  for  a  few  days  at  the  instance  of  the  citizens  who  assembled  in  conven- 
tion for  the  purpose  of  making  such  a  request,  laboring  under  the  needless  apprehension  that  the 
demands  upon  the  coin  resources  of  the  institution  would  be  greater  than  it  could  meet.  From  the 
organization  of  this  bank  till  the  present  time  the  fiduciary  concerns  of  Pittsburgh  have  justly  ac- 
quired an  unusually  fair  reputation  for  being  conducted  upon  the  safest  and  most  reliable  prin- 
ciples. The  number  of  failures  that  have  occurred  among  them  are  indeed  very  limited,  confined 
mainly  to  private  enterprises,  and,  except  in  one  or  two  instances,  far  from  being  of  disastrous 
magnitude.  The  same  remark  may  be  made  with  reference  to  the  fire  insurance  organizations,  the 
outgrowth  of  Pittsburgh  capital,  of  which  there  are  nearly  half  as  many  as  there  are  banks,  some 
of  which  carrj'  on  an  underwriting  business  which  extends  over  the  entire  United  States,  adding  no 
little  to  the  general  revenue  of  the  city. 

The  solvency  of  Pittsburgh  insurance  com- 
panies has  been  so  conspicuous  as  to  occasion 
a  wide  recognition  of  the  fact  that,  while  not 
assuming  vast  or  unwieldj'  proportions,  they 
afford  equal  security  and  protection  with  the 
most  vaunted  institutions  elsewhere,  and  are 
conducted  with  vigilance  and  discretion.  The 
total  amount  of  capital  invested  in  the  fire- 
insurance  companies  of  these  cities,  in  round 
numbers,  amounts  to  not  less  than.  $4,500,000 — 
a  sum  which  represents  the  accumulations  as 
well  as  capital  of  the  twentj'^-four  joint-stock 
fire-insurance  companies,  having  their  home 
offices  in  these  cities,  and  emanating  from  local 
enterprise.  It  has  been  asserted  that  Pitts- 
burgh, more  than  any  other  city  of  like  popula- 
tion in  the  United  States,  felt  the  depressing 
influences  (following  the  year  1873)  which  dis- 
ordered the  values  of  the  entire  country,  but  a 
careful  examination  will  prove  that  in  reality 
this  community  has  absolutel.y  suffered  less  than 
any  other  of  even  ajiproximate  dimensions.  In 
1874  and  1875  the  trade,  manufactures  and  com- 
merce went  forward  with  unabated  prosperity, 
seemingly  unaffected  by  the  torpor  that  began 
to  paralyze  other  places.  In  1876  some  pre- 
monitions began  to  obtrude  themselves,  more 
indicative,  however,  of  future  than  real  present 
trouble;  work  was  plenty  —  no  one  was  com- 
pelled to  an  enforced  idleness,  and  though  there 
had,  it  is  true,  been  some  serious  failures,  it  can 
not  be  said  that,  up  to  this  time,  contractions 
had  seriously  grappled  Pittsburgh  in  dead  earn- 
est, or  that  the  conflict  between  existing  conditions  and  inevitable  results  had  assumed  an  aspect 
other  than  that  of  a  lively  skirmish,  in  which  a  great  deal  of  smoke  and  dust  is  produced,  with  but 
little  damage  or  destruction.  During  the  two  years  that  followed,  however,  the  combat  deepened, 
and  a  goodly  number  on  the  defensive  were  carried  from  the  field,  "dead  for  a  ducat,"  hipped  in 
pocket  and  drained  of  fiduciary  fluids.  Even  during  this  period  the  hum  and  roar  of  Pittsburgh's 
industries  never  ceased.  No  crowds  of  idle  men  loitered  in  the  parks  or  thronged  the  thorough- 
fares, giving  ocular  evidence  of  commercial  prostration — no  soup-houses  were  necessary — and  no 
extraordinary  charitable  disbursements  demanded,  as  was  the  case  in  almost  every  other  manufac- 
turing city  in  the  world. 

And  now,  in  the  middle  of  the  j'ear  1879,  it  may  be  emphatically  asseverated,  without  the  aid 
of  an  active  imagination  or  assumptions  that  germinate  alone  in  hope,  but  with  a  solid  phalanx  of 
supporting  facts  at  hand,  that  Pittsburgh  has  finally  and  assuredly  crossed  the  rocky  isthmus  of 
adversity  that  debarred  from  pacific  waters,  and  has  resumed  a  voyage  favored  b.y  auspicious  gales, 
and  signs  that  indicate  prolonged  prosperity  in  a  manner  unmistakable.  In  coal,  iron,  glass,  and 
other  products  and  manufactures,  active  operations  are  rife  on  all  sides;  prices  firmer,  abetter 
demand,  and  a  feeling  of  general  security  to  which  the  community  has  long  been  a  stranger.  Mills, 
factories,  furnaces,  forges,  foundries  and  mines  are  resonant  with  the  reiterant  clangor  of  labor,  and 
a  tidal  wave  of  commercial  good  fortune  floods  every  industrial  avenue. 


Fotirth   Baptist   Church. 


CITY   OF  PITTSBURGH. 


51 


Pittshiirgh  Savings  Bank. 


PUBLIC    INSTITUTIONS,    EDUCATIONAL    FACILITIES,    THE    PRESS,    &c.,   &c. 

In  pursuing  reflections  with  reference  to  the  material  advantages  of  Pittsburgh  in  regard  to  its 
resources  and  the  prestige  that  it  has  acquired  as  a  manufacturing  center,  it  should  not  be  over- 
looked that,  in  other  respects,  it  has  developed  with  an  equal  pace,  and  that,  in  the  organization  of 
public,  charitable  and  benevolent  institutions,  schools,  colleges,  hospitals,  libraries  and  other  means 
for  the  education  of  humanity  or  the  amelioration  of  the  condition  of  the  unfortunate,  provision  has 
been  made  in  keeping  v^ith  the  most  enlightened  views  of  a  Christian  community  and  the  dictates  of 
the  highest  civilization. 

From  the  last  report  of  the  State  Superintendent  of  Public 
Instruction,  it  appears  that  there  are  in  the  cities  of  Pittsburgh 
and  Allegheny  78  school  buildings,  61  of  which  are  constructed 
of  brick  or  stone  in  the  most  substantial  manner,  involving  the 
most  approved  arrangements  for  ventilation,  heating  and  the 
general  convenience  and  comfort  alike  of  pupil  and  preceptor. 
These  buildings  are  subdivided  into  628  schools,  governed  by 
local  school  boards  and  central  boards  of  education.  Six  hun- 
dred and  forty-one  teachers,  male  and  female,  are  employed  in 
these  schools,  which  are  so  graded  and  arranged  that  by  pro- 
gressive advances  the  scholar  may — beginning  in  the  primary 
department — graduate  from  the  central  high  school  with  a 
finished  academic  and  classic  education,  entirely  at  the  public 
expense.  Aside  from  the  benefits  couferred  by  this  comprehen- 
sive sj'stem,  there  are  numerous  educational  institutions  for  both 
sexes  which  afford  almost  unrivalled  advantages  for  the  acquisi- 
tion of  the  higher  branches  of  culture.  Some  of  these  have 
attained  a  wide  celebrity,  and  number  among  their  classes  stu- 
dents from  the  most  remote  States.  The  Western  University  of 
Pennsylvania  is  perhaps  the  best  illustration  of  the  truth  of  this 
statement.  The  college  was  chartered  by  the  State  in  1819,  and 
a  splendid  building  erected,  which  was  formally  opened  in  1822,  but  unfortunately  consumed  during 
the  great  fire  of  1845,  with  all  its  philosophic  appliances,  collections,  archives  and  libraries. 
Another  structure,  however,  was  shortly  erected  on  Duquesne  Waj-,  which  was  also  burnt  down  in 
1849,  tiie  course  of  instruction  being  thereupon  suspended  until  the  present  University  building  was 
built,  on  Ross  and  Diamond  Sts.,  opposite  the  Court  House,  in  1855.  From  tluit  time  the  institu- 
tion has  flourished  with  wonderful  vitality.  In  1858  George  Woods,  LL.D.,  was  appointed  Chan- 
cellor, a  position  which,  for  21  years,  he  has  filled  with  marked  usefulness  and  abilit.y.  During  this 
period  the  University  has  been  liberally  endowed  by  public-spirited  citizens,  and  these  who  perhaps 
recognized  the  beneficial  influence  of  the  institution  upon  their  own  early  training.  One  of  the 
most  prominent  patrons  of  the  college,  William  Thaw,  Esq.,  alone  became  its  sponsor  for  $100,000, 
which  was  donated  in  such  a  manner  as  to  cost  the  generous  giver  nearly  double  that  sum.  Bj-  the 
aid  of  these  endowments  it  has  become  possible  to  reduce  the  tuition  fees  to  a  merely  nominal  sum, 
while  greatly  enlarging  the  curriculum,  which  now  embi'aces  a  range  equal.to  the  highest  acquire- 
ments, including  ancient  and  modern  languages,  military  and  civil  engineering,  natural  sciences, 
laws,  &c.  —  the  advantages  for  the  study  of  astronomy  in  connection  with  the  Allegheny  Observa- 
tory, and  the  lectures  of  Prof.  Samuel  P.  Langley,  the  well-known  astronomer  and  one  of  the  fac- 
ulty, not  being  equaled  in  the  United  States.  With  ample  cabinets — geological,- natural,  histor- 
ical, conchological — libraries,  scientific  apparatus  of  the  finest  mechanism,  and  a  faculty  of  16 
accomplished  educators,  it  is  but  a  natural  result  that  the  Western  University  of  Pennsylvania 
should  have  achieved  its  present  prominence.  The  faculty  and  board  of  trustees  are  composed  of 
representative  men  from  various  denominations:  Wm.  Thaw,  Hon.  J.  K.  Moorhead,  Wm.  Frew, 
Jas.  Park,  Jr.,  Dr.  C.  G.  Hussey,  Rt.  Rev.  J.  K.  Kerfoot,  Rt.  Rev.  D.  R.  Kerr,  D.  D.,  Hon.  F.  H. 
Collier,  John  Harper,  Esq.,  and  others  serving  in  the  latter  capacity.  On  the  other  hand,  perhaps 
the  mo.st  useful  institution  for  the  proper  education  of  women,  in  this  community,  sprung  from  the 
well-directed  efforts  of  the  Methodist  denomination  in  the  establishment,  a  quarter  of  a  century  ngo, 
of  the  Pittsburgh  Female  College,  which  was  chartered  by  special  act  in  1854.  This  school,  which 
has  undoubtedly  done  much  to  promote  a  high  degree  of  female  culture,  is  under  the  immediate 
direction  of  Rev.  I.  C.  Pershing,  D.  D.,  for  20  years  president  of  the  faculty,  and  the  contingent 
supervision  of  a  board  of  trustees  composed  of  24  gentlemen  of  the  highest  standing,  presided  over 
by  the  Rev.  Bishop,  M.  Simpson  D.  D.,  one  of  the  brightest  luminaries  of  the  Methodist  denomina- 
tion. The  course  of  study  pursued  at  this  institution  embraces  not  onl}-  those  branches  pertaining 
to  the  solid  resources  of  the  human  mind,  classic  and  modern  languages,  English  literature,  mathe- 
matics, moral  and  mental  philosophy  and  the  natural  sciences,  but  includes  instruction  in  those 
polite  accomplishments  which  are  almost  as  essential.  In  this  department  a  conservatory  of  music 
forms  a  prominent  feature,  and  an  art  school  for  culture  in  drawing,  painting  and  plastic  art,  affords 
more  than  ordinary  advantages.  Established  upon  the  highest  principles  of  usiM'ulncss,  as  a  pri- 
mary design,  without  thought  of  pecuniary  advantage  other  than  essential  to  porpctunte  the  college 
upon  a  self-sustaining  basis,  the  school  has  become  a  prominent  institution  of  learning,  and  pre- 


52 


INDUSTRIES   OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 


sents  advantages  in  a  numerous  faculty,  of  exceptionally  solid  attainments,  and  terms  of  marked 
moderation,  that  attract  pupils  from  all  sections  of  the  country.  Under  the  aegis  of  the  Episcopa- 
lian denomination,  the  Bishop  Bowman  Institute,  a  collegiate  school  for  young  ladies,  has  assumed 
a  prominent  position  among  the  educational  establishments  of  the  State,  taking  a  high  rank  on  the 
score  of  broad  usefulness  and  able  management.  This  academj-  has  been  established  for  about  17 
years,  its  aims  being  to  impart  a  "thorough  and  liberal  Christian  education,'"  more  than  usual 
attention  beinir  directed  to  the  solid  branches  of  academic  culture,  and  the  discipline  of  the  mind  to 
effective  and  original  action.  To  these  aims  the  school  has  proved  adequate  in  a  marked  deeree,  a 
success  due  in  no  limited  measure  to  the  labor  and  influence  of  the  rector,  Rev.  Robert.  J.  Coster, 
M.  A.,  and  a  faculty  of  rare  scholastic  accomplishments.  The  institution  was  chartered  in  1866  by 
tlie  State,  and  is  under  the  contingent  supervision  of  a  board  of  trustees,  the  chief  executive  officer 
of  which  is  the  Rt.  Rev.  John  Barrett  Kerfoot,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  whose  official  visits  to  the  school  and 
lectures  on  moral  philosophy  and  the  evidences  of  Christianity,  lend  additional  advantages  of  a  high 
order  to  those  already  enumerated. 

The  Pennsylvania  Female  College  is  another  denominational  school  for  the  education  of  young 
ladies,  as  its  name  implies,  under  the  especial  pi'otection  of  Presbyterian  sponsors.  The  organiza- 
tion was  chartered  in  1869,  and  the  buildings,  which  are  remarkable  for  beauty  and  magnitude, 
finished  and  occupied  in  1870,  from  which  time  the  academy  has  been  educationally  successful. 
In  this  connection  it  would  be  extremely  ungracious  to  omit  mention  of  one  of  the  most  admirable 
as  well  as  useful  educational  institutions  in  the  countr}',  viz.,  the  Pittsburgh  School  of  Design  for 
Women.  This  art  school  was  organized  and  incorporated  in  1865,  with  the  object  of  affording 
greater  opportunities  for  the  education  of  women  than  heretofore  possessed,  and  presenting  them 
all  the  advantages  to  be  derived  from  a  s3-stematic  training  in  the  technical  as  well  as  theoretical 
knowledge  of  art.  Its  mission  was  a  high  one,  but  it  has  already  accomplished  a  noble  work  among 
its  graduates,  being  found  able,  and,  in  many  cases,  talented  artists,  and  competent  instructors  in 
fine  art,  designing,  architecture,  mechanical  drawing,  &c.  The  school  is  mainly  dependent  upon 
the  voluntar\-  contributions  of  those  interested  in  the  work,  and  affords  a  worthy  channel  for  the 
wisest  benevolence  and  public  spirit.  The  officers  and  directors  of  the  school  are  among  the 
most  prominent  and  esteemed  members  of  the  communitj',  and  the  faculty  consists  of  Annie  W. 
Henderson  and  Olive  Turney,  who  were  among  the  first  graduates  in  1871.  In  speaking  of  matters 
connected  with  art  and  the  general  educational  advantages  of  Pittsburgh,  the  Art  Society  should 


Pennsylvania  Female   College.     (See  page  227.) 


CITY   OF  PITTSBUEGH.  53 


not  be  forgotten,  being  an  institution  highly  promotive  of  culture  in  music,  painting,  literature  and 
plastic  art.  This  association  was  organized  in  1872-3,  Rev.  S.  F.  Scovel,  D.  D.,  being  the  first 
president — Wm.  R  Thompson,  Esq.,  having  occupied  this  position  for  some  years,  being  at  present 
the  chief  executive  officer.  One  hundred  members  are  enrolled  upon  tlie  books  of  the  society,  many 
of  whom  are  noted  musicians,  artists  and  literati,  or  representatives  of  the  highest  intellectual  cul- 
tivation of  the  community.  The  meetings  are  held  semi-monthly  during  the  Winter  in  the  gallery 
of  the  Pittsburgh  Library  Association,  and  afi'ord  means  for  instruction  and  entertainment  of  the 
most  attractive  and  elevating  character. 

The  above  reference  to  the  Pittsburgh  Library  Association  suggests  this  valuable  public 
institution,  which  has  perhaps  filled  as  wide  a  field  of  usefulness  in  the  promotion  of  general 
education  as  any  similar  organization  in  the  western  portion  of  the  State.  Founded  in  1847, 
the  society  lias  numbered  among  its  officers  gentlemen  of  the  highest  social  position,  of  com- 
manding influence  and  ability,  who  have  given  no  little  time,  labor  and  talent  to  foster  the 
intelligence  of  the  community  by  the  establishment  of  this  library  upon  a  substantial  and 
permanent  basis.  That  its  condition  at  the  present  time  more  nearly  approximates  tills  stand- 
ard than  ever  heretofore  is  mainly  due  to  the  tact  and  energy  of  Mr.  William  N.  Riddle,  who,  as 
president  of  the  Association  during  the  past  two  years,  was  great)}'  instrumental  in  organizing  two 
brilliant  semi-social  schemes — the  Bazaar  of  Nations  and  the  Library  Loan  Association — from  the 
profits  of  which  the  library  has  been  placed  upon  an  excellent  footing.  From  the  report  of  the 
librarian  it  appears  that  over  L5,000  volumes  are  now  upon  the  shelves  of  the  institution,  witli  a 
rapid  annual  ratio  of  increase  greater  than  in  the  past.  The  ofiicers  of  the  Association,  incumbent 
at  the  present  time,  are  as  follows:  Wm.  N.  Riddle,  President;  Alexander  Langhlin,  Jr.,  Vice- 
President;  Wm.  U.  D.  Barr,  Secretary;  Wm.  Thaw,  Jj-.,  Treasurer;  Directors,  Fred.  Rinehart,  T. 
Brent  Swearingen,  S.  George,  Jr.,  W.' L.  Chalfant,  W.  P.  Schell,  Jr.,  and  Willis  L.  Eaton.  The 
building  occupied  by  the  library  was  built  expressly  with  a  view  to  its  proper  accommodation,  and 
is  one  of  the  most  splendid  and  sumptuous  structures  in  Pittsburgh,  the  main  hall  of  the  library 
being  perhaps  the  handsomest  apartment  for  the  purpose  in  the  country,  elegantly  furni.'^hed,  with 
appointments  and  embellishments  of  great  arti.stic  merit  and  beautj".  Though  this  library  is  not 
entirely  free  to  the  public,  yet  the  annual  charge  for  membership  is  so  small  as  to  place  its  advan- 
tages within  the  reach  of  all  who  desire  to  embrace  them,  the  number  inscribed  upon  the  rolls  of 
membership  at  present  being  between  K400  and  1500,  with  every  indication  of  rapid  augmentation. 
The  library  hall  building,  while,  as  before  remarked,  being  built  mainly  with  a  view  to  the  advantage 
and  accommodation  of  the  library,  was  the  work  of  the  Library  Hall  Company,  a  joint-stock  cor- 
poration, organized  in  1869  for  the  special  purpose  indicated.  This  company,  though  entirely  dis- 
tinct from  the  Pittsburgh  Library  Association,  really  emanated  from  it,  and  succeeded,  through 
the  capit-al  and  interest  contributed  by  members  of  that  Association,  in  the  admirable  accomplish- 
ment of  its  design.  The  existence  of  the  libraiy  hall  building  is  a  powerful  confirmation  of  the 
above  statement,  and,  as  before  remarked,  is  one  of  the  most  sumptuous  structures  in  the  country. 
It  was  erected  at  a  total  cost  of  $290,000,  the  materials  employed  in  the  construction  of  the  facade, 
which  is  extremely  unique  and  beautiful  in  architectural  design,  being  gray  stone,  wliile  the  wlole 
ponderous  edifice  is  solidl.v  and  accurately  built.  Besides  containing  choice  and  spacious  a]iart- 
ments,  halls,  galleries,  ante-rooms,  &c.,  &c.,  for  the  library,  the  building  contains  tlie  finest  public 
hall  in  Pittsburgh,  capable  of  seating  1400  people,  elegantly  furnished,  and  suited  in  scenery  and 
stage  appliances  for  dramatic,  operatic  and  other  exhibitions,  concerts,  lectures,  &c..  and  is  by  all 
means  the  favorite  hall  for  such  and  kindred  purposes.  In  addition  to  tliis,  the  building  is  fiited 
with  an  art  gallery  and  music  room,  properly  lighted  from  the  top,  and  in  every  way  adapted  to 
the  purposes  for  which  it  was  designed.  The  first  or  ground  floor  and  ba.sements  are  devoted  to 
trade  purposes,  resulting  in  a  handsome  revenue  from  this  and  all  sources.  Charles  J.  Clarke.  Esq., 
is  president  of  the  company,  in  connection  with  which,  as  directors  and  ofiicers,  will  be  found  many 
of  our  first  citizens. 

Allegheny  City  is  also  supplied  with  a  copious  librar}',  which  is  maintained  entirely  at  the 
public  expense  and  by  voluntary  contributions,  ample  rooms  being  provided  for  it  in  the  muninipal 
buildings.  In  Allegheny  is  also  located  the  Western  Theological  Seminary  of  the  Presbyterian 
Church,  which  was  established  in  1831,  the  college  building  being  first  located  on  what  is  now 
known  as  Seminary  Hill.  This  structure,  however,  ^as  destroyed  in  the  Winter  of  1854,  and  tlie 
present  structure  erected  in  1855  on  Ridge  Avenue,  being  a  large  and  commodious  bnilding.  For 
more  than  a  third  of  a  centm-y  this  celebrated  Seminary  has  been  the  focal  point  in  the  West,  as 
Princeton  in  the  East,  for  the  education  of  clergymen  of  the  Presbyterian  denomination,  and  has 
performed  a  great  work  through  this  means  in  the  evangelization  of  the  country.  It  appears  that, 
under  the  regulations  governing  this  college,  no  charge  is  made  Jar  ivition  or  room,  and  all  other 
expenses  are  so  modified  as  to  meet  the  most  limited  means,  making  it  possible  for  any  earnest  and 
resolute  pupil  to  graduate  at  an  expense  within  compass  of  the  narrowest  resources.  The  faculty 
consists  of  six  eminent  divines,  as  follows:  Rev.  Samuel  Jennings,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  Rev.  Wni.  H. 
Hornblower,  D.  D.,  Rev.  William  H.  Jeffers,  D.  D.,  Rev.  Samuel  H.  Kellogg,  D.  D.,  Rev.  Benjamin 
B.  Warfield,  A.M.,  Rev.  Luther  Halsey,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.;  the  trustees,  directors  and  other  ofiicers 
being  among  the  most  prominent  in  the-^clerlcal  or  lay  society  of  the  denomination. 

In  its  provisions  for  the  poor,  unfortunate,  sick,  criminal,  or  insane,  Pittsburgh  has  given  the 
most  striking  assurances  of  being  possessed  of  an  active  philanthropj'  that  has  not  been  surpassed 


54 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


by  any  community  in  Amei'ica.  In  attestation  of  this  assertion,  it  ma3'  be  well  to  point  out  a  few 
of  the  most  prominent  charities  for  the  benefit  of  those  at  a  distance,  to  whom  it  is  desirable  to  con- 
ve}^  a  jtist  conception  of  Pittsburgh  as  it  is  in  every  material  or  social  aspect. 

The  Western  Pennsylvania  Hospital  for  the  Insane,  located  at  Dixmont,  eight  miles  from  the 
city  over  the  P.,  Ft.  W.  and  C.  R.  R.,  is  perhaps  one  of  the  best  conducted  and  most  useful  institu- 
tions of  this  character  in  the  countrj^  The  buildings  are  vast  and  complete,  so  far  as  human  inge- 
nuity and  unlimited  means  can  devise  or  produce,  costing  in  all  nearly  $1,000,000.  Surrounding 
the  main  structure  lies  a  domain  of  320  acres,  the  State,  cities  and  various  counties  in  West  Penn- 
sj'lvania  contributing  to  its  support  by  appropriation,  or  a  charge  exacted  for  the  care  and  mainte- 
nance of  patients  from  the  various  localities. 

The  Homeopathic  Hospital  is  an  institution  emanating  exclusively  from  the  benevolence  of 
those  believing  in  the  superior  efScacy  of  this  school  of  medicine ;  nor  has  it  received  the  aid  to 
which  it  is  entitled  by  the  State,  though  its  advantages  are  provided  gratuitously  for  the  indigent, 
who  are  supplied  Vv'ith  attention,  medicines,  treatment,  maintenance  and  surgical  care  during  their 
entire  requirements.  The  institution  was  incorporated  in  1866,  under  the  title  of  The  Homeopathic 
Medical  and  Surgical  Hospital  and  Dispensary  of  Pittsburgh,  and  from  that  period  has  been  sus- 
tained entirely  hy  voluntary  contributions.  The  board  of  trustees  includes  the  names  of  many  of 
the  most  prominent  and  liberal  men  in  the  city.  The  medical  board  consists  of  one  consulting 
physician,  four  surgeons,  four  physicians,  two  obstetricians,  and  ten  dispensary  physicians — 21 
medical  men  in  all.  representing  the  highest  efficiency  in  the  homeopathic  practice  of  medicine. 

The  Pittsburgh  Infirmary,  which  owes  its  existence  to  the  philanthropic  efforts  of  Rev.  W.  A. 
Passarant,  is  another  institution  designed  to  afford  relief  for  the  sick  and  unfortunate.  It  was 
founded  in  1848  and  chartered  two  years  later,  performing  from  its  first  establishment  a  noble  work 
in  the  aid  freely  bestowed  upon  those  appealing  for  help,  regardless  of  race,  creed  or  condition. 

The  Mercy  Hospital,  though  under  the  charge  of  the  Sisters  of  Mercy,  is  equally  broad  in  its 
provisions  for  the  sick,  and  affords  admirable  facilities,  the  buildings  being  large  and  very  com- 
modious. The  solicitude  of  the  Sisters  has  made  this  institution  widely  useful  and  entitled  to  the 
general  consideration  in  a  marked  degree. 

Besides  the  foregoing,  there  are  numerous  other  benevolent  establishments,  whose  names  will 
briefly  convej'^  an  idea  of  their  purposes  without  further  description :  Home  for  the  Friendless, 
designed  for  destitute  children ;  Allegheny  Widows'  Home;  Home  for  Aged  Protestant  Women; 
The  Home  for  Destitute  Women ;  Boarding  Home  for  Working  Women ;  The  Sheltering  Arms,  a 


Pittsburgh  Female  College. — See  Page 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH. 


55 


reformatory  and  home  for  unfortunate  girls  and  j'oung  women ;  Home  of  Industry ;  and  Home  of 
tbe  Little  Sisters  of  the  Poor;  besides  two  orphan  asylums  being  under  the  charge  of  the  Sisters  of 
Mercy,  who  richly  deserve  the  title  by  which  they  are  known.  There  are  also  two  other  orphan 
asylums  and  an  institution  for  the  education  of  deaf  and  dumb  children. 

The  municipal  arrangements  for  the  support  of  what  maj'  be  called  the  pauper  portion  of  the 
community  are  admirable,  and  by  the  conjunction  of  farms,  which  are  worked  mainly  %  the  inmates 
of  these  establishments,  they  are  made,  to  a  great  extent,  self-supporting,  thus  relieving  able  and 
provident  citizens  from  an  onerous  load  of  taxation  for  the  maintenance  of  the  poor.  These  observ- 
ations are  particularly  apijropriate  to  the  Pittsburgh  poor  farm,  which  is  located  at  Homestead,  on 
the  Monongahela  river,  about  eight  miles  from  the  city,  and  has  been,  for  the  past  two  or  three 
j'ears,  under  the  excellent  and  systematic  management  of  Mr.  G.  L.  Braun,  who  has,  during  his 
incumbency  as  superintendent,  not  only  made  many  improvements  conducive  to  the  health  and 
comfort  of  the  inmates,  but,  by  judicious  economy  and  the  high  cultivation  of  about  90  acres  of 
arable  land  pertaining  to  the  domain,  has  reduced  the  cost  of  the  actual  maintenance  ot  each 
inmate  to  the  sum  of  20  and  four-sevenths  cents  per  day,  or  considerably  less  than  that  required  bj- 
any  similar  institution  in  the  State.  The  property,  in  all,  attached  to  this  almshouse,  is  about  149 
acres,  and  it  is  reasonably  assumed  that,  with  150  acres  additional  and  a  management  equal  in 
efficiency  to  the  present,  the  entire  establishment  might  be  made  self-supporting.  A  valuable  and 
necessary  addition  is  being  made  to  this  institution  bj"  the  erection  of  a  separate  and  suitable  build- 
ing for  the  accommodation  of  the  insane  and  demented,  for  the  proper  care  of  whom  no  adequate 
provision  is  possible  with  the  present  limited  room  and  between  HOO  and  400  inmates,  varying  with 
the  seasons.  This  structure  is  a  three-story  brick  building,  43x195  feet,  designed  b}'  T.  I).  E\ans, 
architect,  and  constructed  in  the  most  substantial  manner,  l)eing  particularlj-  remarkable  for  tlie 
introduction  of  the  most  perfect  system  of  heating  and  ventilation  ever  devised,  and  extraordinary 
moderation  in  cost,  which,  for  a  municipal  building,  is  the  occasion  of  verj'  favorable  comment. 

The  Pennsylvania  Reform  School,  at  Morganza,  on  the  P.,  C.  and  St.  L.  R.  R.,  a  short  ride 
from  the  city,  is  another  of  those  splendid  charities  for  which  our  city  is  becoming  noted.  This 
institution  was  established  in  18o4  as  a  House  of  Refuge,  where  the  young  and  \icious  of  both  sexes 
might,  by  compulsory  training  and  education,  be  brought  into  a  better  moral  and  intellectual  con- 
dition, fitting  them  for  useful  and  responsible  positions  in  society.  AVith  this  object,  a  large  build- 
ing was  erected  near  the  lower  part  of  Allegheny  City,  where,  until  187G,  was  pursued  what  is 
called,  in  reformatory  parlance,  the  '"congregate  system,"  part  of  which  required  the  restraining 
intluences  of  bolts,  bars,  walls  and  donjon  keeps.  In  conformitj'' with  more  modern  ideas,  however, 
and  the  introduction  of  methods  requiring  the  abandonment  of  physical  restraints,  the  establish- 
ment of  the  school  at  Morganza  upon  the  "  family  system "  was  projected.  In  pursuance  of  this 
plan,  over  500  acres  were  purchased  at  the  above  place  and  six  separate  buildings  erected — one 
main  and  five  family  dwellings,  the  plans  approved  being  those  furnished  by  E.  M.  Butz,  Esq..  archi- 
tect. These  buildings  resemble,  in  external  appearance  and  internal  appointments,  the  best  class 
of  the  largest  private  dwellings,  except  the  female  department  and  main  structure,  which  are  of 
greater  dimensions.  Over  half  a  million  dollars  was  spent  in  the  execution  of  this  project,  the 
wisdom  of  which  is  not  questioned.  About  o20  inmates  are  now  being  educated  and  maintained  by 
the  institution,  which  came  formally  under  the  sole  control  of  the  State  during  the  current  year. 
Upon  the  abandonment  of  the  old  structure  before  referred  to,  that  building  was  conveyed  to  the 
State,  and  is  now  undergoing  changes,  alterations  and  extensions,  on  the  basis  of  plans  designed 
by  E.  M.  Butz,  by  which  it  will  become  a  detached  part  of  the  Western  Penitentiary. 

Much  could  be 
said  in  this  connec- 
tion of  the  truly  civ- 
ilized mode  of  con- 
ducting our  penal 
institutions,  the 
workhouse  at  Clare- 
mont  being  a  re- 
markable illustra- 
tion of  the  benefi- 
cent effects  of  a 
conjunction  of  sal- 
utary, useful  and 
profitable  labor  and 
moral  restraint,  lea- 
ding not  only  to  tlie 
improvement  of  the 
convict  in  every  re- 
spect, but  the  main- 
tenance, to  a  great 
degree,  of  the  insti- 
tution upon  a  self- 
supporting  basis. 


56  INDUSTRIES   OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 

These  are  a  few  of  the  most  prominent  of  those  organized  efforts  for  the  improvement  of  the 
needy,  the  instruction  of  the  ignorant,  and  the  care  of  the  destitute  or  criminal,  for  which  Pitta- 
burgh  is  entitled  to  the  esteem  of  the  humane;  in  addition  to  which  there  are  fruit  and  flower  chari- 
ties, societies  for  the  prevention  of  cruelty  to  children  or  animals,  an  association  of  bankers  and 
bank  clerks,  for  mutual  benefit  and  assistance,  of  which  Mr.  Wm.  N.  Riddle  is  president,  an  influ- 
ential club  for  the  preservation  of  the  fish  and  game  of  the  State,  law  and  order  societies,  and 
numerous  other  institutions,  supplying  special  needs,  or  in  the  performance  of  noble  work,  evincing 
the  vital  operations  of  an  active  public  spirit,  greatly  conducive  to  the  social  welfare  of  the  whole 
community. 

In  proportion  to  its  population,  it  has  been  frequently  asserted  that  Pittsburgh  supports  more 
daily  newspapers  than  anj'  other  city  in  the  country,  nor  has  any  advance  agent  of  any  company, 
providing  exhibitions  for  the  public,  been  found  willing  to  controvert  this  statement;  such,  on  the 
contrary,  vehemently  endorse  the  truth  of  the  allegation,  sometimes  profanely  and  sometimes 
tearfully,  as  thej  gerrymander  from  one  office  to  the  other.  In  any  event,  Pittsburgh  is  well  sup- 
plied with  journals,  the  general  standing  of  which  is  nearly  all  that  could  be  desired.  We  shall 
mention,  briefly,  in  the  order  of  seniorit}',  the  most  prominent: 

The  Commercial  Gazette,  now  conducted  by  King,  Reed  &  Co.,  was  established  in  1786  as 
the  Pittsburgh  Gazette,  and,  by  the  purchase  of  the  Commercial,  in  1878,  effected  a  consolidation 
of  the  two  papers,  by  which  the  title  was  appropriately  changed  to  the  present  style.  This  morn- 
ing journal  is  the  organ  of  the  Republican  party  in  Western  Pennsylvania.  It  has  a  large  circula- 
tion— is  ably  conducted,  especially  with  reference  to  politics  and  mercantile  affairs,  producing  a 
handsome  revenue,  and  exerting  an  active  influence  upon  all  questions  of  public  import.  A  weekly 
edition  is  also  issued. 

The  Evening  Chronicle  was  founded  in  1841  as  a  morning  paper,  but  was  subsequently 
changed  in  1848  to  an  evening  journal.  It  is  now  and  has  been  for  manj^  years  owned  and  pub- 
lished by  Joseph  G.  Seibeneck,  Esq.,  who  conducts  it  independent  of  politics,  but  not  without  a 
distinctive  and  conservative  poHcy.  As  a  family  journal,  this  paper  has  a  large  circulation,  and  is 
a  general  favorite  with  all  classes  of  the  community,  especiall}-  long  residents  in  this  section.  The 
weekly  edition  forms  a  valuable  addition  to  the  journals  of  the  city. 

The  Daily  Post,  as  the  only  organ  of  the  Democratic  party  in  Western  Pennsjdvania,  occu- 
pies a  place  peculiarly  its  own,  having  an  extensive  circulation  and  wielding  a  strong  influence  in 
all  matters  pertaining  to  the  party  of  which  it  is  the  mouthpiece.  It  was  established  in  1842,  and 
has  been  owned  and  conducted  for  many  j-ears  bj^  James  P.  Barr  &  Co.  A  weekly  edition  is  also 
issued,  which  finds  numerous  subscribers  in  all  parts  of  the  State.  The  Post  is  ably  conducted, 
and,  in  a  financial  point  of  view,  is  successful  to  a  marked  degree. 

The  Pittsburgh  Daily  Dispatch  was  established  in  1846  by  the  late  Col.  J.  Herron  Foster, 
and  was  published  at  first  as  a  penny  paper.  In  1865  Daniel  O'Neill  and  A.  W.  Rook  purchased 
one-half  interest  in  the  concern,  which  was  then  in  no  flourishing  condition,  and  in  1867,  on  the 
demise  of  Col.  Foster,  became  sole  proprietors.  The  extraordinary  talent  for  journalism,  political 
acumen  and  business  abilitj-  possessed  by  Mr.  O'Neill  soon  caused  the  paper  to  assume  a  foremost 
place  among  local  publications,  and  in  a  short  time  the  Dispatch  became  the  leading  representa- 
tive journal  of  this  end  of  the  State.  The  aggressive  vigor  with  which  it  was  conducted  resulted 
in  a  circulation  of  from  13,000  to  14,000  daily,  and  an  almost  princely  revenue.  On  the  demise  of 
Mr.  O'Neill,  in  1877,  Mr.  A.  W.  Rook,  the  surviving  partner,  associated  with  him  Mr.  Eugene  M. 
O'Neill,  under  the  style  of  Rook  &  O'Neill,  subsequently  changed  to  Rook,  O'Neill  &  Co.,  by  the 
admission  of  Mr.  Chas.  A.  CaiToll.  The  Dispatch  is  independently  Republican,  politically  and  is 
cleverly  conducted  in  all  departments,  being  justly  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  influential  and 
profitable  journals  in  Pennsylvania.     A  weekly  issue  is  published,  which  has  a  wide  support. 

The  Evening  Leader  was  founded  in  1870  by  John  W.  Pittock,  and  is  now  owned  and  con- 
ducted by  the  Leader  Publishing  Company,  which  publishes,  in  addition  to  the  evening  paper,  a 
dollar  weekly  and  Sunday  issue,  the  latter  having  a  very  extensive  circulation,  being  the  largest  and 
best  conducted  Sundaj-  journal  in  the  city.  In  politics,  the  Leader  is  not  aUied  to  any  part.y,  but 
is  none  the  less  pronounced  in  its  views  upon  all  matters  either  in  church  or  State.  It  is  popular 
with  a  large  class  of  the  community — displays  ability  in  its  management,  and  secures  a  \evy  satis- 
factory revenue. 

The  Sunday  Critic,  published  bj-  Carson,  Haslett&  Clark,  has  been  established  for  some  years, 
and  is  now  settled  upon  a  solid  footing.  It  is  Democratic  in  politics,  has  a  good  circulation,  and  is 
a  well-managed  and  readable  sheet. 

The  Sunday  Globe. — This  paper  is  owned  and  conducted  by  J.  Breen,  who  has  succeeded  in 
making  it  a  vivacious  and  peppery  journal,  with  a  large  subscription  list,  a  good  advertising  patron- 
age, and  the  other  essentials  for  a  healthy  and  prosperous  existence. 

The  class  papers  are  the  American  Journal  of  Industry,  an  enterprising  and  valuable  sheet 
published  in  the  interest  of  manufacturers  b}'  Geo.  E.  Williams,  Esq.,  and  the  Pottery  and  Glass- 
ware Reporter,  which  emanates  from  the  same  source.  Though  founded  within  a  limited  period, 
these  journals  have  attained  a  pronounced  success,  and  may  be  justly  regarded  as  representative 
trade  papers  and  vigorous  exponents  of  the  industries  of  this  section. 

The  American  Manufacturer  is  also  an  excellent  paper,  conducted  in  a  very  circumspect 
manner. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  57 


The  Evening  Telegraph  was  first  published  in  1878  by  a  joint-stock  company,  which  finally 
surrendered  the  journal  to  tlie  control  of  Ralph  Bagaley,  Esq.,  who  has  conducted  it  for  some  years 
with  satisfactory  result.s.  In  tone,  the  paper  is  Republican,  and  aims  to  inspire  confidence  by  an 
honest  and  fearless  course.  Its  management  is  in  able  hands,  and  the  journal  is  achieving  the 
respect  of  the  community,  which  is  evinced  by  a  rapidly  enlarging  subscription  list.  The  Tele- 
graph has  also  a  weeklj-  edition,  and  iu  all  respects  gives  solid  proofs  of  success. 

The  Allegheny  Evening  Mail  is  the  onl}-  journal  published  in  Allegheny.  It  has  a  good  cir- 
culation— is  a  spicy  little  sheet,  and  is  conducted  editorially  bj'  Mr.  John  B   Kennedy. 

Besides  the  above  English,  there  are  three  German  dailies,  the  most  important  of  which  is  the 
Freiheits  Frepnd,  owned  and  published  by  Messrs.  S.  and  W.  Neeb.  It  is  the  Republican  organ 
for  the  Germans,  and  is  an  official  paper  for  both  cities  and  the  county.  It  is  conducted  with  a 
large  share  of  financial  success.     The  other  German  papers  are  the  Volksblatt  andREPUBLiKANEK. 

The  religious  element  of  the  community  contributes  to  the  success  of  several  denominational 
journals  whose  names  are  indicative  of  general  characteristics :  The  Presbyterian  Banner,  The 
Methodist  Recorder,  The  Pittsburgh  Christian  Advocate,  the  organ  of  the  M.  E.  Church,  The 
United  Presbyterian;  The  Catholic,  and  others,  published  weekly. 

The  Hardware  Reporter,  publislied  simultaneously  at  Pittsburgh,  Cleveland  and  Chicago, 
and  the  American  Manufacturer  and  Iron  World  at  Pittsburgh  and  New  York,  published  bj-  the 
National  Iron  and  Steel  Publishing  Company-,  are  the  leading  publications  of  the  nation,  representa- 
tive of  the  iron  and  hardware  trades.  The  manager  and  treasurer,  Mr.  Frank  Woods,  is  one  of  the 
most  thoroughlj'  posted  and  ablest  trade  journalists  in  the  country.  To  the  iron  and  steel  manu- 
facturer, to  the  dealer,  to  the  hardware  merchant,  whether  the  extensive  importer  and  exporter  or 
the  retail  dealer,  either  The  Hardware  Reporter  or  the  America7i  Manvfacturer  should  be  their 
weekly  visitor.     Address  National  Iron  and  Steel  Publishing  Co.,  97  Wood  Street,  Pittsburgh. 

Y  Wa.sg. — It  is  estimated  that  in  Western  Pennsylvania  nlone  there  is  a  Welsh  population  of 
more  than  50,000,  while  in  the  collieries  and  iron  works  of  Ohio  and  the  West  there  are  undoubt- 
edly as  many  more.  This  large  class  of  Welsh-speaking  citizens  is  fortunate  in  the  possession  of  a 
really  first-class  weekly  newspaper,  printed  in  their  own  language  by  "Y  Wasg  Printing  Com- 
pany," of  which  Mr.  Jenkin  Jones  is  President;  Mr.  Joseph  D.  Jones,  Vice-President;  Mr. 
Thomas  W.  Davis,  Secretary;  Mr.  D.  W.  Lloyd,  Treasurer;  and  Mr.  R.  T.  Daniels,  Managing 
Editor.  Y  Wasg  is  a  neat  and  attractive  eight-page  paper,  ably  edited  and  conducted  in  the 
interest  of  the  Welsh  people  of  this  section,  whose  industry  and  peculiar  qualifications  have  done 
80  much  toward  the  development  of  the  iron  and  coal  interests  of  Western  Pennsylvania.  It  is 
the  only  Welsh  newspaper  west  of  the  Allegheny  mountains,  and,  with  one  exception,  the  only  one 
published  in  this  country.  Its  circulation  throughout  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  the  West,  is  large 
and  steadily  increasing,  and  as  an  advertising  medium  for  those  desirous  of  reaching  this  class 
of  trade,  it  is  unequalled  by  any  paper  in  the  city. 

In  this  brief  summary  of  the  salient  points  and  obvious  advantages  of  Pittsburgh,  it  has  been 
necessary  to  condense  too  much  to  permit  of  the  production  of  a  sketch  that  should  possess  the 
advantages  of  a  careful  literary  production;  nor  was  labor  in  this  direction  considered  necessary  or 
essential.  It  would  have  been  pleasant  to  have  loitered  with  the  reader  round  old  historic  scenes 
and  landmarks  of  the  past  —  to  recall  names  that  have  figured  in  the  annals  of  the  nation,  and 
legends  that  may  not  be  forgotten  in  connection  with  ahr.ost  classic  haunts;  but  the  relentless  pro- 
pulsion of  our  theme  and  object  forbade.  Industry  has  been  the  reiterated  cry,  and  for  its  evi- 
dences the  reader  is  referred  to  the  sketches  and  descriptions  of  Pittsburgh's  laborers  and  labors, 
with  which  this  work  is  replete. 

THE  PENNSYLVANIA  RAILROAD  COMPANY. 

There  is  no  feature  of  American  progress  and  enterprise  which  more  favorably  impresses  the  mind  of  the  foreign 
tourist  than  the  adniiralile  system  of  railway  management,  the  magnificent  coaches,  the  solid  and  substantial  road 
beds,  and  the  elegant  structures  used  for  depots  and  stations  by  tlie  great  railroad  corporations  of  this  country.  In  all 
these  departments  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  stands  pre-eminently  and  conspicuously  at  the  head,  and  the 
various  connections  of  this  company,  intersecting  with  iron  bands  nearly  every  section  of  the  Union,  furnish  means 
of  communication  for  business  men  and  pleasure  seekers  at  once,  the  most  direct,  the  most  picturesque  aud  beautiful, 
the  most  convenient  and  the  most  comfortable  of  any  road  in  the  world.  Railways  being  now  the  common  highways 
of  the  land,  the  managers  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  have  made  every  eflbrt,  in  their  power,  to  accomodate 
the  tniveliiig  propensities  of  the  restless  and  progressive  people  by  well  equipped  and  pleasant  routes  extending  through- 
out the  varied  and  interesting  scenery  of  the  Middle,  Easters,  Northern  and  Southern  States  of  the  Union.  The  numer- 
ous and  widely  diverging  lines  of  tlie  company,  following  the  course  of  beautiful  rivers,  penetrating  the  fastnesses 
of  giant  mountains,  reacliing  the  restless  waves  of  the  mighty  ocean,  and  meandering  through  romantic  vales  and  sylvan 
scenes  of  breezy  heights,  reaching  from  the  home  of  the  pilgrim  fathers  and  the  earliest  settlement  to  the  great  and 
growing  cities  of  the  West,  afford  facilities  for  sight  seers  and  pleasure  seekers  unrivalled  on  the  continent  and  unsur- 
passed by  those  furnished  by  any  other  company  in  the  world.  By  arrangements  recently  completed,  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Company  is  now  prepared  to  furnish  excursion  tickets  at  special  rales  to  and  from  almost  every  prominent  point 
of  interest  on  the  continent  at  greatly  reduced  rates.  This  company  has  general  ticket  offices  in  all  the  principal  cities 
of  the  Union,  presided  over  by  affable  and  accomodating  gentleiueu,  who  are  always  happy  to  turnish  full  and  explicit 
intormation  to  travelers  relative  to  the  various  routes  controlled  by  the  company,  and  an  eleg.intly  illustrated  work 
on  Summer  Excursion  Routes  has  been  carefully  prepared  under  the  supervision  of  competent  writers,  which  will  be 
furnished  upon  application  at  the  different  offices,  and  which  will  be  found  an  indispensable  vade  mecinn  to  pleasure 
seekers  and  summer  tourists.  The  main  offices  of  the  company  are  located  in  Philadelphia,  Mr.  Frank  Thomson,  gene- 
ral manager ;  Mr.  L.  P.  Farmer,  general  passsen^er  and  ticket  agent ;  Mr.  Chas.  E.  Pugii,  general  superintendent. 

The  general  ticket  office  of  the  Western  district  is  located  at  No.  78  Fifth  avenue,  cor.  Smithfield  street,  Pittsburgh. 
Mr.  Robert  Pitcairn  is  the  general  agent  and  superintendent  for  this  division.  All  the  gentlemen  connected  with 
this  company  are  noted  for  their  ability  in  the  various  departments  in  which  they  are  engaged,  being  selected  solely 
with  an  eye  to  their  fitness  and  general  qualifications. 


58 


BEAVEE  FALLS. 


^^|m|his  thriving  and  prosperous  town  with  her  varied  industrial  establishments,  as  being  ciosely 
"^^^  identified  with  the  great  manufacturing  interests  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  is  worthy  of  most 

^^^^  favorable  consideration  in  these  pages. 

^g  On  the  banks  of  the  Beaver  River,  that  at  this  point  sweeps  in   a  graceful  curve  along 

A  the  base  of  the  eastern  hills,  that  rise  abruptlj'  from  its  borders  to  a  height  of  100  feet  or 

more,  in  a  broad,  beautiful  valley,  sloping  back  to  a  range  of  hills  on  the  west,  along  whose  base 
the  P.,  Ft.  W.  &  C.  R.  R.  bends,  this  attractive  and  growing  young  city,  that  dates  her  foundation 
back  but  a  half  score  years,  is  situated.  A  more  beautiful  spot  for  a  city  Is  seldom  seen,  bj^  her 
gifts  Nature  having  been  very  bountiful  to  this  favored  place.  In  addition  to  the  beauty  of  the 
scenery  and  attractiveness  of  the  situation,  its  healthfuluess,  etc.,  one  of  the  finest  water  powers  in 
the  country  is  here  afforded.  In  the  hills  that  surround  the  place  are  stored  inexhaustible  supplies 
of  coal  that  Is  easily  mined  and  transported  to  the  places  of  consumption.  The  hills  are  covered 
with  large  quantities  of  timber  of  various  kinds  of  hard  wood,  that  are  valuable  for  many  purposes. 
The  surrounding  country  is  one  of  the  finest  agricultural  districts  In  the  state,  bj-  which  abundant 
and  cheap  supplies  of  food  for  the  busy  thousands,  who  in  the  varied  workshops  are  producing  the 
many  articles  that  find  markets  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  bringing  wealth,  contentment  and  happi- 
ness to  her  homes,  is  assured.  Proximity  to  the  sources  of  supply  of  raw  materials  is  another 
advantage  enjoyed. 

Numerous  coal  pits  are  opened  Into  the  adjacent  hills  and  an  abundant  suppty  is  brought  forth. 
The  Water  Power  was  secured  b}'  building  dams  across  the  Beaver  River,  which  In  all  seasons  affords 
an  abundant  and  never  failing  supply.  The  dam  at  this  point  was  built  in  the  construction  of  the 
P.  &  L.  E.  Canal  many  years  ago,  a  fall  of  20  feet  or  more  is  obtained,  and  this  great  natural  power 
is  utilized  by  a  large  number  of  factories  that  line  the  banks  of  the  river  In  the  vicinity  of  the  race, 
and  there  Is  yet  abundant  room  for  other  establishments.  By  the  completion  of  the  new  P.  &  L.  E. 
R.  R.  a  competing  line  is  now  had  to  all  parts  of  the  country,  a  consideration  in  these  days  of  Rail- 
way monopolies  and  discrimination  of  the  greatest  importance.  The  Ohio  River  is  distant  but  22- 
miles,  b}' which  connection  Is  had  with  the  great  natural  higliways  of  the  West. 

The  manufacturing  interests  that  have  been  attracted  here  in  the  short  period  of  her  growth  are 
of  a  greatly  diversified  character — embracing  a  number  of  the  finest  establishments  in  their  particu- 
lar branch  of  industry  in  the  United  States,  and  which  are  remarkable.  In  many  respects,  for  their 
splendid  equipment,  the  superiority  of  their  products  and  the  great  success  they  have  attained. 
Mention  of  each  separate  industry  Is  given  in  detail  in  these  pages.  The  town  is  abundantly  and 
inexpensively  supplied  with  water  by  the  Holley  system,  tiie  engine  being  driven  by  a  42-Inch  water 
wheel  with  a  capacity  to  supply  four  times  the  quantity  of  water  now  required.  Fire  plugs  are  dis- 
tributed throughout  the  city,  the  pressure  being  sufficient  to  throw  water  to  the  tops  of  the  highest 
buildings.  A  fine  reservoir,  with  fine  storage  capacity,  has  been  constructed,  from  which  the  water 
after  being  filtered  is  distributed  throughout  the  mains.  The  Fire  Department  Is  well  equipped  with 
a  steamer,  Babcock  engine,  an  abundant  supply  of  hose  and  other  apparatus,  and  has  proved  to  be 
very  efficient.     The  town  is  well  lighted,  numerous  gas  lamps  being  erected  along  the  streets. 

A  spirit  of  enterprise  and  improvement  pervades  the  whole  place  and  progress  seems  to  be  the 
watchword  with  all.  The  water  power,  which  Is  now  verj^  fine,  Is  proposed  to  be  enlarged  by  the 
building  of  another  dam  with  30  feet  fall,  that  will  give  a  tenfold  Increased  power  and  afford  abun- 
dant facilities  for  largely  increased  manufacturing  interest  that  is  being  attracted  to  this  point  by 
the  great  advantages  afforded.  A  new  iron  bridge,  700  feet  long,  is  in  process  of  erection  by  the 
Penn  Bridge  Works  of  this  place  across  the  Beaver  River,  at  the  upper  end  of  the  town,  that  will 
bring  a  large  and  wealthy  agricultural  district  in  direct  communication  with  it  and  prove  of  great 
advantage  to  the  mercantile  interests  of  the  place,  which  are  already  of  a  greatlj'  diversified  nature. 
The  natural  beauty  of  the  place,  its  healthfuluess  and  central  localitj-,  have  been  the  important 
considerations  in  the  selection  of  this  point  for  the  location  of  the  Reformed  Presbyterian  Univer- 
sity, which  will  be  removed  from  Geneva,  0.,  here,  where  the  Harmony  Society  have  generously 
donated  them  10  acres  of  beautiful  ground  most  admirably  located. 

CHURCHES. 

There  are  now  8  churches  in  the  town,  some  of  them  verj'  handsome  and  substantial  structures, 
— two  Methodist,  two  Presbyterian,  one  Reformed  Presbyterian,  one  Episcopalian,  one  German 
Lutheran,  one  Evangelical. 

A  handsome  Public  School  building  is  situated  near  the  centre  of  the  town.  There  are  many 
fine  and  substantial  business  houses  located  on  Main  street,  and  many  fine  private  residences  in 
different  parts  of  the  place.  The  streets  are  admirably  laid  out,  are  wide  and  airy,  and  the  neat  and 
attractive  cottages  of  the  busy  artisans  who  find  employment  in  the  various  manufactories,  sur- 
rounded with  shrubbery  and  flowers,  present  a  picture  of  contentment  and  happiness  that  is  foreign 


BEAVER   FALLS.  59 


to  the  dwellings  of  the  toiling  millions  in  some  of  the  great  manufacturing  centres.  The  population 
is  estimated  at  from  6000  to  7000,  and  Avill  scarce!}'  fall  short  of  the  latter  figure.  The  distance  to 
Pittsburgh,  with  the  interests  of  which  this  place  is  intimately  connected,  is  but  30  miles  by  rail. 

It  is  appropriate,  in  connection  witli  this  review  of  Beaver  Falls  of  to-day,  to  glance  at  some  of 
the  causes  that  have  contributed  to  the  wonderful  growth  of  the  place,  aside  from  the  many  natural 
advantages  briefly  mentioned  above,  and  the  men  whose  foresight,  energj^  and  public  spirit  have  been 
the  means  of  attracting  to  this  point  the  industries  that  have  built  up  the  place  and  the  name  of 
Beaver  Falls  known  throughout  the  Avorld  as  a  great  industrial  centre.  The  property  upon  which 
the  town  is  now  built,  something  over  ten  years  ago,  came  into  possession  of  the  Harmony  Society 
at  Economy,  a  communitj'  of  people,  who  perhaps  will  be  recognized  more  generally  under  the 
name  of  the  Economites,  who,  for  many  years,  have  been  located  a  few  miles  from  the  place  in  a 
town  built  by  themselves,  called  Economy,  and  who,  bj'  their  industry  and  frugality,  have  accumu- 
lated great  wealth.  Having  loaned  a  large  amount  of  money  secured  bj'  mortgage,  they  were 
eventually  compelled  to  take  the  property,  which  they  were  desirous  of  selling ;  failing  to  secure  a 
purchaser  for  it  at  what  they  considered  its  value,  Messrs.  Baker  and  Henrie,  Trustees  of  the  Soci- 
ety, decided  to  lay  out  a  town  and  sell  the  property  off  in  lots.  The  services  of  the  men  to  whose 
energy  and  abilities  perhaps  more  than  any  other  cause  is  Beaver  Falls  indebted  for  her  position 
to-day.  Messrs.  H.  T.  &  J.  Reeves  were  called  into  requisition,  and  the  property  placed  in  their 
hands  as  Agents  for  the  Society.  These  gentlemen  had  been  previously  recognized  as  among  the 
most  enterprising  and  reliable  Real  Estate  operators  in  this  section,  and  realizing  the  great  mutual 
advantages  of  the  place  for  manufacturing  purposes  and  the  advantages  to  be  derived  from  the  estab- 
lishment of  industrial  interests  on  the  property,  directed  their  efforts  toward  inducing  manui'acturers 
to  locate  in  the  town,  to  whom  the  liberal  inducements  were  extended  as  well  as  material  aid  by  the 
Harmony  Society.  Among  the  first  establishments  to  locate  here  was  the  cutlery  works,  which 
was  originally  started  in  Rochester,  a  few  miles  below  this  place.  Messrs.  Reeves  induced  the  pro- 
prietors to  remove  to  Beaver  Falls,  Avhere  other  enterprises  have  rapidly  followed,  generously  fos- 
tered and  encouraged  by  the  liberal  policy  of  the  Harmony  Societj^,  guided  by  the  wisdom  of  Messrs. 
Henrie  and  Lenz,  Trustees. 

Messrs.  Reeves  and  Judge  Hice,  the  able  counsel  of  the  Society,  have  been  the  active  instru- 
ments of  building  this  thriving  young  city,  which,  guided  by  their  wisdom  and  aided  by  the  abundant 
capital  of  the  Societ}',  has  risen  to  such  solid  proportions  in  the  short  period  of  10  years,  and  as 
these  gentlemen  are  still  actually  guiding  the  varied  interests  of  the  place,  and  pushing  with  charac- 
teristic energ}-  every  enterprise  that  could  tend  to  increase  the  prosperity  of  the  town,  and  oversee- 
ing their  aim,  and  the  great  interests  of  the  society,  in  their  connection  with  the  various  industries 
located  here,  must  naturally  feel  great  gratification  as  they  look  upon  the  wonderful  results  of  their 
well  directed  efforts.  Possessing  so  many  natural  advantages,  encouraged  and  fostered  bj'  the  far- 
seeing  and  liberal  policy  of  the  patrons  of  the  place,  no  place  in  the  United  States  offers  more 
inducements  to  manufacturers  than  Beaver  Falls,  whose  future  must  be  as  brilliant  as  it  will  be 
enduring. 

ALGEO  BURIAL  CASKET  WORKS  -  ^.  G.  Algeo  &  Son,  Beaver  Falls,  Pa. 

These  fine  and  excellently  equipped  works  were  established  by  Messrs.  Algeo  &  Son  in  1874,  and  have  been  in  the 
enjoyment  of  a  piosperous  anil  growing  trade  since  their  beginning.  They  are  admirably  located  on  the  banks  of  the 
Beaver  river,  supjilied  with  abundant  water  power  by  wliicli  the  inachioery  is  driven.  They  are  fitted  with  complete 
and  perfect  machinery,  and  are  in  every  respect  most  conveniently  and  systematically  arranged.  The  building, 
which  was  built  with  a  view  to  the  requirements  of  the  business,  is  40x100  feet  in  size,  2  stories  high,  and  in  all  respects 
is  a  most  pleasant  and  convenient  establishment,  representing  an  investment  of  $26,000.  The  product  of  the  establish- 
ment, Burial  Caskets,  CoiHns,  etc.,  have  attained  a  wide  reputation  for  their  superior  make  and  tine  finish.  Their 
trade  is  derived  mainly  from  the  Eastern  cities  of  Baltimore,  Washington,  Philadelphia,  Buffalo  and  Rochester,  N.  Y. 
A  patented  improvement,  the  invention  of  the  Algeos,  is  used  on  all  their  coffins  and  adds  greatly  to  their  popularity. 
It  consists  of  a  rim  forming  an  inside  finish  arranged  for  neatly  and  quickly  attaching  the  linings  thereto.  This  im- 
provement has  met  with  high  appreciation  by  undertakers  everywhere,  and  has  tended  largely  to  give  Algeo's  Colfins 
their  liigh  reputation  over  all  other  makes.  A  steady  and  increasing  demand  keeps  his  works  constantly  in  opera- 
tion, giving  employment  to  20  hands,  with  a  monthly  pay-roll  of  $1,000.  This  firm  are  also  manufacturing  a  sand-pa- 
pering machine  of  their  own  design,  having  originally  l)uilt  one  for  their  own  use  and  finding  it  to  surpass  any  ma- 
cliines  heretofore  made,  and  costing  only  about  %  as  much.  They  liavc  commenced  the  manufacture  and  sale  of  them, 
and  are  meeting  with  a  flattering  number  of  ordeis.  It  will  be  better  appreciated  when  it  is  stated  that  the  machine, 
wliich  is  now  sold  at  8150,  can  do  as  much  and  as  perfect  work  as  the  $450  machines,  and  are  simpler  and  more  easily 
kept  in  order.  TJ.  Baird,  7:>  Water  st.,  is  the  Pittsburgh  agent  for  the  machines,  where  samples  can  be  seen.  Mr.  W. 
G.  Algeo  is  a  native  of  Allegheny,  born  in  1830,  he  learned  the  trade  of  cabinet  maker  early  in  life,  with  the  old  firm 
of  T.  B.  Young  &  Co.  of  that  city.  Prior  to  engaging  in  his  i)resent  prosperous  enterprise  he  was  engaged  a  number  of 
years  in  the  furniture  business  in  Pittslmrgh.  His  son,  the  junior  member  of  the  firm,  was  born  in  Pittsburgh,  and 
has  grown  up  in  the  business  with  his  fatlier,  acquiring  a  thorough  knowledge  of  it  in  all  its  details.  Enterprising, 
prompt  and  reliable  the  firm  of  W.  G.  Algeo  &  Son  occupy  a  leading  position  among  the  manufacturers  in  their  lino 
and  can  present  advantages  to  the  trade  not  easily  duplicated  by  cotemporaneous  establishments. 

ST.    CHARLES  HOTEL,  COLUMBUS,  O.    James  G.  Dunn,  Proprietor. 

Popular  Prices,— $2.00  Per  Day. 

The  most  centrally  located  hotel  in  the  city.  Street  cars  pass  the  door  every  five  minutes  to  all  the  depots  and  all 
parts  of  the  city.  Tlie  superior  excellence  of  this  elegant  hotel  will  be  sustained  as  heretofore.  Its  central  location  is 
unsurpassed, being  convenient  to  all  retail  stores,  and  all  places  of  amusement. 


60  INDUSTRIES  OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 

BEAVER  FALLS  CUTLERY  CO -Beaver  Falls.  Pa. 

II.  T.  Reeves,  President.  Jno.  Reeves,  Sec'y.  otkI  Treas. 
In  the  whole  range  of  thia  work,  reviewing  the  great  and  wonderfully  diversified  industries  of  this  State,  there 
will  be  found  uo  more  noted  establishments  nor  any  entitled  to  more  favorable  consideration  in  these  pages  than 
the  one  forming  the  subject  of  this  sketch.  The  enterprise  was  founded  on  a  comparatively  limited  scale  in  1S07,  orig- 
inally as  a  private  company.  Dr.  C.  G.  Hussey,  Hon.  T.  M.  Howe  and  other  prominent  gentlemen  being  connected 
with  it,  among  the  number  Mr.  Jas.  W.  Brown,  wlio  was  President  of  ihe  company  for  a  considerable  time  and  largely 
contributed  by  his  talents  towards  placing  it  on  a  successful  basis  at  the  start.  In  1870  the  concern  was  changed  to  a 
jointstock  Co.,  the  ownership  passing  largely  into  the  hands  of  the  Harmony  Society.  Mr.  Henry  T.  Keeves  was  elect- 
ed President,  and  Mr.  John  Keeves  Sec'y.  and  Treas.  Under  the  able  and  enterprising  management  of  these  gentle- 
men, assisted  by  Judge  Hice  of  Beaver,  the  industry  has  grown  into  its  present  grand  proportions.  The  obstacles  that 
had  to  be  overcome  in  placing  the  institution  in  its  present  prosperous  condition  can  scarcely  be  appreciated  by  thoee 
not  having  had  experience  in  such  matters,  and  would  have  dislieartened  less  resolute  men  than  those  who  were  fortu- 
nately at  the  head  of  it.  Among  many  others,  the  procurement  of  skilled  labor  was  one  of  the  earlier  difficulties  met 
with  ;  for  a  period  of  4  years  a  force  of  Chinamen  were  employed,  who,  in  a  short  time,  became  proticient  workmen  and 
rendered  entire  satisfaction  to  their  employers.  The  overcoming  of  the  prejudice  existing  against  American  cutlery, 
was  a  task  of  still  greater  difficulty  and  years  of  patient  etibrt  wer6  required  to  convince  the  public  that  American 
manufacturers  could  produce  as  good  an  article  as  any  in  the  old  world.  This  has  been  done,  and  foreign  cutlery  is 
rapidly  disappearing  from  our  markets,  which  are  being  abundantly  supplied  with  the  products  of  American  skill  and 
of  a  quality  tliat  bids  fair  to  surpass  in  the  near  future,  tlio  finest  goods  of  the  English  maker.s.  These  works  are  situat- 
ed near  the  Beaver  River,  and  in  close  proximity  to  the  P.  &  L.  h.  K.  R.  and  the  P.  Ft.W.  &  C.  R.  R.  The  buildings, 
which  are  built  of  brick  and  stone  in  the  most  substantial  manner,  covering  an  area  of  2  acres,  were  specially  designed 
to  meet  all  the  requirements  of  this  industry,  and  are  as  finely  equipped  and  arranged  as  any  similar  establislimeut  in 
the  world,  and  in  the  passession  of  a  quantify  of  patented  and  greatly  improved  machinery  and  processes  of  manufac- 
ture are  in  this  respect  much  superior  to  all  others.  The  products  of  the  establishment  consist  of  all  grades  and  kinds 
of  table  and  pocket  cutlery,  from  the  commonest  to  the  finest  kind.  Butcher  and  Carving  knives,  etc.,  have  attained  a 
high  reputation  for  superiority  that  is  fully  merited  and  that  has  created  a  demand  that  is  taxing  the  lull  capacity  of 
the  works  to  supply.  A  new  department  is  now  (1879)  being  inaugurated  for  the  manufacture  of  Solid  Steel  Scissors. 
a  number  of  skilled  workmen  having  been  securea  for  this  branch  of  work,  and  ere  long  the  Beaver  Falls  Scissors  will 
be  on  the  market,  and  will  doubtless  speedily  win  their  way  to  public  favor  bv  their  excellent  quality.  The  Steel  em- 
ployed in  the  production  of  their  table  Cutlery  is  made  at  the  steel  works  of  this  place,  which  have  been  run  princi- 
pally in  connection  with  the  cutlery  works,  and  is  rolled  under  a  patented  process  exclu.sively  owned  by  the  Co.,  by 
which  the  bevels  of  the  knifes  and  forks  are  perfected  on  the  long  strips  of  steel  as  they  are  rolled  into  shape,  the 
blades  being  perfected  by  this  single  operation,  thus  obviating  all  necessity  for  forging  each  blade  separately  as  is  done 
in  other  establishments,  and  securing  perfect  uniformity  and  great  improvement  in  quality  of  the  blades.  The  reheat- 
ing, hammering  and  tempering  by  the  ordinary  method  which  tends  to  lower  the  quality  of  the  steel  by  the  burning 
out  of  the  carbon,  is  entirely  done  away  with  l)y  this  process,  which  has  greatly  improved  as  well  as  cheapened  the 
products  of  these  works.  The  strips,  alter  coming  from  the  lolls,  bear  the  marks  of  the  blades,  which  are  simply  cut 
apart  by  shears,  when  they  are  ready  for  the  grinder  and  polisher.  200  of  these  blades  can  be  rolled  per  minute,  and 
the  capacity  of  the  Cutlery  Co.  is  equivalent  to  1200  dozen  of  their  finished  goods  per  day,  boxed  ready  for  the  market. 
Although  fitted  with  most  perfect  machinery  that  inventive  genius  can  devise,  most  of  which  is  peculiar  to  these 
works,  250  to  300  skilled  operatives  are  yet  employed  in  the  cutlery  works.  Their  good.s  are  distributed  to  the  trade 
from  the  great  trade  centerf,,  Philadelphia,  Chicago,  New  York,  Pittsburgh,  etc.  This  sketch  of  these  celebrated 
Works  would  be  incomplete  without  mention  of  the  Great  Knife  and  Fork,  the  largest  ever  made  in  the  world,  and 
which  are  marvels  of  mechanical  skill  and  beauty.  The  entire  knife  is  9  feet  and  7  inches,  and  width  of  blade  ten 
inches.  The  Knife  and  Fork  cost  in  production  more  than  $1500.  The  handles  are  of  solid  ivory,  each  using  an  entire 
Elephant's  tusk,  they  are  perfect  specimens  of  the  carver's  art.  The  blade,  which  is  polished  like  a  mirror,  is  beauti- 
fully and  artistically"  etched,  and  among  the  beautiful  designs  contains  an  excellent  portrait  of  Ex-Gov.  Hartranft.  It 
would  rcHjuire  a  man  9  feet  square  and  forty-eight  feet  high,  whose  weight  must  be  100,000  lbs.,  to  gracefully  manipu- 
late the  steel.  Tl>e  work  was  all  done  by  the  regular  employees  of  the  comjjany.  Mention  should  be  made  also  of  the 
great  improvement  in  fuel  that  has  been  attained  by  the  boring  of  a  well  in  the  vicinity  of  the  works,  from  which  an 
abundant  supply  of  natural  gas  is  obtained,  by  which  the  works  are  lighted  and  heated.  The  heat  supplied  by  the 
gas  is  much  more  even  and  under  more  perfect  control,  and  is  free  from  sulphur  and  other  deleterious  .substances  that 
interfered  with  the  perfection  of  tlie  goods  that  is  now  obtainable.  Both  steam  and  water  power  is  employed  in  driv- 
ing the  machinery.  The  trade  mark  of  the  establishment  is  a  very  appropriate  and  suggestive  one.  A  prostrate  lion, 
on  which  the  eagle  with  outstretched  wings  is  proudly  standing.  Mr.  H.  T.  Keeves,  the  President  of  the  company, 
gives  his  personal  attention  and  supervision  to  the  entire  business  management  of  the  establishment,  in  which  he  is 
assisted  and  advised  by  Mr.  John  Reeves  and  Judge  Hice.  Not  alone  for  the  production  of  a  class  of  goods  superior  to 
that  produced  elsewliere  in  the  world,  and  the  great  advantage  they  are  able  to  present  to  the  trade  in  their  products 
is  the  Beaver  Falls  Cutlery  Co.  entitled  to  consideration,  but  the  grand  results  that  have  been  achieved,  and  the  vic- 
tory gained  for  American  Industry  and  the  overthrow  of  English  competition  entitles  the  Beaver  Falls  Cutlery  Co. 
and  tlie  enterprising  and  talented  men  to  whose  perseverance  and  skill  the  accomplishments  of  these  results  are  due, 
to  high  praise  and  great  consideration  at  the  hands  of  the  American  people. 

CO-OPERATIVE  FOUNDRY  ASSOCIATION -Beaver  Falls,  Pa. 

Among  the  many  successful  and  prosperous  Industrial  and  manufacturing  establishments  in  this  enterprising  and 
thriving  young  city,  the  Co-operative  Foundry  Association  occupiesa  prominent  position.  The  enterprise  was  founded 
in  1872,  and  under  the  able  management  that  has  guided  its  atfairs,  has  attained  a  prominence  in  their  line  of  products 
highly  gratifying  to  the  association.  The  main  products  of  tlie  establishment  consist  of  a  variety  of  Cook  and  Parlor 
Stoves,  Hollow  Ware  and  fine  Castings  of  all  descriptions.  The  plant  of  the  association  is  large  and  well  equipped, 
consisting  of  2  large  buildings,  30x172  feet  each  in  extent,  and  Warehouse  43x60  feet.  All  good,  substantial  buildings 
erected  with  an  esjiecial  view  to  the  requirements  of  the  business.  The  machinery  and  appliances,  with  which  they 
are  fitted,  are  of  most  approved  and  valuable  kinds.  The  motive  power  is  supplied  by  a  fine  engine.  The  whole  es- 
tablishment in  all  its  departments  is  coveniently  arranged  and  adapted  to  the  work  done,  and  is  in  charge  of  thorough- 
Iv  experienced  and  practical  men  throughout.  The  products  of  the  establishment  have  attained  a  wide  celebrity  for 
their  many  excellent  qualities  and  handsome  finish.  Their  trade  is  quite  extensive,  reaching  over  the  greater  i)art  of 
the  West  and  throughout  this  State.  The  high  quality  of  their  products  are  bringing  them  a  largely  increasing  trade 
from  year  to  year,  and  their  works  are  taxed  to  their  full  capacity  to  meet  the  demand.  30  hands  are  employed,  to 
whom'  S1200  monthly  is  disbursed.  The  management  of  the  Association  is  in  the  hands  of  well-known  enterprising 
gentlemen,  who  are  pushing  the  industry  with  commendable  energy.  The  business  is  managed  by  a  board  of  Directors, 
consisting  of  James  Todd,  Pres't,  Gawn  Ward,  Treasurer,  Henry  Miller,  Secretary,  Thos.  Christian,  Henry  Doffert, 
L.  M.  Armor,  W.  Shaner.  Mr.  Todd  is  a  native  of  Pa.,  born  in  1815.  He  came  to  Beaver  Falls  12  years  ago,  since 
which  time  he  has  been  connected  with  the  foundry  from  its  commencement,  having  been  book-keeper  for  tlie  Asso- 
ciation ;  prior  to  that  time  he  was  identified  with  River  pursuits,  living  at  Brownsville,  Pa.  Mr.  M.  is  a  native  of  Beaver 
Co.,  he  has  been  connected  with  the  association  since  its  commencement.  Mr.  Gawn  Ward  is  also  a  native  of  this  Co. 
He  is  a  well  known  enterprising  Groceryman,  of  the  place.  He  does  not  give  his  exclusive  attention  to  the  businesn 
management  of  the  concern.  These  gentlemen,  in  their  management  of  the  affairs  of  the  association,  have  largely  con- 
tributed to  its  success  and  popularity.  The  establishment  is  in  every  way  reKahle  and  its  products  rank  among  the 
best  goods  in  the  market. 


BEAVER  FALLS.  61 


WESTERN  FILE  WORKS,  I.imited-Beaver  Falls,  Pa. 

In  reviewing  the  great  industries  of  this  section,  and  giving  brief  sketches  of  the  notable  establishments  that 
spring  into  existence  iit  the  bidding;  ol  the  genius  of  progress  and  enterprise,  luuny  instances  of  remarkable 
acliievcnients,  and  the  successful  accomplishment  of  what  but  a  little  while  ago  seemed  impossible,  are  met  with. 
And  witliin  tlie  range  of  this  whole  work,  containing  accounts  of  tlie  great  and  wonderfully  diversified  industries 
of  this  State,  it  is  doubtful,  if  there  will  be  found  a  single  instance  in  which  American  skill  and  capital  have 
achieved  a  more  signal  triumph,  than  is  instanced  in  the  results  achieved  by  the  Western  File  Co.,  Ihat  have 
grown  to  be  the  largest  File  works  in  the  world.  The  many  triumphs  of  American  Industry  have  been  due  mainly 
to  the  improved  methods  of  manufacturing  and  the  introduction  of  labor  saving  machinery,  enabling  American  man- 
ufacturers to  compete  with  the  low-priced  labor  prevailing  in  foreign  countries.  It  was  for  a  long  time  thought 
impossil)Ie  to  devise  any  machine  that  could  cut  a  file  equal  to  the  hand  cut  file,  for  reasons,  that  it  is  not  nec- 
essary in  the  limits  of  this  article  to  give.  This  result  has  been  more  than  successfully  accomplished,  as  the  per- 
fect machinery  that  is  now  used  by  this  company,  is  producing  files  that  have,  in  many  critical  tests,  been  prov- 
en superior  to  the  hand  made  files  of  the  best  English  brands,  and  other  machine  made  files.  The  following  ex- 
tract from  the  Chicago  Commercial  Advertiser  of  June  26,  1879,  explains  the  point  of  superiority  in  the  machines 
used:  "It  is  alone  for  the  Western  File  Co.  "Limited"  to  .say  that  with  their  dally  capacity  of  1000  dozen  they 
combine,  in  their  now  perfect  machinery,  in  which  they  use  a  loose  cliisel  not  in  any  way  fa.stin  or  to  the  ham- 
mer, and  with  as  free  action  as  if  held  with  the  hand,  all  the  advantages  of  the  hand-cut  file  with  a  uniform 
force,  accur.tey  and  perfection  heretofore  unattained,  many  of  which  advantages  have  had  to  be  sacrificed  in  all 
other  machines  to  attain  .speed.  With  the  use  of  the  loose  chisel,  which  allows  the  operator  to  make  any  shaped 
tooth  desired,  the  Western  File  Co.  "Limited,"  are  enabled  to  furnish  files  specially  adapted  to  different  kinds 
of  work — for  machine  filing;  for  planer  knives  and  the  hardest  steel  worked;  for  cast  iron  and  other  rough  usage, 
and  guarantee  tliem  superior  to  ordinary  files  for  such  work."  Every  description  of  files  are  made,  from  the  most 
delicate  needle  files,  for  Jeweler'.s  work,  to  the  largest  sizes  used  by  machinists,  embracing  over  1000  different  va- 
rieties. The  products  of  these  works  have  not  only  established  their  supremacy  in  all  the  American  markets,  but 
are  being  .sold  in  different  parts  of  the  world,  from  many  foreign  countries  there  is  coming  a  steadily  increasing 
demand.  They  have  entered  into  active  competition  in  European  markets  with  the  Sheffield  files,  are  rapidly  es- 
tablisliing  their  superiority  there.  The  magnitude  of  these  works,  their  wonderful  achievements  in  successfully 
overcoming  combined  foreign  competition,  and  sending  their  products  to  the  very  doors  of  their  great  competitors, 
all  speak  volumes  for  the  skill  and  ability  that  has  been  displayed  by  the  management,  who  merit  the  favorable 
consideration  of  the  country,  for  the  notable  victory  they  have  gained  for  American  Industry.  These  works,  before 
stated,  the  largest  in  the  world,  were  founded  in  18C9  l>y  Blake  &  Fessenden,  and  have  been  in  continuous  oper- 
ation since.  In  1875,  the  style  of  the  firm  was  changed  to  the  Western  File  Co.  "Limited,"  without  increase  of 
Qipital.  The  capital  stock  all  paid  up  is  S21G,000.  A  very  large  amount  of  steel  is  used.  Ail  of  which  is  the 
finest  grades  to  be  had  and  of  American  make.  The  works  are  devoted  exclusively  to  the  production  of  files, 
and  they  now  have  been  running  to  their  full  capacity,  to  meet  the  increasing  demand  that  is  being  made  upon 
them  from  al.  parts  of  the  world.  The  buildings  are  very  substantial  brick  structures,  consisting  of  I  main  buil- 
ding, 500  feet  long,  2  stories  high,  having  four  1  story  wings,  another  300  feet  long,  and  two  others  60  feet  long 
each,  and  a  nunibor  of  other  smaller  buildings  adapted  to  particular  uses.  They  ar<  very  eligibly  located,  enjoy- 
ing every  advantage  of  cheap  and  convenient  transportation,  the  P.  &  L.  E.  R.  R.  passing  in  dose  proximity,  af- 
fording every  convenience  fur  the  receipt  of  material  and  the  shipment  of  products.  They  are  in  point  of  equip 
mont  the  most  splendid,  as  they  are  the  largest  works  in  the  world.  The  most  perfect  machinery,  novel  and  ingen- 
ious, most  of  which  is  peculiar  to  these  works,  is  employed  tliroughout.  Another  advantage  possessed  by  this  Compa,- 
ny  is  the  use  of  natural  gas  for  annealing  and  other  purposes,  as  the  files  are  not  brought  in  contact  with  the  sulphur 
and  other  impurities  which  all  coal  contains  in  a  greater  or  less  degree,  and  which  are  well  known  lobe  injurious  to 
steel.  It  is  also  admitted  by  the  best  steel  workers  that  the  natural  gas  is  very  superior  for  heating,  either  for  forging, 
annealing  or  hardening.  Throughout  the  entire  works  the  most  thorough  system  prevails,  150  of  their  cutting  ma- 
chines are  employed.  A  large  number  of  workmen  find  constant  employment,  to  whom  large  sums  are  disbursed  for 
wages.  Tlie  "Western"  is  the  most  popular  brand  made.  Other  brands  are  made  for  jobbing  houses  to  order.  The 
following  guarantee,  which  the  Company  sends  out  with  their  goods,  should  be  strong  enough  to  satisfy  anyone :  The 
Western  File  Co.,  "fjimitod,"  guarantees  to  furnish  files,  all  kinds,  and  for  all  purposes,  the  most  superior  for  both 
fast  filing  and  durability  to  any  ever  made.  This  is  a  strong  a.ssertion,  but  it  is  a  fact.  The  management  of  the  Com- 
pany has  been  most  liberal  and  enterprising,  and  in  the  grand  success  that  has  been  attained,  they  are  now  reaping 
the  well  merited  reward  of  their  enterprise. 

Mr.  Jas.  M.  Fessenden  is  Chairman.  He  is  a  gentleman  of  long  practical  experience  in  the  business.  He  has  gen- 
eral supervision  of  the  manufacturing  oper.ations,  the  various  departments  of  the  works  being  under  the  immediate 
direction  of  skilled  superintendents.  Mr.  E.  ,1.  Blake  is  Secretary,  and  Mr.  F.  Fishey,  Treasurer.  The  business  man- 
agement in  their  hands  is  conducted  with  marked  ability  and  success.  In  every  respect  these  great  works  present  ad- 
vantages to  the  consumers  of  files,  that  are,  perhaps,  not  equalled  by  any  simiiaf  establishment  in  the  world. 

BEAVER  FALLS  MILLS,— M6w.  Mellon  &  Sons.  Dealers  in  Flour,  Feead  Grain. 

Beaver  fa  lilt,  Fa. 

The  old  Mills,  forming  the  subject  of  the  present  sketch,  were  fir.st  established  about  75  years  ago  by  some  Quakers, 
who  had  settled  in  this  country.  It  was  afterwards  owned  and  operated  by  Mr.  James  Patterson,  n  gentleman  w!io 
was  largely  interested  in  this  part  of  the  county,  for  a  Dumber  of  years  undergoing  some  changes  and  improvements, 
but  being  permitted  to  become  badly  out  of  rcpair.s,  it  passed  from  the  latter  gentleman  into  the  hand.s  of  W.  W. 
Wallace,  Sam'l  McCleary,  T.  N()l>le,'vVm.  McKec  and  some  other  Pittsburgh  gentlemen,  who,  under  the  name  of  the 
Beaver  Falls  Mill  Co.,  made  many  alterations  and  improvemeuls,  substituting  now  and  modern  machinery  for  the  old, 
that  had  done  duty  for  .so  long  a  period  and  greatly  (Milargcd  the  capacity.  Tlio  Mills  were  controlled  and  operated 
by  this  company  for  souk*  years,  finally  passing  info  the  hands  of  the  present  firm  in  1874,  who  have  successfully  oper- 
ated them  since.  The  firm  have  enjoyed  alarge  and  very  prosperous  county  trade  from  the  surrounding  rich  agricul- 
tural region,  and  the  Mill  has  heretofore  been  mainly  employed  in  tliis  kind  of  trade,  grinding  all  Uirtds  of  grain  that 
WHS  brought  to  its  dnors.  The  completion  of  the  new  P.  &  \j.  E.  R.  R.,  which  passes  in  close  proximity  of  the  Mill,  has 
greatly  interfered  with  this  profitable  liriuicli  of  business,  by  creating  an  obstacle  to  the  access  to  mill  of  country 
teams  unaccustomed  to  the  locomotive.  This  necessitated  a  change  in  some  departments  of  the  mill,  which  has  been 
promptly  made,  in  order  to  produce  a  different  quality  of  fltmr  from  that  wliich  liad  formerly  been  made,  which  was  a 
good  flour,  adapted  to  thecnunty  trade  onjovrd.  The  mill  is  now  equipped  and  is  making  the  new  process  flour, 
which,  under  the  brand  of  the  Beaver  Falls  Mills  family  flour,  enjoys  a  verv  high  local  reputation  and  is  in  every  way 
a  very  excellent  flour.  The  mill  is  capable  of  grinding.about  50l)  bnsliels  of  grain  per  day,  and  the  product  is  all  ab- 
sorbed by  the  home  market.  The  mill  is  driven  by  water  power,  with  a  fall  of  about  19  feet,,  and  having  3  water 
wheels,  with  an  aggregate  power  equivalent  to  50  horse  powei'.  Under  its  i)r(!sent  enterprising  management  it  has 
been  kept  in  perfect  orderand  improvements  added  tokoop  pace  with  theadvanceof  fbeage.  Mr.  Win.  Mellon  isa  na- 
tive of  Westmoreland  Co.,  this  State,  born  near  (frecnsburg  in  that  county  in  1822,  and  has  been  engaged  in  the  milling 
business  all  his  life.  His  father  moved  to  B'atar  Co.  in  1846,  where  the  family  has  resided  ever  since.  Mr.  M.  is  an 
enterpri  ing  gentleman,  closelv  identified  with  th'>  interests  of  this  growing  and  prosperous  community  and  is  justly 
esteemed  as  one  of  the  prominent  citizens.  Mr.  W.  A.  Mellon  is  a  native  of  Beaver  Co.,  he  has  charge  of  the  office  and 
books  of  the  firm,  in  which  position  he  enjoys  the  confidence  of  all  the  patrons  of  the  establishment. 


G2  INDIJ8TKIJCS    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

A.  S.  &  R.  W.  HAli'L.—Manufrs.  of  Buggies,  Barouches,  Spring  Wagons,  &c. 

Miilhcrri/  Street,  Beaver  FalLf. 
Tliis  cntornriaing  niul  prosperous  Tinn  fouiulcd  tlioir  prnsont  industry  in  May  1875,  since  wlion  great  progress  has 
boon  mmle,  (Miiiirgoil  iiieilitics  ereiitcd,  and  an  extonsivo  and  growing  trade  liuilt  up.  'J'iio  buildings  erected  by  tliein  to 
aceoniuiodale  their  business  are  a  substanliiil  two-story  frame  building  2().\f)()  feet,  with  largo  basement,  and  a  black- 
smith shop  yi.xT)!)  feet.  'VUo  capital  at  first  invested  was  small,  but  has  increased  from  time  to  time,  until  now  there  is 
invested  from  17(100  to  S^HOOO  in  buildings  and  sloek,  and  an  annual  business  amounting  from  S80()0  to  Jlo,0()0  is  done,  8 
hands  are  employ(Hl  in  the  manufacture  of  all  kinds  of  light  vehicles,  buggies,  carriages,  coaches,  spring  wagons,  Ac. 
'I'lu'  (|nality  of  tllo  work  of  this  tirin  is  equal  in  every  respect  to  the  best  work  turned  (mt  in  the  country.  The  gentlc- 
uu'ii  eomposing  the  llrni  arc  thoroughly  reliable  and  iiraetieal  workmcMi,  and  will  not  turn  out  any  inferior  work.  Their 
tradt^  has  already  extended  into  adjoining  counties  and  slates  and  into  Maryland.  They  are  taxed  to  tlieirfull  capacity 
to  meet  the  growing  demand  that  is  made  upon  them.  ]\lr.  II.  S.  Hall  is  a  native  of  Beaver,  born  in  1810.  lie  learned 
the  trad(M>f  carriage  building  in  the  noted  establishment  of  (!.  West  <t  Co.,  and  after  completing  his  aiiprentieeship  lio 
went,  into  the  great  estalilisliment  of  11.  Hale  it  Co..  of  New  Hav(>n,  Conn.,  where  ho  remained  two  years  perfecting  his 
knowledge  of  tlio  trade.  He  possesses  all  the  re(]uisiles  for  building  n  large  establishment  in  the  enterprise  in  which  ho 
is  engaged.  He  was  a  member  of  the  llrm  of  Wu.-ncr,  IMngham  <t  Hull,  of  New  Brighton,  for  ii  period  of  3  years,  jirior 
to  founding  his i)ies('nt  eslablishnu'nt.  K.  W.  Hall  is  also  a  native  of  Heaver  Co.,  he  learned  the  trade  of  machinist  in 
Wellsville,  ().,  and  followed  it  unlil  engaging  with  his  brother  in  their  jirescnt  business,  taking  charge  of  the  forging  and 
blaeUsinilhing  departnienl  of  the  works,  as  well  as  devoting  hisatlcntion  to  the  sale  of  the  ])roducts.  Both  gentlemen 
devote  their  personal  attention  to  the  manufacturing,  and  are  regarded  as  iu  ov^ry  way  a  reliable  and  enterprising  lirra. 

EMERSON  SAW  WORKS^-Emerson,  Smith  d  Co.,  Beaver  Falls,  Pa. 

Hv  the  entire  range  of  this  work,  reviewing  [\w  industrial  interests  of  the  State,  no  establishment  will  be  found  more 
worthy  of  consideration,  none  that  has  achieved  more  notable  triumi)hs  for  American  skilland  inventivegenius,  than  the 
lOmerson  ,Saw  Works,  and  Mr.  .1.  10.  ICiner.son,  to  whose  energy,  talents  and  inventive  genius  are  nuiiuly  dui!  the  grand 
results  achieved,  is  justly  en  lit  led  to  tlu^  advanced  position  he  holds  among  the  leading  inventors  of  the  age,  as  well  as 
the  high  considiM'ation  with  which  he  is  regard(>d  by  the  entire  county.  I'lie  prcseni  works  of  Kmerson,  Smith  A  Co. 
were  founded  in  1871  on  a  niiieli  smaller  si'ali'  than  at  present  prevails,  the  rapid  growth  of  the  business  having  neces- 
sitated fi'ei|uent  enlargements  and  inijirovi  inenls  which  the  conliniud  growth  of  demand  for  their  Jiioducts  still 
renders  lUM'cssary,  and  before  long  their  pi(>sint  very  e.\tenMiv(!  plant  will  be  doubled  in  size  and  eajiacity.  All  the 
imiu'ovinnents  ami  additions  that  have  bi'eii  and  are  being  innde  are  erected  in  the  most  enduring  manner,  the  buil- 
dings being  built  of  stoiui  in  a  very  substantial  way,  tluit  will  last  for  generations.  They  now  cover  an  area  of  1  acre 
of  ground,  with  -  acres  of  adjoining  ground,  that  will  doiihth.ss  in  a  few  years  al.so  be  utilized  in  the  enlargement  of 
the  works  and  the  extension  of  their  facilities.  The  entire  works  are  titled  with  the  most  perfect  machinery  that  can 
be  devised,  which  is  driven  by  a  tine  iW  luusi^  power  engine,  and  is  divided  and  very  coveuiently  arranged  into  G  sepa- 
rato  deiiartments,  consisting  of  Toothing,  l''itling,  Smithing  and  Hammering,  (irinding,  Tempering  and  Finishing. 
The  whole  being  undi'r  the  direct  sui>ervision  of  Air.  ICineisun  himself,  who,  with  years  of  practical  experience  and 
knowledge  derived  from  a  close  study  of  the  requirements  of  a  perfect  saw — is  perhaps  the  most  scientilic  saw  maker 
ill  the  wiu'ld.  The  (establishment  now  ranks  as  one  of  the  largest  in  the  U.  S.  It  is  most  eligibly  situated  on  llio 
banks  of  Ueaver  lliver,  with  convenient  access  to  an  abundance  of  chca))  fuel,  having  in  adilition  the  advantages  of  a 
natural  gas  well  iu  closi*  proximity  to  the  works,  which  is  now  being  utilized  to  sup])ly  light  to  the  buildings,  and  is 
usi'd  in  some  departuuuits  of  the  work  for  fuel,  'i'he  P.  A  L.  K.  Ii.  K.,  with  convenient  siilings,  passes  In  front  of  their 
door,  atroriling  every  convenience  for  the  receipt  of  materials  and  the  shiinuent  of  their  iinnlucts.  The  entire  plant 
represents  an  inveslinent  of  tf7r),t)00.  Ji'rom  lla  to  10  hands  are  employed  in  the  various  departmentsof  the  works,  all  of 
whom  are  skilled  mi-chanics.  Daniaseus  tenipercMl  Saws  of  all  desciiplions  are  made,  but  the  main  products  of  the 
works  consist  of  the  specialties  below  nientioiu-d,  viz:  ICmeison's  ratent  I'laner  Saws,  for  general  use;  Emerson's  Pat- 
ent Flange  Toothed  Saws,  for  general  use  ;  lOmerson's  Patent  Clipper  Flange  Toothed  Saws  ;  ICiuerson's  Patent  Lum- 
hermau's  (.'Upper  Saws,  lOxtra  thin  ;  Kmer.son's  ratent  Dniversal  and  AdjustabUe  Saw  Swage;  ICmerson's  Patent  Labor- 
Saving  .\ttachmeiit  and  Twin  (Hipper  C'ross  (Uit  Saws,  together  with  the  various  kinds  of  insert  saw  teeth.  Theabovo 
specialties  lire  all  the  inventions  ol  Mr.  lOmerson,  and  are  iierfectly  adapted  to  the  dillercnt  requirements  for  which 
tlicy  wore  designed.  At  the  famous  saw  contest  in  Cincinnati  iu  1871,  Mr.  Emerson,  with  one  of  his  saws  made  at 
these  works,  fully  demonstraled  their  superiority  over  all  other  kinds,  and  carried  oil" the  purse  of  SlOO  in  gold  and  all 
tlu'  premiums  that  were  awanU'd,  as  well  as  having  caniiMl  oll'the  prt>miums  at  wherever  they  have  been  exhil)ited, 
for  liotli  solid  and  adjustable  test  saws.  The  grand  aehievcments  of  these  works  are  matters  for  justifiable  inide,  and 
no  establishment  in  the  world  can  present  a  more  splendid  ri'cord.  A  thorough  knowledge  of,  and  close  attention  to 
tlu'  luisiness,  Tlmy  use  only  of  the  v(-ry  best  quality  of  material,  and  the  emiiloyment  of  the  most  skillful  workmen 
have  contributed  to  the  I'csults  attained.  Tlu-  I'laner  Saw  tooth  is  now  one  of  tlio  jirincipal  specialties  invented  by 
Mr.  I'liuerson,  and  exclusively  owned  by  this  tirm.  It  was  tirst  introduced  about  8  years  ago,  and  is  having  a  very  ex- 
tensive sale,  it  is  designed  to  obviate  the  necessity  of  tiling,  and  so  cheaply  are  they  made  and  supjilied,  that  it  is  far 
cheaper  to  use  the  planer  liit,  than  to  lile  the  saws;  they  are  sold  at  three  cents  each.  The  many  very  highly  coni]]li- 
mentary  leders  received  by  the  tiini  from  tlu'ir  <leligliled  eusloniers  in  all  parts  of  the  country  and  world,  fully  attest 
the  great  superiority  of  the  planer  tooth  and  other  styles  of  saws  here  made,  space  will  luit  permit  of  mention  of  the  very 
numerous  ingenius  in venti(uis  of  great  utility,  n'lating  to  tlu'  saw  business,  that  have  been  made  by  Mr.  Fmer.son,  and 
that  are  niaiiufactured  at  these  works,  his  inventive  genius  seems  to  have  covered  tlu>  whole  range  of  sawing  and  saw- 
mill applianei's  and  devisi'd  th(>  many  improvements  that  have  made  his  name  so  wi'll  known  throughout  the  whole 
world.  .V  neat  ealalogne  is  published,  giving  full  information  in  regard  to  all  their  products.  This  notice  wiuild  be  in- 
complete wilhoiii  some  per.sonal  mention  of  Mr.  ICniersou,  who.se  inventions  have  completely  revolutionized  the  saw 
Imsiness  and  his  assoeiati's  in  thisgri'at  establishment.  Mr.  lOnierson  is  a  native  of  JMaiiie,"borii  in  18'J;!.  He  went 
from  there  in  18.'>2  to  the  I'aeitie  Coast,  and  engaged  in  the  lumber  business,  where  the  suggestions  for  great  inventions 
that  he  has  since  made  were-  received.  He  invented  the  insert  saw  tooth.  He  quit  the  lumber  business  and  engaged  in 
the  manufacture  and  insertion  of  saw  teeth,  eondueting  a  shop  in  San  Krancisco  and  one  in  Sacramento.  He  eventu- 
ally sold  out  his  business  there,  and  remove<l  to  the  state  of  N.  .1.,  where  he  organized  sind  l)uilt  uji  the  American  Saw 
l'.o  ,  and  conducted  its  operations  a  numln"r  of  years;  severing  his  connection  with  this  ('o.,  he  made  an  extensive  tour 
through  the  foreign  manufaeturing  cities,  inspceling  the  various  processes  of  manufacturing,  and  gaining  much  valua- 
ble intormation  and  largely  increasing  his  knowledge,  already  very  extensive  of  the  saw  business.  He  was  accorded 
many  privileges  and  treated  with  much  consideration  by  the  foreign  manufacturers.  Keturning  to  this  country  in  1869, 
he  came  to  Beaver  Falls  and  established  the  presi-nt  industry,  and  is  an  enduring  monument  to  the  triumphs  of 
American  skill  and  genlous,  of  what  Mr.  lOmerson  has  every  cause  to  be  proud.  The  other  meml)ers  of  the  tirm 
are  Messrs.  ,Ios.  B.  Smith  and  .lulins  1''.  Kurtz.  Mr.  Smith  was  formerly  a  large  contraetorand  builder,  and  .several  of 
the  prominent  buildings  of  rittshnrgh  were  ereeteil  by  him,  including  the  tine  Union  Depot  that  was  destroyed  by 
the  great  ,luly  riots.  He  does  not  take  an  active  interest  in  the  business  managemont,  having  retired  from  active 
business  pursuits.  Mr.  .luliiis  F.  Kurtz,  the  junior  member  of  the  tirm,  has  charge  of  the  tinancial  alVairs  and 
general  oiliee  Imsiness,  a  position  for  which  he  is  eminently  qualilied  by  years  of  nractieal  experience,  having 
been  cashier  of  the  Pa.  company  bir  a  number  of  years.  He  brought  with  him  into  this  enterprise  a  large 
personal  acquaintance  with  the  biisiness  interests  of  the  country  with  ability  of  a  high  order.  The  tirm  of  Em- 
erson, Smith  A  Co.,  ill  their  partiiuhir  line  of  products,  stands  unrivalled  by  any  cotemporaneous  establishment 
In  the  world,  and  no  word  of  I'ommcndation  can  more  than  express  the  fulT  award  of  merit  that  Is  justly  their 
due,  and  their  products  are  rapidly  supplanting  nil  other  makes  in  every  part  of  the  wi>rld,  being  far  in  advance 
in  all  the  desiralde  requisites  in  tirst  class  articles  of  all  other  makes.  Mention  should  be  made  of  the  fact  that 
American  Steel  is  exclusively  used  in  these  works,  having  proven  in  every  respect  equal  to  the  best  English  Steel 
ever  made,  and  In  some  respects  superior. 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA.  63 

A.  F.  'WO'LT— Manufacturer  of  Stoves  and  Hollow  Ware,  Beaver  Falls,  Pa. 

Among  llie  nuuiher  of  lino  nianufacturing  ostablislunonts  in  Beaver  Falls,  (hero  are  none  more  complete  or  perfectly 
ananged  in  their  way  llian  tlie  .splenilid  new  Stove  Works  of  Mr.  A.  F.  Wolf,  wliicli  are  worthy  of  more  than  passing 
notice,  in  a  work  rovit  wiiit;  the  iniluslries  of  this  section.  These  works  were  originally  founded  by  A.  F.  Wolf  &  Co., 
afterwards  carried  on  bv  Mes.srs.  Hildenlirand  A  Wolf  in  18G8,  on  ft  luiich  smaller  scale  than  at  present  exists.  In  J870 
Mr.  llililenbrand  withdrew  from  the  firm  and  the  business  has  since  been  conducted  by  Mr.  Wolf  himself.  It  has 
j;radually  grown  and  increased  under  the  enterprising  management  of  Mr.  W.,  and  enlarged  facilities  were  added  from 
time  to  time  to  keep  pace  with  the  demand  for  his  products.  A  tine  establishment  liad  thus  been  built  np,  when,  in 
the  early  part  of  the  present  year  (1879)  the  entire  establishment  with  all  the  valuable  patterns,  was  burned  to  the 
ground,  and  the  labor  and  toil  of  years  suddenly  destroyed.  With  characteristic  energy,  Mr.  W.  immediately  set 
al)Out  repairing  his  loss,  and  in  a  brief  time  his  present  tine  works  were  erected.  They  are  in  many  respects  liiodol 
ones,  and  are  as  eomi)letely  and  conveniently  arranged  iis  could  i)Ossibly  be  desired,  and  every  facility  is  attbrded  for 
the  perfect  and  convenient  manufacture  of  tlie  dillcrcnt  classes  <if  ])roducts  here  made.  The  building  is  22.')  feet  .square, 
and  the  ditl'erent  departments  arranged  in  the  most  systematic  manner.  The  works  are  sujiplied  with  all  the  latestand 
most  approved  machinery  requisite  in  this  branch  of  industry.  A  new  and  complete  set  of  patterns  liave  taken  the 
place  of  those  destroyed,  and  the  works  in  every  respict  arc  superior  to  the  old  ones.  The  cupola  has  a  capacity  of  7 
tons.  From  112,000  io  115,000  is  invested  in  the  plant,  while  a  largo  stock  of  Stoves  and  Hollow  Ware  is  carried,  as 
well  as  large  quantities  of  raw  material.  4o  to  50  hands  are  employed,  to  whom  ?2,200  par  month  is  paid  for  wages. 
These  works,  in  point  of  equipment  and  character  of  products,  will  comi)are  uio.'+t  favorably  with  any  in  the  United 
States.  The  trade  extends  throughout  the  West  and  man/  parts  of  the  East.  Shipments  have  been  made  to  Japan, 
from  whence  a  iirotitahle  trade  may  yet  be  derived.  A  spirit  of  progress  and  improvement  pervades  the  whole  estab- 
lishment, improveuuints  being  continually  made  to  their  already  very  excellent  products.  Among  some  of  the  im- 
provements that  have  been  devised,  the  front  top  feed  on  all  the  cook  stoves  made,  is  one  that  has  proven  of  great 
utility  and  convenience,  and  though  first  invented  and  adopted  by  Mr.  Wolf  on  his  stoves,  has  been  adoi)led  by  many 
of  the  stove  makers  throughout  the  country,  Mr.  Wolf  having  neglected  to  jirotect  himself  by  taking  out  patents.  The 
invention  is  a  very  ))erf(H't  and  convenient  one,  alibrding  an  opening  for  supplying  fuel  without  permilting  the  smoke 
and  dust  to  escape  from  the  stove,  or  without  removing  pots  or  kettles  from  it.  This,  with  other  improvements,  has 
given  to  the  products  of  this  foundry  an  extended  re|)utation,  and  has  jilaced  the  "Howard  Coal  Cook  Stove"  and  the 
"Woman's  Rights  Wood  Stove,"  intlu;  front'rank  of  the  most  poiiular  stoves  in  the  country.  The  practical  working 
of  the  foundry  is  under  the  charge  of  Mr.  U.  A.  Tliomp.son,  the  superintend(Mit,  who  is  a  thoroughly  experienced  stove 
maker,  and  a  gentleman  of  inteliigiiuce  and  ability.  Mr.  Wolf  is  a  native  of  Lancaster  Co.,  this  State,  he  has  been  en- 
gag(!d  in  the  present  business  since  l.Sl'iS,  prior  to  that  time  he  had  been  iMigagcMl  in  mercantile  pursuits  in  Indiana  and 
Ohio.  He  is  an  enterprising  pulilic  spirited  gentleman,  taking  an  active  interest  in  the  aftairs  of  th(>  community,  with 
the  interests  of  which  he  is  efosc^l  y  idenlilieil.  With  the  most  perfi'ct  facnlities,  large  experience  and  abundant  means, 
Mr.  Wolf  is  enabled  to  present  advantages  to  the  trade  not  easily  duplicated  in  this  or  any  other  market. 

A.  'DA'VIDSO'N^—Miner  and  Manufacturer  of  Coal  and  Coke,  Beaver  Falls,  Pa. 

The  hills  adjoining  the  town  of  Beaver  ]'"'alls  contain  an  abundant  store  of  Coal,  the  vein  being  .S  feet  thick  and  the 
eoal  of  an  excellent  quality.  A  number  of  pits  are  in  operation  along  the  hillside — the  most  prominent  and  extensive 
being  those  of  Mr.  A.  Davidson,  which  are  located  on  the  line  of  the  Pittsburgh,  Ft  W.  &  C.  Ry.  on  the  western  side  of 
the  town.  Two  main  entries  are  driven  into  the  hillside,  from  which  the  coal  is  brought  forth  and  run  down  an  inclino 
to  the  foot  of  the  hill,  where  Mr.  Davidson  has  recently  erected  a  large  building,  72x10  feet,  with  hack  building  45xG0 
feet,  most  conveniently  arranged  for  loading,  etc..  where  the  coal  is  screened  and  stored,  and  loaded  into  wagons  or  ears 
for  delivery  to  customers.  The  capacity  of  these  mines  is  from  75  to  100  tons  per  day,  and  from  10  to  IJO  miners  are  cm- 
ployed.  The  trade  is  mainly  local,  msmy  of  the  manufacturing  establishments  being  8ut)plied  from  these  works,  besides 
a  large  number  of  private  families.  Coke  is  manufactured  also,  on  a  limited  scale,  the  coal  making  a  good  coke  for  .some 
purposes.  Mr.  Davidson  is  a  native  of  this  place,  and  has  been  engaged  in  tlie  coal  business  hero  since  18G8,  since  which 
time  his  business  has  grown  into  its  present  large  [jroportions.  Prior  to  engaging  in  the  coal  business  he  was  engaged  in 
the  lumber  business.  He  is  a  gentleman  well  known  and  esteemed  in  the  community  with  whose  interests  he  is  identi- 
fied. He  ia  now  prepared,  with  the  increa.sed  facililies  that  have  been  added  to  his  works,  to  meet  any  demand  that 
may  be  made  upon  him. 


CO-OPERATIVE  FLINT  GLASS  CO.,  Limited. 

Manufacturers  of  all  kinds  of  Flint  Glassware. 

This  new  and  extensive  establishment,  originated  and  successfully  established  by  a  number  of  practical  Glass 
workers,  who  conceived  the  idea  of  uniting  their  savings  and  labor  and  establishing  a  factory  of  their  own,  where 
the  products  of  their  willing  hands  might  bo  Ixn'ined, — is  deserving  of  particular  mention  in  a  detailed  review  of  the 
great  industries  of  this  section  The  factory,  which  was  ready  for  work  and  started  up  on  the  18th  of  May  187S1 — 
within  3  months  after  ground  had  been  broken — was  built  by  the  members  of  the  company,  who  all  went  to  work 
with  willing  hands,  and  in  this  brief  time  had  the  satisfaction  of  having  completed  one  of  the  most  i)erfeetly  equipped 
and  arranged  glass  factories  in  the  U.  S.  The  works  are  most  conveniently  located  and  rare  iudgment  was  displayed 
in  the  selection  of  the  site.  The  raw  material  is  brought  direct  to  their  doors  by  the  P.  &  L.  ll;.  K.  R.,  and  the  products 
of  the  factory  are  rolled  directly  into  the  ears.  The  men  in  all  the  difl'erent  departments  are  thoroughly  experienced 
and  skilled  workmen,  and  are  nearly  all  stockholders  in  the  company.  The  class  of  work  turned  out  covers  the  whole 
range  of  flint  glassware  and  embraces  a  great  variety. of  table  ware,  bar  goods,  jelly  tumblers,  toilet  articles,  lamps,  and 
every  conceivable  variety  of  plain  and  fancy  ware.  The  quality  of  the  glass  that  is  now  being  made  here,  is  beyond  a 
doubt  equal  in  every  respect  to  any  heretofore  made  in  the  U.  S.  The  results  of  their  first  6  months'  operations  have 
t)een  most  gratifying,  as  they  weie  greeted  with  a  rapidly  increasing  number  of  orders  from  all  parts  of  the  country, 
taxing  their  works  to  their  utmost  capacity  to  meet  the  demand.  Notwithstanding  the  jealousy  with  which  many  of 
the  older  glass  manufacturers  of  this  .section,  who  would  gladly  confine  the  productions  to  them.selves,  look  upon  this 
new  enterprise  and  their  wise  predictions  of  failure,  the  success  of  the  enterprise  is  now  fully  assured,  and  the 
popular  Co-Operativo  Flint  (Jlass  Co  are  in  a  manly  manner  pushing  their  way  to  the  favor  of  the  trade  in  all  parts 
of  tii(>  country  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  older  combinations.  Mr.  L.  Stoehr,  the  chairman  of  the  company,  is  also 
(ieiieral  Superintendent  of  the  works.  He  is  a  thoroughly  competent  and  experienced  glass  worker  and  an  enterprising 
and  popular  gentleman,  possessing  every  requisite  for  the  position  he  holds.  Mr.  Jos.  K.  Brown,  the  Secretary  and 
Treasurer,  to  whom  the  inception  of  the  enterprise  is  mainly  duo,  has  been  connected  with  the  glass  business  for 
many  years  in  the  capacity  of  clerk  in  one  of  the  leading  Pittsburgh  manufactories,  where  he  gained  a  thorough  in- 
sight into  the  details  of  "the  business  management  of  tlu;  glass  business,  and  formed  an  extensive  acquaintance 
with  the  trade  throughout  the  country.  He  is  well  fitted  for  the  position  he  holds,  and  possesses  many  qualities 
that  have  secured  for  him  the  esteem  of  his  as.sociatcs,  as  well  as  all  who  know  him.  The  members  Of  the  company 
throughout  are  all  men  of  character  ami  experience,  who  have  enjoyed  the  confidence  of  the  community  in  which 
they  have  lived,  and  bring  into  their  neweiiterpri.se  the  hearty  good-will  of  the  entire  public. 

With  abundant  facilities,  cheap  transportation,  posse.ssing  within  itself  skilled  and  pr.actical  workmen  in  every 
department,  and  a  determination  to  merit  thoTTighest  success,  this  company  is  fully  competent  to  hold  their  own 
against  any  adverse  ciretimstances  that  may  arise,  and  to  produce  articles  as  low  as  any  concern  in  the  U.  S.  Prompt 
and  reliable,  all  orders  entrusted  to  their  hands  are  executed  in  the  most  satisfactory  manner. 


64  INDUSTKIES   OF  PENNSYLVAIvriA. 

PirrSBURGH  HINGE  CO.,  Ijim.ited-Beaver  Falls,  Pa.     J.  ir.  ucMuhon, 

Manufacturers  of  QUADRATE  BARB  £ENCE  WIRE.  '^"i-eas. 

The  greatly  d'versified  character  as  well  as  the  tnagnitiide  of  the  flbat  industrial  establishments  that  have  sprung 
Into  existence  at  the  bidding  of  the  genius  of  enterprise  and  progress  i'ii  this  great  Iron  centre  of  America,  is  perhaps 
but  faintly  realized  by  even  her  own  citizens,  and  the  value  and  importance  of  a  work  of  this  nature,  conveying 
some  adequate  idea  of  the  magnitude,  extent  and  variety  of  the  great  industries  of  this  section,  is  apparent  to  all  "who 
give  the  subject  thought,  and  the  dissemination  of  such  knowledge  as  herein  contained,  throughout  all  parts  of  the 
world,  must  be  largely  conducive  to  the  interests  of  all  in  any  way  connected  with  the  prosperity  of  the  community 
at  large,  as  well  as  the  individual  establishments  themselves. 

The  Pittsburgh  Hinge  Co  ,  Limited,  pursuing  a  special  branch  of  manufacture,  of  a  class  of  articles  adapted  to 
the  great  agricultural  interests  of  the  country,  on  a  scale  of  great  magnitude,  are  deserving  of  more  tlian  ordinary 
consideration  in  these  pages.  The  company  was  organized  in  J875,  and  leased  the  works  at  Beaver  Falls  now  occu- 
pied, which  had  previously  been  operated  by  the  firm  of  Reiter  &  Armor,  iu  the  exclusive  manufacture  of  Hinges. 
These  works  since  coming  into  the  hands  of  the  present  company  have  been  greatly  improved  and  enlarged,  and  fa- 
cilities added  for  the  manufacture  of  the  many  varieties  of  goods  now  made.  The  plant  consists  of  one  main  3-story 
frame  building  70  by  140  feet,  one  3-story  stone  building  5'J  by  I'iO  feet,  chain  shop  120  by  180  feet.  The  whole  estab- 
lishment isfltted  with  machinery  of  the  most  perfect  kind,  much  of  which  is  novel  and  peculiar  to  this  establish- 
ment, and  is  admirably  adapted  to  the  work  that  it  so  wonderfully  performs.  The  machinery  is  driven  by  water 
power  aggregating  120-horse  power.  The  machinery  (the  patent  belonging  exclusively  to  this  Co.J  for  making  their 
celebrated  Quadrate  Barb  Fence  Wire,  is  the  most  perfect  iu  the  world  and  gives  to  this  establisliuient  a  great  ad- 
vantage over  any  contemporaneous  concern  in  the  same  line.  The  works  are  capable  of  producing  two  car  loads  of 
their  various  goods  per  day.  Their  trade  extends  to  all  parts  of  America,  and  their  products  are  rapidly  finding 
foreign  markets,  possessing  undoubted  superior  qualities.  l''rom  250  to  300  hands  are  employed  in  the  workshops 
and  from  $6000  to  $8000  is  disbursed  in  wages  monthly,  a  considerable  number  of  the  force  employed  being  boys.  The 
trade  reaches  in  the  neighborhood  of  half  a  million  dollars  annually.  The  products  of  these  works  consist  of  all  va- 
rieties of  agricultural  chains,  such  as  Coil,  Well,  Trace,  Halter,  Log  Chains,  etc.  liame  Clips,  Crowbars,  Harrow  Teeth, 
Fire  Shovels  and  Pokers,  Strap  and  T  Hinges,  Screw  and  Strap  Hinges,  Single  Trees,  Double  Trees,  Keck  Yokes, 
Wrought  Iron  Seat  Hoolcs,  Clevises,  Wagon  and  Plow  Kails  pointed  by  liand,  patent  Picket  and  Tent  Pins,  Lap  Rings, 
Repair  Links,  and  a  great  variety  of  other  agricultural  hardware.  Ko  other  establishment  in  the  U.  S.  covers  the 
sanje  range  of  products  as  this.  Wherever  these  products  have  been  sold,  they  have  met  with  the  approval  of  all 
who  have  used  them,  and  they  rank  among  the  best  goods  in  the  market. 

Thk  Quadrath  B.V.UB  FiCNCE  WinE. — One  of  their  leading  specialties  is  an  article  that  so  perfectly  supplies  a 
want  long  felt,  so  fully  meeting  all  the  requirements  of  a  durable,  perfect  and  cheap  fence  that,  tliough  of  compara- 
tively r<^eent  introduction,  the  demand  for  it  has  grown  so  rapidly  that  the  capacity  of  the  works  have  been  fully 
taxed  to  meet  the  demand.  The  advantages  of  the  barb  fence  are  so  nu.iierous,  while  lieing  the  cheapest  fence  made, 
that  it  is  apparent  to  all  that  the  demand  for  it  will  continue  to  increase  more  rapidly  in  the  future  than  heretofore  The 
advantages  possessed  by  the  Quadrate  Barb  Wire  over  other  styles  are  set  forth  in  the  following  claim  :  Having  Jour 
points  st-anding  at  right  angles.  Each  barb  is  firmly  fastened  to  its  place  and  warranted  not  to  become  loose  or  slide  along 
the  vflre.  The  barbs  remain  equally  firm  on  single  and  twisttd  wire.  The  wire  is  twisted  by  a  process  that  does  not 
iijjure  it.    The  barbs  are  put  around  the  twisted  wire,  preventing  untwisting  in  case  either  wire  breaks. 

Car-loads  of  this  wire  are  daily  shipped  to  all  parts  of  the  West  and  South,  California,  Australia,  South  America, 
and  other  distant  parts.  Mr.  J.  H.  McWahon,  Treasurer,  has  charge  of  the  business  management  of  the  establisliment, 
to  whom  all  communications  should  be  addn  ssed.  He  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh  and  has  been  identified  with  the  iron 
business  since  boyhood.  The  patrons  of  the  establishment  will  find  in  him  a  gentleman  of  high  character,  at  whoso 
hands  they  will  receive  the  fairest  treatment. 

The  Pittsburgh  Hinge  Co.  in  their  great  products  offer  inducements  to  the  trade  that  are  not  easily  duplicated  by 
any  establishment  in  the  United  States. 

PENN  BRIDGE  WORKS -5.  T.  White,  G.  E.,  Beaver  Falls,  Pa. 

These  Works  were  originally  founded  in  1864  by  T.  B.  White  &  Sons,  at  New  Brighton,  on  a  much  smaller  scale  than 
at  present  prevails.  In  1876  the  firm  was  dissolved,  and  the  business  has  since  then  been  conducted  by  his  son,  Mr.  T. 
S.  White.  On  the  first  of  April  1879  the  works  were  removed  to  their  present  location  in  Beaver  Falls,  where  a  much 
more  eligible  situation  was  secured,  affording  greatly  increased  facilities  for  the  rapidly  enlarging  business.  New  works 
were  erected,  which  are  60  feet  wide  and  24(»  feet  long,  finely  fitted  with  new  and  improved  machinery  and  convenient 
and  necessary  appliances  for  the  successful  prosecution  of  work,  and  in  mauy  respects  are  very  complete  and  well 
equipped.  All  the  modern  appliances  and  machinery  required  for  the  most  jierfect  work  are  to  be  found  in  them 
Abundant  room  for  yards  and  necessary  work  is  had  in  the  ground  adjoining  the  works.  The  P  ,  I't.  W.  it  C.  Ky.  passes 
in  close  proximity  with  convenient  sidings,  and  it  is  but  a  short  distance  to  the  line  of  the  P.  &L.  E.  R.  R.  The  mechan- 
ical department  of  the  work  is  under  the  direct  supervision  of  Mr.  T.  B.  White,  whose  long,  practical  experience  and 
thorough  knowledge  of  bridge  architecture  renders  him  peculiarly  fitted  for  the  business  30  to  40  hands  are  employed 
in  the  works,  to  whom  from  $1000  to  $1500  per  month  are  paid.  From  8U00  to  12,000  toi;s  of  iron  are  consumed  annually. 
The  trade  of  the  Penn  Bridge  Works  extends  to  many  distant  parts  of  the  U.  S.,  bridges  having  been  eiecied  in  Massa- 
chusetts, Iowa,  Missouri,  Mississippi  and  many  other  States,  while  a  large  amount  of  work  is  done  in  building  county 
bridges  thrnughont  neighboring  counties,  contiguous  to  these  works.  Many  of  the  fi:ie  iro.i  bridges  on  the  line  of  the 
P.  &  L.  E.  R.  R.  were  erected  by  these  works.  A  700  foot  iron  bridge  across  the  Beaver  at  Ibis  point  is  now  in  process  of 
erection  by  them.  The  fine  bridges  on  l)ock  and  Water  St.,  Meadville,  I'a,,  which  are  prominent  for  their  symmetry 
and  beauty,  were  also  erected  by  Mr.  White.  These  works  with  their  new  and  enlaiged  facilities  are  prepared  to  do 
work  ia  any  part  of  the  country  on  as  reasonable  terms  as  any  cstablishmeMt,  and  can  take  contracts  and  execute  work 
in  the  most  prompt  and  satisfactory  manner.  Many  improvements  sug'j;ested  by  years  of  practical  experience  and 
study  have  been  made,  and  are  peculiar  to  these  works;  among  other  notable  point'^,  cast  iron  details  in  the  con- 
struction of  bridges  having  been  done  away  with.  'J'he  trade  of  these  wijrUs,  already  huge,  is  rapidly  extending.  Mr. 
T.  S.  White  was  born  in  New  Brighton  in  1852.  He  has  thoroughly  qualified  himself  by  study  for  the  business  in 
which  he  is  engaged.  He  is  a  graduate  of  Cornell  University  in  tli'e  degree  of  Civil  Engineer,  and  since  that  time 
has  been  connected  with  these  works.  The  Penn  Works  in  their  br:inch  of  business  oU'er  superior  inducements  and 
are  worthy  of  must  favorable  consideration  at  the  hands  of  those  requiring  their  class  of  work. 

GARDNER  HOUSE,  CHICAGO -J ewett  Wilcox,  Manager. 

CORNER  MICHIGAN  AVENUE  AND  JACKSON  ST.— Rates  $2.50  and  $3.00  per  day. 

The  GARDNER,  in  all  the  appointments,  luxuries  and  comforts  of  a  first-class  hotel,  has  no  siiperior  in  the  city. 
Mr.  Jewett  Wilcox  (late  of  the  Tremont)  having  assumed  the  management,  calls  the  attention  of  his  friends,  patrons, 
and  the  traveling  public  generally  to  the  fact  tiiatin  point  of  desirable  surroundings,  the  Gardner — being  situated  on 
one  of  the  broadest  and  most  fashionable  avenues  in  the  city,  directly  facining  the  lake,  from  which  it  is  only  separated 
by  the  park  in  front  of  the  house — has  many  advantages  in  its  attractive  location  not  iiossessed  by  any  other  hotel  in 
the  city.  250  rooms  newly  and  eleganvly  furnished;  convenient  to  all  places  of  amusement;  only  one  block  from  stretH 
cars  running  to  all  parts  of  the  city.  This  short  distance  is  more  than  compensated  U<v  by  the  delightful  breezes  fiom 
the  lake,  making  the  Gardner  unequalled  as  a  Summer  Hotel.  SPECIAL  CONTRACTS  made  to  delegations,  excur- 
sions, conventions  and  permanent  guests. 


■ 

65 

LOWEST  AND  HIGHEST  PRICES  OF   COMMODITIES   FOR   FIFTY-THREE   YEARS— 

1825-18 

77. 

(Compiled  from  the  Reports  of  the  Secretary  of  th 

eT 

reasury  for 

1863  ar 

id  1873,  thf 

'   Commercial 

and  Financial  Chronicle,  Reports  of  the  N.  Y.  Chamber  ( 

jf  Commerce, 

and  the  IS 

.  Y.  Shipping 

List  and  Price  Current.) 

The  following  table,  carefully  compiled  from  the  sources 

ndicated,  takes  the  prices 

of  the  twelve  months  in 

each 

year,  selecting  the  highest  and  lowes 

» quotation  for  each  article. 

It  is  to  be  understood, 

where  no  mention  of  qu 

ility 

is  made,  that  the 

price  quote 

d  is  lor  the  cheapest  grade  of  each  commodity. 

■~ 

The  prices  are  those  of  the  New  York  market 

Year. 

Seef, 

Mess. 

Butter. 

Cheese. 

Coal. 
Anthracite. 

Coffee, 
Rio. 

Corn. 

Cotton, 
Upland. 

Flour, 

West. 

Ha 

ms. 
If. 

.s. 

Bill. 

1 

h7 

lb. 

Ton. 

lb. 
L.  H. 

Bush. 

lb. 

Bbl. 
T.              H. 

t: 

Cl 

L. 

H.     1  L. 

L. 

H. 

L 

H. 

L. 

H 

L. 

H. 

§          1  Cts. 

Cts. 

$ 

CI 

s. 

CIS. 

.is. 

$ 

1825... 

8  CO 

10  GOi  8 

22 

5 

10 

8  CO 

n  on 

16 

19 

42 

75 

13 

27 

3  25 

4  25 

7 

11 

182H... 

8  00 

10  0013 

18 

6 

1211  0) 

12  OOJU 

17 

62 

83 

9 

14 

4  25 

5  75 

8 

U 

1827... 

0  50 

9  7512 

22 

6 

101  »  50 

12  50  14 

15 

54 

75 

8 

12 

4  37 

6  5(1 

10 

12 

1828... 

8  50 

10  00 

13 

18 

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8  (010 

14 

— L. 

LOWEST  AND  HIGHEST  PRICES  OF  COMMODITIES  FOR  FIFTY-THREE  YEARS- 

1825-1877. 

(Compiled  from  the  Reports  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  for  18G3  and  1873,  the  Commercial 
and  Financial  Chronicle,  Reports  of  the  N.  Y.  Chamber  of  Commerce,  and  tne  N.  Y.  Shippiiij; 
List  and  Price  Current.) 

Note. — In  the  American  Almanac  and  Treasury  of  Facts  for  1878,  pp.  278-9,  appeared  a  table  of  prices  compiled 
on  the  basis  of  the  average  price  of  eacli  article  in  .New  Yorlj,  the  )st  of  January  of  each  year.  Such  a  table,  however 
useful,  fails  to  give  thedata  which  are  important  in  forming  a  judgment  of  t lie  whole  range  of  prices  for  each  year. 
The  following  table,  carefully  compiled  from  the  sources  indicated,  takes  the  prices  of  the  twelve  months  in  each  year, 
selecting  the  highest  and  lowest  quotation  for  each  article.  It  is  to  be  understood,  where  no  mention  of  quality  is 
made,  that  the  price  quoted  is  for  the  cheapest  grade  of  each  commodity. 


Years. 

Pork, 

Mess. 

Rice. 

Sa 
Liver 

t, 
pool. 

Sugar, 
Raw. 

lb. 

Tobac- 
co, Ky. 
Leaf. 

:   Wheat. 

Whiskey. 

Wool. 

Bl)l. 

100  lbs. 

Hack. 

1 

.. 

Bush. 

Ual. 

lb. 

L. 

H. 

L. 

H. 

L. 

U. 

/.. 

H. 

L. 

H. 

L. 

H. 

L. 

H. 

L. 

//. 

■$ 

% 

I 

cts. 

Cl 

-S. 

s 

C 

s. 

Cts. 

182.-) 

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14  75 

2  00 

4  00 

2  37 

3  00 

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w 

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9 

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1  06 

25 

31 

30 

88 

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6 

10 

3 

8 

84 

1  02 

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28 

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20 

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18:8 

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2  25 

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3 

6 

95 

1  62 

20 

26 

20 

30 

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3  7. 

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7 

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18 

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3 

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32 

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32 

43 

CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  67 


NOTES  ON  THE  GJ^OLOGY  OF  PITTSBURGH. 

By    B.    C.    JILLSON,   M.  D.,   Ph.  D. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  held  June  3,  1879,  Dr.  B.  C.  Jillson,  by  special 
invitation,  read  a  paper  entitled,  "  Notes  on  the  Geology  of  Pittsburgh."  After  its  reading  a  com- 
mittee was  appointed  to  request  the  paper  for  publication  in  the  forthcoming  work  of  Mr.  Richard 
Edwards  on  "  The  Industries  of  Pittsburgh." 

It  is  said  to  be  a  wise  provision  of  Nature  which  causes  great  rivers  to  flow  near  large  cities ;  so  we  fiud  it  also  a 
wise  provision  of  Nature  wlaich,  in  like  manner — thougli  not  always  so  evident  to  the  casual  observer — shapes  the 
physical  features  of  the  country  in  such  a  way  as  to  give  great  advantages  to  one  particular  spot  over  another.  Pitts- 
burghers  justly  pride  themselves  on  what  they  have  done  by  tlieir  industry,  energy  and  business  habits.  Industry 
and  energy,  under  intelligent  guidance,  will  overcome  all  difficuliies.  Our  fathers  peiceived  tlie  advantages  of  this 
locality  wliich  Nature  had  prepared  for  us,  and  availed  lliemselves  of  it,  and  their  sons  have  wisely  followed  in  their 
footsteps.  But  have  we  done  all  we  can  do?  Have  we  improved  aU  the  advantages  which  Nature  has  poured  on  us 
with  such  a  lavisli  liand?    Let  us  loolc  at  some  of  the  geological  advantages  ol  this  locality. 

Starting  from  the  Atlantic  seaboard  and  going  west,  we  notice  a  wonderful  difference  in  the  physical  features  of 
the  country  in  every  few  miles'  travel.  At  first  we  find  the  rocks  hard  and  coarse,  and  composed  of  various  ingredi- 
ents, bent  and  twisted  so  that  tliey  have  no  form  or  comeliness.  Soon,  however,  these  irregularities  cliange,  and  we 
find  the  rocks  aiTanged  in  regular  layers,  forming  ridges  or  waves,  wliich  increase  in  size  till  the  huge  folds  familiar  to 
us  as  the  Alleglieny  mountains  are  reached.  From  the  Allegheny  mountains  westw.ird  the  waves  grow  less  and  less  ' 
through  Johnstown,  Latrobe,  Irwins,  hardly  perceptible  in  Pittsburgh,  and  gradually  disappearing  in  the  boundless 
prairies  farther  west.  Close  examination  shows  that  these  rocks  were  folded  by  intense  pressure  and  were  accom- 
pnnied  by  great  heat,  and  that  the  mighty  engine  wliich  accomplished  this  work  was  far  east.  The  effect  on  the  coal 
illustrates  this.  The  coal  be<ls  of  Rhode  Island  and  Massachusetts,  estimated  at  500  square  miles,  are  pressed  out  of  all 
shape — the  maximum  bed,  thirteen  feet  in  thickness,  dwindlingaway  in  many  places  to  a  mere  thread  jammed  into 
the  hard  metumorphic  rock.  The  coal,  too,  has  been  so  changed  by  heat  that  it  is  seldom  used  for  fuel.  Its  character  is 
well  illustrated  by  tlie  story  of  two  New  Euglanders  who  were  once  conversing  on  the  destruction  of  the  world  by 
fire,  when  one  of  tliom  remarked  that  if  he  were  here  at  that  time,  and  found  the  world  was  burning  up,  he  would 
run  and  stand  on  the  Rliode  Island  coal  banks,  lor  he  was  sure  they  would  be  the  last  things  to  l)urn.  Further  west, 
in  the  anthracite  coal  region,  we  find  the  seams  bent  Into  nearly  every  conceivable  shape,  dipping  sometimes  at  one 
angle  and  sometimes  at  anotlier — sometimes  with  the  strike  in  one  direction  and  sometimes  at  another,  though  in  gen- 
eral from  the  north-east  to  the  south-west.  Farther  west,  at  the  Broad-Top  field,  the  coal  is  neither  anthracite  nor 
bituminous,  but  partaking  of  the  nature  of  both,  and,  therefore,  called  semi-bituminous,  and  here  in  Pittsburgli  we 
find,  for  the  fii'st  time,  tlie  coal  pure  bituminous,  unaffected  by  pr,, sure  or  heat,  with  all  its  chemical  and  physic;il 
characters  well  preserved.  Our  coal  is  located  on  the  eastern  border  of  an  extensive  coal  field,  which  was  unaffected 
by  those  agents  which  naturally  changed  the  coal  and  made  such  havoc  with  the  layers  of  reck  further  east.  But 
there  is  another  aspect  of  this  coal  field  which  deserves  our  consideration,  if  we  would  realize  how  much  Pittsburgh  is 
indebted  to  Nature's  slow  and  continuDus  labor  long  ages  ago.  The  rocks  in  this  vicinity  are  nearly  horizontal. 
Standing  at  the  "  Point,"  where  the  Allegheny  and  Monongahela  unite  to  form  the  Ohio,  we  see,  opposite.  Coal  Hill 
or  Mt.  Washington,  rising  abruptly,  from  the  very  brink  of  the  river,  more  than  400  feet.  This  hill  is  composed  of 
layers  of  rock  arranged  horizontally,  with  just  enough  difference  in  color  and  external  appearance  to  be  recognized 
at  this  distance.  At  the  base  we  see  about  100  feet  of  an  olive  or  buff-colored  shale,  and  directly  above  it  a  layer  of 
sandstone  75  or  80  feet  thick,  of  a  gray  color  and  somewhat  micaceous.  Resting  on  tliis  siindstone  are  layers  of  shale 
and  limestone,  the  whole  forming  a  bad  of  about  125  feet  in  thickness.  Three  nundred  feet  above  the  river  we  see 
distinctly  the  layer  of  coal,  like  a  broad,  black  belt,  girdling  the  hill.  Upon  the  layer  of  coal  rests  at  least  100  feet  of 
shales,  sandstones  and  limestones.  Up  and  down  the  left  bank  of  the  Monongaliela  and  Ohio,  as  ^ir  as  the  eye  can 
reach,  these  bells  of  rook  can  be  plainly  seen,  undeviatingly  in  the  order  and  position  described.  Looking  now  across 
the  Allegheny,  to  the  rear  of  Allegheny  City,  we  see  exactly  the  same  arrangement  of  rock — shale  corresponding  to 
shale,  sandstone  to  sandstone,  limestone  to  limestone,  to  the  top  of  tlie  hill,  wliile  beyond  and  at  a  greater  height  wo 
find  the  coal.  Looking  up  the  Allegheny  river,  we  see  the  layer  of  shale  forming  Troy  Hill,  while  at  a  greater  height, 
in  the  dim  distance,  we  see  the  openings  iu  llie  coal  layer.  At  the  Union  Depot  we  find  the  100  feet  of  sliale  capped 
by  the  sandstone  layer  in  the  quarry  back  of  the  High  School  building,  while  near  the  top  of  the  hill  the  coal  makes 
its  appearance.  These  horizontal  strata  which  we  see  on  every  side,  answering  layer  to  layer,  are  silent  witnesses  of  the 
past  They  show  plainly  that  the  general  surface  of  the  surrounding  country  was  at  one  time  about  403  feet  above  where 
we  now  stand.  If  the  rocks  which  form  our  county  had  been  the  hard  granitic  and  raetamorphic  rocks  of  tlie  eastern 
part  of  our  State,  our  valuable  coal  beds  would  liave  remained  covered,  and  only  accessible  from  the  surface  through 
more  tlian  100  feet  of  solid  rock,  witli  all  the  attendant  labor  and  expense ;  wliile  all  the  advantages  whicli  Pittsburgh 
now  possesses  in  the  easy  accessibilily  to  its  coul  would  have  been  wholly  lost.  But  tlie  r.ain,  tlie  snow,  the  frost, 
have  worn  away  and  disintegrated  our  soft  rocks,  so  tliat  the  wliole  surface  of  our  county  is  agreeably  diversified  with 
hill  and  dale,  not  only  adding  to  the  beauty  of  the  scenery,  but,  what  is  of  more  practiccl  value,  permitting  us  every- 
where to  enter  our  coal  seam  at  the  surface.  Of  this  coal  seam,  the  eminent  geologist  and  celebrated  traveler,  Sir 
Charles  Lyell,  says:  "  I  was  truly  astonished,  now  that  I  had  entered  the  hydrographical  basin  of  the  Ohio,  at  behold- 
ing the  richness  of  the  seams  of  coal,  which  appeared  everywhere  on  the  flanks  of  the  hills,  and  at  the  bottoms  of  the  val- 
leys, and  which  are  accessible  in  a  degree  I  never  witnessed  elsewhere."  Had  the  mighty  power  which  folded  the  eastern 
rocks  into  huge  waves  extended  its  influence  to  this  part  of  the  State,  our  coal  banks,  instead  of  being  horizontal, 
would  have  been  upheaved  at  various  angles,  and  the  many  faults  would  liave  added  materially  to  the  expense  of 
mining.     Eiich  of  our  large  rivers,  the  Allegheny,  the  Monongahela,  the  Yougliiogheiiy,  and  the  Ohio  rivers,  as  well  as 


68  INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

Chartier's  creek,  Pine  creek,  Gerty's  run,  and,  in  fact,  all  our  streams,  both  great  and  small,  once  flowed  more  than 
200  feet  above  their  present  level.  I  have  traced  and  mapped  these  ancient  rivers  through  their  various  windings  for 
75  miles,  from  beyond  Perryopolis,  in  Fayette  county,  through  '•  White-Oak  Level,"  back  of  McKcesport,  through 
Swisavale,  Wilkinsburg  and  East  Liberty.  From  this  point  one  branch  passed  through  Bloomfield,  Friendship  Grove, 
the  upper  part  of  Allegheny  cemetery,  and  along  the  top  of  Troy  hill  to  Hilldale  cemetery.  The  other  branch  passed 
through  Shady  Side,  Bellefield,  Oakland,  and  along  the  top  of  Boyd's  hill  and  Seminary  hill,  Allegheny,  uniting  with 
the  first  branch  at  Hilldale  cemetery.  From  this  point  the  united  braaiches  passed  around  the  hills  back  of  Manches- 
ter, making  its  first  appearance  on  the  present  Ohio  near  the  mouth  of  Wood's  run.  From  this  point  it  followed  the 
general  direction  of  the  present  Ohio,  leaving  its  mark  on  each  side  of  the  river,  in  some  places  nearly  300  feet  above 
the  present  water  level.  Since  that  time  these  rivers  have  somewhat  changed  their  course,  though  not  their  general 
direction,  digging  the  deep  ditch  for  their  present  bed,  in  which  ditch  Pittsburgh  has  since  been  built.  Were  it  not 
for  this  benevolent  action  on  the  part  of  Nature  ages  before  we  were  born,  our  coal  would  now  be  elevated  from  the 
mines  by  machinery,  with  its  attendant  trouble  and  expense,  instead  of  being  mined  as  now,  above  the  river,  and  shot 
into  barges  by  its  own  weight.  As  these  rivers  wore  away  the  rocks,  they  several  times  changed  their  course  in  lim- 
ited localities.  The  Allegheny  river  at  one  time  passed  to  the  right  of  Seminary  hill,  its  gravelly  bottom  forming  the 
plain  on  which  Allegheny  City  now  stands.  At  a  later  date,  it  forced  its  way  to  the  left  of  Seminary  hill,  making  the 
channel  in  which  it  has  since  remained.  The  head  of  the  Ohio  was  at  one  time  at  Hilldale  cemetery,  at  another  near 
Manchester,  and  at  a  still  later  date  at  Suke's  run,  at  the  base  of  Boyd's  hill,  a  mile  above  its  present  position. 
Everywhere  these  ancient  rivers  wrote  the  history  of  their  movements. 

Let  us  briefly  note  a  few  of  the  hieroglyphics  they  have  left,  more  easily  translated  than  the  hieroglyphics  on  the 
Egyptian  monuments,  which  so  long  baffled  the  skill  of  our  best  scholars.  The  deposit  of  sand  in  Perryopolis  utilized 
'  by  the  gla.ss  house  there,  and  the  immense  number  of  boulders  scattered  over  the  immediate  vicinity  ;  Finley's  Sand- 
wash  in  East  Liberty,  and  the  beds  of  sandstone,  gravel  and  clay,  and  boulders  deposited  in  that  valley  ;  the  sand  in 
the  upper  part  of  Allegheny  Cemetery  ;  the  beds  of  clay  which  have  proved  a  source  of  profit  to  the  owners  of  Boyd's 
Hill;  the  top  of  Troy  Hill,  as  level  as  a  floor  for  two  or  three  miles;  the  deposit  of  gravel  in  which  the  basin  for  the 
Allegheny  water  works  is  placed  ;  the  immense  beds  of  gravel  near  Hilldale  Cemetery  ;  the  four  feet  of  gravel  on  the 
top  of  McKee's  Rocks;  the  Terraces  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Ohio  on  which  Bellevue  and  other  places  are  situated  ; 
the  immense  quantity  of  boulders  at  Beaver  and  Rochester,  which  for  scores  of  years  have  been  drawn  upon  to  pave 
the  streets  of  our  city  ;  the  beautiful  terraces  which  marked  its  flood  tides  and  former  level,  notedly  those  in  McKecs- 
port,  in  East  Liberty  Valley,  the  second  bank  in  Allegheny  and  the  four  banks  so  plainly  shown  in  the  early  settle- 
ment of  our  city,  the  largest  and  highest  being  the  one  on  which  Trinity  Church  and  its  surrounding  grave- j  ard  now 
stands. 

Until  the  oil  discovery  a  few  years  ago  the  Allegheny  river  was  noted  for  its  pure,  clear  water,  while  the 
Monongahela  was  equally  well  known  as  a  muddy  stream.  Where  they  united  at  "the  Point"  the  action  of  eacli 
river  could  be  easily  traced  by  the  color  of  its  waters.  The  Monongahela  coming  from  the  south  and  passing  over  the 
soft  shales  and  clays  and  limestones  of  the  carboniferous  period,  became  muddy  from  this  source,  while  the  Allegheny 
flowing  through  a  region  of  hard  conglomerates  and  sandstones  remained  clear.  There  is  another  marked  difference  in 
the  character  of  these  two  rivers.  The  valley  traversed  by  the  Allegheny  is  narrower  and  the  force  of  the  stream 
much  greater.  From  Oil  City  to  Pittsburgh,  a  distance  of  132  miles,  the  fall  is  277  feet,  averaging  2.1  feet  per  mile, 
while  the  more  sluggish  current  of  the  Monongahela  may  be  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  the  diflTerence  in  the  water 
level  between  Brownsville  and  Pittsburgh,  a  distance  of  60  miles,  is  only  32  feet,  averaging  about  .six  inclies  to  the 
mile.  The  Monongahela,  therefore,  brings  down  only  fine  sediment,  while  the  force  of  the  Allegheny  is  sufiicient  to 
move  sand,  gravel  and  fragments  of  rock  of  considerable  size.  It  also  happens  that  the  Allegheny  and  Monongaliela 
rivers  strike  the  point  at  different  angles  and  that  the  space  between  them  upon  which  Pittsburgh  stands  was  formed 
wholly  from  material  brought  by  the  Allegheny  from  the  more  northern  part  of  the  State.  The  larger  part  of  botli 
Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny  are  built  on  plains  made  up  of  porous  layers  of  angular  and  rounded  sand  and  gravel,  and 
not  upon  a  solid,  impervious  stratum  of  clay,  such  as  the  Monongahela  would  have  produceil.  This  seemingly  slight 
difference  in  the  direction  of  these  two  rivers  and  the  difference  in  the  character  of  their  sediment  has  formed  in  no 
slight  manner  the  hygienic  condition  of  our  city.  The  early  settlers  built  upon  the  plain  40  feet  above  low  water  mark. 
The  porous  nature  of  the  soil  and  the  surface  drainage  was  then  sufficient ;  but  the  present  size  o.  our  city  demands 
careful  and  systemaiie  sewage  if  we  would  escape  those  zymotic  diseases  which  result  from  the  neglect  of  the  most 
simple  hygienic  laws.  With  respect  to  drainage,  few  cities  are  more  favored  by  nature  than  ours.  The  hillside  wards 
require  no  blasting  for  sewer-pipes,  the  rock  being  easily  removed  with  the  pick,  while  the  wards  of  the  old  city  can 
be  easily  excavated  with  the  spade.  The  reservoirs  of  our  waterworks  are  of  ample  size,  capable  of  supplying  our 
people  with  an  abundance  of  water  for  many  years  to  come,  while  one  of  them  is  located  more  than  500  feet  above  the 
river.  With  such  natural  and  artificial  advantages  why  should  not  Pittsburgh  be  the  cleanest  city  in  the  United 
States,  and  forever  prevent  a  repetition  of  the  South  Side  diphtheria  epidemic  of  1877  and  the  Reform  School  typhoid 
lever  epidemic  of  1875,  both  of  which  were  greatly  aggravated,  if  not  directly  caused,  by  improperly  constructed  and 
grossly  neglected  sewer  pipes?  Another  peculiar  feature  of  the  two  rivers  which  bound  our  city,  is  the  unsymraetrical 
character  of  their  rise  and  fall.  Being  large  rivers  and  draining  a  considerable  extent  of  country,  they  are  like  all 
large  rivers  subject  to  times  of  great  and  sudden  overflow.  The  Allegheny  rises  in  Southern  New  York,  nearly  43° 
N,  and  the  Monongahela  in  West  Vii-ginia,  about  .39°  N.  These  sources,  then,  being  some  4°  apart,  are,  of  course,  sub- 
ject to  local  influences  of  a  very  different  character,  and  the  tide  or  rise  of  these  rivers  are  quite  different.  One  river 
may  be  quite  low  and  the  other  at  flood-tide,  and  a  little  time  after  the  reverse  may  be  the  case.  The  material  brouglit 
down  the  river  and  the  decomposing  vegetable  matter  on  its  banks  and  on  the  low  ground  near  the  shores,  produced 
much  malarial  sickness,  but  the  settlement  of  the  neighborhood,  with  the  natural  and  necessary  improvements  on  the 
shores,  has  nearly  eradicated  the  disease.  Of  course,  the  sudden  and  great  rise  and  fall  of  the  rivers  still  continues, 
and  is  carefully  watched  by  those  whose  business  necessities  require  it.    A  meteorological  phenomenon  connected  in 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  69 


some  way  with  these  rivers  or  with  the  deep  gorges  through  which  they  pass,  is  worthy  of  careful  consideration. 
Sometimes  a  rain  storm  will  come  up  the  Ohio  and  either  pass  up  the  Allegheny  Valley  or  up  the  Monongahela  "Valley, 
or,  dividing,  will  not  unfrequeutly  pass  up  both.  Sometimes  a  storm  will  pass  across  from  one  river  to  the  other,  con- 
fined to  a  very  limited  area.  A  few  Sundays  ago  it  rained  hard  ou  Ilerron's  Hill,  while  in  the  lower  ward  of  the  city 
and  at  Shady  Side  no  ruin  fell.  A  few  days  after  it  rained  hard  in  the  lower  part  of  the  city,  with  none  at  Millvale  Sta- 
tion on  the  P.  R.  R.  I  think  I  never  saw  it  rain  harder  than  it  did  at  the  Union  Depot  some  two  years  ago,  but  not  a 
drop  fell  at  Lawrencevillo  R.  R.  station.  Many  other  similar  illustrations  could  be  given.  You  all  remember  the  ter- 
rible calamity  which  befcl  our  city  in  July,  1874,  when  two  hundred  persons  lost  their  lives  at  Batcher's  Run.  A  few 
careful  observers,  with  the  proper  instruments,  taking  systematic  and  syncronous  observations  over  the  area  described, 
would,  in  a  few  years,  I  doubt  not,  be  able  to  explain  the  laws  which  govern  these  singular  movements. 

Our  rocks,  as  you  well  know,  belong  to  the  carboniferous  system.  The  rocks  forming  this  system  are  conglomer- 
ates, shales  and  sandstones,  more  rarely  limestones.  They  occur  in  various  alternations  with  an  occasional  bed  of 
coal  between  them.  All  the  coal  beds  taken  together  make  not  more  than  one-fiftieth  of  the  whole  thickness.  Just 
here  in  Pittsburgh  we  have  but  one  layer  of  coal  in  situ,  though  to  the  north  we  have  coal  beds  which  are  geologically 
lower  than  our  own,  and  to  the  south  we  have  coal  beds  that  are  geologically  higher  than  our  own  ;  the  rocks  hero 
in  Pittsburgh,  not  being  exactly  horizontal,  but  dipping  slightly  to  the  south,  so  that  the  rocks  concealed  from  view 
below  the  bed  of  the  river  outcrop  farther  north,  and  the  rocks  which  top  our  highest  hills,  extend  over  the  whole 
country  to  the  south  of  us.  On  the  left  or  west  bank  of  the  Monongahela,  opposite  Pittsburgh,  a  st«ep  bluff  rises  from 
the  bank  of  the  river  450  feet.  The  highest  rocks  are  not  well  exposed,  hut  the  occasional  outcrops  show  that  they 
constitute  a  part  of  the  great  limestone  formation  which  shows  itself  in  all  the  counties  south  of  Pittsburgh,  between 
the  Chestnut  Ridge  and  Ohio  River.  '-It  may  be  traced  up  the  Monongahela  River  from  Pittsburgh  to  the  Virginia 
line."  It  varies  in  thickness  from  a  few  feet  to  fifty  or  seventy-five  and  is  often  mixed  with  thick  layers  of  sandstone 
and  shales.  It  makes  a  most  excellent  lime  and  is  extensively  burned  in  the  eastern  and  southern  part  of  our  coun- 
ty. While  there  are  sever.al  other  layers  of  limestone  in  this  vicinity  geologically  lower  than  the  one  under  con.sid- 
eration,  they  are  quite  thin  and  make  but  poor  lime,  and  are  but  little  used. 

H.  D.  Rodgers  says,  "It  is  the  most  extensive  and  valuable  deposit  in  the  valley  of  the  Monongahela,  or  anywhere 
else  in  the  western  counties  of  the  State."  Between  the  limestone  layer  just  described  and  the  Pittsburgh  coal 
are  layers  of  a  yellow  ferruginous  shale  interspersed  with  a  gray,  slaty,  and  in  many  places  very  micaceous  sandstone, 
about  75  or  SO  feet  thick.  The  Pittsburgh  coal  seam  comes  next  in  order.  The  peculiar  features  of  the  Pittsburgh 
coal  are  well  known  to  you.  The  late  Henry  D.  Rodgers  calls  it  "coal  of  the  purest  kind,"  and  J.  P.  Lesley  says,  "It 
is  pure  bituminous  coal,  yielding  40  to  45  cubic  feet  of  gas  to  ten  pounds  of  coal  where  best  known  and  very  free  from 
sulphur."  But  there  are  some  other  characteristics  of  this  bed  which  makes  it  of  peculiar  value  to  the  geologist.  Its 
dual  character  and  its  great  extent  of  surface  make  it  a  landmark — the  base  line  of  carboniferous  geology.  This  re- 
markable bed  has  been  identified  over  an  area  of  20,000  square  miles  and  is  everywhere  the  same  double  bed.  It  is 
found  in  Virginia,  Ohio,  Kentucky  and  in  other  parts  of  our  own  State,  and  everywhere  the  impure  slate  above  re- 
tains its  proportionate  relation  to  the  whole  mass.  For  example,  in  our  eight-foot  vein  we  have  five  or  six  feet  of 
solid  coal  below,  with  about  two  feet  of  impure  coal  above.  In  the  Cumberland  basin  where  the  vein  is  twelve  or 
fourteen  feet  in  thickness,  we  have  nine  or  ten  feet  of  coal  below  and  three  or  four  feet  of  the  shaly  structure  above. 
At  Wheeling,  Virginia,  with  its  six-foot  vein,  at  Athens,  Ohio,  with  its  five-foot  vein,  at  Guyandotte,  West  Virginia, 
with  its  two  or  three-foot  vein,  this  peculiarity  is  preserved.  Is  it  not  strange  that  over  a  country  as  great  as 
20,000  square  miles  the  circumstances  should  have  been  so  similar  as  first  to  permit  and  foster  the  growth  of  vege- 
table matter  for  a  long  time,  and  tiien  to  cover  it  so  universally,  over  this  whole  area,  witli  sand  and  clay  and  an 
imperfect  vegetation?  The  amount  of  vegetable  matter  necessary  to  form  one  foot  of  coal  has  been  estimated  to  be 
about  eight  feet,  or  over  60  feet  for  such  a  bed  as  that  of  Pittsburgh. 

Below  the  coal  there  are  some  eight  or  ten  layers  of  limestone  from  one  to  two  feet  thick,  and  separated 
from  each  other  by  layers  of  dark-colored  shale — the  whole  forming  a  bed  of  about  twenty-five  feet  in  thickness. 
The  shale  or  sandstone  upon  which  this  bed  rests  is  about  thirty-five  feet  thick,  and  in  some  places  is  composed 
almost  wholly  of  shale,  while  in  other  localities  the  shale  passes  into  very  thin  layers,  and  the  sandstone  expands 
into  blocks  sufficiently  thick  for  building  purposes.  Below  this  we  find  a  bed  of  limestone  four  feet  thick,  separated 
from  another  two-foot  vein  by  12  feet  of  yellowish  shale.  Below  this  last  layer  of  limestone  are  35  feet  of  buff  shale, 
and  then  another  layer  of  limestone  three  feet  in  thickness — hard,  compact,  and  of  a  yellowish  color.  This  rests  on  a 
stratum  of  shale  marked  with  iron,  sometimes  passing  into  a  coarse,  slaty  sandstone — the  whole  10  or  12  feet  thick. 
Then  follows  a  red  or  mottled  shale,  12  feet  in  thickness,  sometimes  wanting,  but  generally  exposed  around  Pitts- 
burgh. All  the  layers  just  described  wliich  lie  below  the  coal  have  as  yet  been  of  no  great  value  to  Pittsburgh.  The 
iron  is  a  mere  trace,  the  shale  of  no  practical  value,  and  the  limestone  is  so  thin  as  to  be  of  little  importance  as  a 
source  of  lime  for  masonry  or  agriculture.  The  next  layer  is  one  of  considerable  value,  being  a  sandstone  75  or  80  feet 
in  thickness,  and  e-xtensively  used  for  building  purposes.  It  varies  in  color,  quality  and  appearance,  being  generally 
of  a  gray  color,  sometimes  very  micaceous,  with  the  wave  and  ripple  marks  well  shown.  It  also  varies  much  in  dura- 
bility, sometimes  remaining  unchanged  for  years,  but  often  weathering  badly  and  crumbling  on  exposure.  Great  care 
should  therefore  be  used  in  its  selection.  The  court  house  shows  the  weathering  action  in  a  marked  degree.  Stone 
from  other  quarries,  but  belonging  to  the  same  geological  layer,  are  in  general  much  more  durable  and  serve  a  good 
purpose.  Most  of  the  stone,  however,  now  used  for  heavy  masonry  in  our  city,  comes  by  rail  from  .«onie  distance, 
notably  from  Froeport  and  other  places  up  the  Allegheny — from  Baden  and  Beaver,  down  the  Oliio — and  from  Ligon- 
ier,  Westmoreland  county,  on  the  Pennsylvania  Central  Railroad.  The  stone  from  the  Allegheny  and  Ohio  belong 
to  the  Freeport,  Butler  and  Mahoning  groups — are  geologically  lower  than  our  Rttsburgh  rocks — are  concealed  from 
view  below  tlie  bed  of  our  rivers,  but  crop  out  farther  north.  The  Ligonier  sandstone  is  probably  the  same  layer  as 
our  Pittsburgh  sandstone  just  described,  but  much  more  durable.  At  the  ba.se  of  the  hills  which  surround  our  cily 
we  find  100  feet  of  olive  or  buflf-colored  shale,  which  seems  universal  throughout  the  county.    The  lower  part  of  this 


70  INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

bed  is  easily  decomposed,  weatliering  into  a  stiff  clay,  while  the  upper  part  is  of  a  harder  structure,  often  containing 
thick  layers  of  sandstone,  with,  in  some  localities,  fine  impression  of  plants.  This  rock  is  souietiiues  divided  very 
regularly  by  numerous  straight,  vertical  planes  of  fracture,  parallel  to  one  another,  separating  it  into  large,  angular 
blocks,  giving  to  the  rocks  where  it  occurs  a  front  like  a  fortification.  On  a  level  with  the  river,  but  generally  con- 
cealed by  detritus,  is  a  layer  of  black  slate,  two  feet  in  thicknes.s,  resting  on  a  bed  of  coal  about  one  foot  thick.  These 
layers  have  been  noticed  in  Wilkins,  Versailles,  Indiana,  Ross  and  Shaler  townships,  in  each  case  having  about  the 
same  thickness,  and  in  matiy  cases  the  appearance  and  properties  of  can n el  coal.  Where  it  outcrops  along  Butcher's 
run,  on  each  side  of  the  Perrysville  road,  it  is  a  good  bituminous  coal. 

Tlie  rocks  concealed  from  view  below  the  bod  of  the  river  are  not  so  well  known  ;  and,  although  there  are  many 
borings  in  this  immediate  vicinity,  little  or  no  attempt  is  made  to  keep  a  correct  account  of  the  layers  iiassed  through. 
Whfn  this  is  done,  it  is  generally  a  diflicult  matter  for  any  but  an  experienced  person  to  distinguish  between  coal  and 
black  slate,  and  the  nature  of  the  rock  bored,  except  in  hardness,  color,  and  tlie  like  general  characteristics.  As  all 
our  rocks  dip  slightly  to  the  south,  the  general  character  of  the  rocks  below  our  city  can  be  determined  by  their  out- 
crop farther  north.        '■'       *       *       *       *       «       <<       <<       «       <<       ««**#««=>«« 

Before  closing,  permit  me  to  call  your  attention  to  a  discovery  of  much  interest  connected  with  the  pre-Adamic 
history  of  our  city.  At  a  public  lecture  given  in  the  High-School  building,  winter  before  last,  I  had  the  pleasure  of 
showing  a  fossil  tooth  of  the  Elephas  primogenus,  or  Mammoth,  and  also  of  one  of  another  species  of  elephant  famil- 
iarly known  as  the  Mastodon.  The  Mammoth's  tooth  was  exhumed  from  the  gravel  while  excavating  for  the  piers  of 
the  Point  bridge.  It  was  in  good  condition,  and  is  now  in  the  po."session  of  a  gentleman  living  on  the  South  Side. 
The  Mastodon's  tooth  was  found  in  the  Ohio  near  Sewickley.  On  exposure,  it  soon  fell  to  pieces,  but  with  care  and 
skill  it  was  restored.  I  have  just  learned  that  Prof.  Ward,  of  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  will,  this  year,  |>lace  in  the  Exjxvsi- 
lion  building  his  restoration  of  the  large  Mammoth  found  well  preserved  in  tlic  ice  clifTs  in  Siberia.  This  restoration 
will  give  some  idea  of  the  first  settlers  of  Pittsburgh,  who  once  roamed  over  our  hills  and  inhabited  our  valleys. 


PITTSBURGH  COAL  AND  COKE  REGION. 

The  business  that  is  done  hei'e  in  the  course  of  the  year  i.s  most  difficult  to  ascertain,  as  the 
railway  companies  do  not  separate  their  tonnajre  into  that  carried  ihrviic/h,  and  tiiat  for  local  use. 
It  is  safe  to  estimate  the  sum  total  from  the  immediate  vicinity  at  5,200,000  tons.  This  is  mainly 
forwarded  to  points  North,  South,  East  and  West,  by  rail  and  water.  The  shipments  of  coal  and 
coke  by  the  river  to  points  below  the  city  last  year  amounted  to  over  2.627,750  tons. 

The  coal  shipped  down  the  Ohio  river  from  the  neigiiborliood  of  Pitt-sburffh  is  obtained  from 
receipts  throufrh  the  medium  of  the  Monongahela  slack-water  navigation  sj^stem,  and  the  coal  car- 
ried by  the  Saw-mill  Run  Railway.     The  totals  are  as  below  : — 

Coal  and  slack  from  Pool  No.  1 12,287,4fi5  bushels. 

Coal  and  slack  from  Pool  No.  2 84.203,450  bushels. 

Coal  and  slack  from  Pool  No.  3 11,33(5,100  Imshels. 

Coal  and  slack  from  Pool  No.  4 12,101,2-10  bushels. 

Total  Coke  6,887.000  bushels. 

(Jrand  totals.  Coke,  Coal  and  Slack  76,-825,255  l)ushels. 

Saw-mill  Run  Railroad  Coal  Tonnage  total  in  1878 2,321,991  bush.,  or  88,235  net  tons. 

'J'he  above  gives  the  tonnage  that  starts  out  from  the  several  mines  along  tlic  routes  named  and 
is  what  is  known  as  'river'  coal.  A  portion  is  left  for  local  consumption  in  Pittsburgh,  Allegheny, 
etc.,  and  tiie  following  is  a  summary"  of  the  entire  movement  of  coal  and  coke  : 

Coal  by  slack-water 69,938,255  bushels. 

Coke  by  slack-water 6.887,000  bushels. 

Coal  by  Saw-mill  Run  Railroad 2,321,991   bushels. 

Total  movement 79,147,246  bushels. 

Shipments  down  the  Ohio 6.1,697,000  bushels. 

Leaving  for  local  consumption 13,450,246  bushel.s. 

There  is  a  large  amount  of  coal  for  local  use  received  by  rail  and  it  may  be  estimated  at  twice 

as  much  as  the  above  quantity.     Estimate  25  bushels  to  the  net  ton. 

Tlie    first   Bituminous  coal   district  of  Penns^'lvania  embraces  the  counties  of  Washington, 

Westmoreland,  Fayette,  Green,  Somerset,  Bedford  and  nearly  all  of  Allegheny.     There  were  two 

hundred  and  forty-four  mines,  employing  more  than  ten  men,  of  which  two  hundred  and  seventeen 

were  iir  operation  during  the  year  1878 : 

Number  of  men  employed  inside  the  mines,  estimated 15,190 

Number  employed  outside,  estimated...... 2,821 

Estimated  amount  of  coal  produced  in  the  whole  district  in  tons  of  2,000  lbs 9,372.881 

Estimated  average  price  paid  (exclusive  of  nut  coal)  for  mining  per  ton  of  2,000  lbs    42  cents. 

Estimated  number  of  tons  mined  per  miner 560 

Number  of  accidents  in  1878 93 

Number  of  fatal  accidents 32 

Number  of  non-fatal  accidents -. 61 

Estimated  amount  of  coal  produced  for  each  fatal  accidei.i,  in  tons 292,902 

Amount  for  each  non-fatal  accident 153,653 

Amount  for  each  accident 100,801 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH. 


71 


The  coke  industry  in  this  district  is  a  most  important  one.  There  are  3,902  ovens,  with  n  dailj' 
capacity  of  241,9^4  bushels.  They  are  all  located  at  Westmoreland  and  Fayette  counties,  and  ran 
two-thirds  time  upon  the  average. 

In  cokiny;  the  coal,  the  beeliive  oven  is  in  universal  ii.se  in  the  Connellsville  region.  Tliese  ovens 
vary,  at  the  different  works,  from  11  to  12  feet  in  diameter  and  from  5  to  G  feet  in  height.  The 
working  is  very  simple.  The  coal  is  dumped  through  an  opening  in  the  ci'own  of  the  furnace  and 
spread  evenly  on  the  tioor  to  the  average  depth  of  2  feet  for  48-hour  coke  and  2^  feet  for  72-hour. 
The  front  opening  tiirough  which  the  coke  is  discharged,  is  at  first  nearly  closed  with  brick,  luted 
with  loam.  The  heat  of  the  oven  from  the  previous  coking  fires  the  charge,  and  as  the  coking  pro- 
gresses the  air  is  more  and  more  shut  off  by  luting  tlie  openings,  and  finally  closing  the  roof  open- 
ings. The  average  charge  is  100  bushels  of  coal  at  76  lbs.,  and  the  yield  in  coke  120  bushels  at 
40  lbs.,  making  the  percentage  yield  63,  or  1.6  tons  of  coal  to  1  ton  of  coke.  The  average  time  of  cok- 
ing is  48  hours,  with  7'Z  hours  for  that  burned  over  Sunday.  24-houi;  coke  is  sometimes  made.  1  he  72- 
hour  coke  is  firmer  coke  than  either  of  the  others,  but  it  is  questionable  whether  it  is  a  better  fur- 
nace coke.  When  the  coke  is  thoroughly  burned  the  door  is  removed  and  the  coke  is  cooled  by 
water  thrown  in  from  a  hose,  and  then  drawn. 

The  statistics  of  tliis  trade  are  surprising.  The  manufacture  began  in  the  winter  of  l8'll-2. 
According  to  the  latest  information  we  have,  there  are  8,668  oven.s  in  the  Connellsville  region,  and 
nearly  all  are  in  operation.     Annual  output  at  present  is  about  1,500,000  tons. 

MONONGAHELA  COAL  REGION. 

Bj'  means  of  its  slack-water  navigation,  the  Monongahela  river  is  made  navigable  at  all  seasons 
of  the  year,  and  boats  carrying  eight  hundred  tons  are  passed  down.  The  city  of  Pittsburgh  is 
supplied  mainly  by  railroad,  and  the  larger  portion  of  the  coal  by  ri'er  is  run  down  the  Ohio  and 
Mississippi  to  the  lower  markets.  The  following  statement  of  shipments  by  the  slack-water  navi- 
gation from  1845  to  date,  is  of  interest : 


YEVR.  *T()NS. 

18^5 184,200 

1846 311,156 

1847 ;-{8J,805 

1818 392,774 

1849 398,340 

1850 491,918 

1851 490,850 

IHol 585,233 

1853 628,654 

1854. 693,278 

1855 889,360 

1856 353,364 


YE.1R.  *TONS. 

1857  1,158,939 

1858 1,027,866 

1859 1,131,467 

1860 1,517,909 

1861 834,630 

1862 743,358 

1863 1,134,150 

1864 1,402,828 

1865 1,580,791 

1866 1,704,212 

1867 1,202,908 

1868 1,812,040 


YEAR.  -TON.«!. 

1869 2,100,504 

1870 2,303,856 

1871  1,944,852 

1872 2,291,220 

1873 2,094,312 

1874 2,503,504 

187.5 2,275,265 

1876 2,495,800 

1877 2,677,460 

1878 2,797,530 

*We  have  estimated  25  bushels 
of  80  Ib.s.  to  the  ton  of  2,000  lbs. 


The  business  done  by  the  various  railroads  entering  or  passing  through  this  coal  field,  is  indi- 
cated by  the  fact  that  in  1878  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  carried  upwards  of  1,429.428  tons  from 
this  district.  In  this  connection,  the  cost  of  transporting  coals  over  waterway.^,  as  from  Pittsburgh 
to  New  Orlean.s,  is  of  value.  The  distance  is  something  like  2,000  miles,  the  rate  is  about  3^  cent.s 
per  bushel,  or  $1.05  per  ton  of  4,240  lbs.;  the  ordinary  time  being  about  two  weeks  when  all  cir- 
cumstances are  favorable.  From  Pittsburgh  to  Louisville,  Ky.,  the  distance  is  six  hundred  miles: 
the  cost  If  cents  per  bushel,  including  return  of  empty  craft;  and  the  time  five  days.  Coke  iorms 
a  considerable  item  in  the  business  from  this  region.  Some  129  000  tons  were  shipped  last  3-ear. 
It  weighs  40  11)3.  to  the  bu.shel,  and  62.}  lbs.  of  coke  represents  100  lbs.  of  coal,  so  that  of  the  total 
product  of  this  region  in  1878,  1,548,428  tons  was  sent  out  by  rail. 


SHIPMENTS   OF   COAL   AND    COKE   BY   THE   MONONGAHELA   NAVIGATION   COMPANY. 

In  connection  with  the  table  just  given  we  add  below  the  statistics  of  total  shipments  of  coal 
and  coke  by  the  Monongahela  Navigation  Companj-  from  1844.  when  the  first  shipments  were 
made,  to  1878,  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  the  personal  courtesy  of  Hon.  J.  K.  Moorhead,  the 
president  of  the  company.  The  shipments  are  given  in  bushels,  each  thousand  bushels  being  re- 
garded as  the  equivalent  of  38  gro.ss  tons,  which  makes  the  weight  of  a'bushei  85.12  pounds. 


Years. 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 


Bushels. 

737,150 

4,605,185 

7,778,911 

9,645,127 

9,819,361 

9,708,.507 

12,297,967 

12,521,228 

14,630,841 


Yrars. 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 


Bu.shels. 
15,716,367 
17,331,946 
22,231,009 

8,584,095 
28,973,596 
25,696,669 
28,28,6,671 
37,947,733 
20,865,722 


Years. 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1S69 
1870 


Bushels. 
18,583,956 
26,44-4,252 
35,070,917 
39,522,792 
42,605,300 
30,072,700 
45,301,000 
52,512,600 
57,596,400 


Years. 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 


Bushels. 
48,621,300 
57,  80,500 
58,276,995 
65,881,700 
63,707,500 
68,481,000 
79,480,918 
76,825,255 


Total,    1,153,646,169 


INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


COAL  TRADE  OF  THE  UNION. 

We  give  below  the  tonnage  for  the  year  1869,  as  per  census  reports  made  in  1870,  together  with 
figures  for  the  year  1878,  where  available;  in  other  cases  we  have  made  a  careful  estimate,  based 
upon  our  reports  of  the  trade  in  the  various  States : 


1869— tons.'  1878— tons. 

Penn'a  Anthracite 13,866,180  17,605,262 

Penn'a  Bituminous 7,798,517  13,500,000 

Illinois 2,629,563  3,500,000 

Ohio 2,527,285  6,000,000 

Maryland 1,819,824  1,679.322 

Missouri 621,930  900.000 

West  Virginia 608,878  1,000,000 

Indiana 437,870  1.000,000 

Iowa 263,487  1,500,000 

Kentucky 150,582  900,000 

Tennessee 133,418  375,000 

Virginia 61,803  75,000 


Kansas , 

Oregon 

Micliigan 

California 

Rhode  Island 

Alabama 

Nebraska 

Wyoming 

Washington... 

Utah 

Colorado 


1869— tons. 

1878— tons. 

32,938 

300,000 

200,000 

21,150 

30,000 

600  000 

14,000 

14,000 

11,000 

200,000 

1,425 

75,000 

50,000 

100.000 

17,844 

150,000 

5,800 

60,000 

4,500 

367,000 

Total, 


31,1 1*-', 595      49,130,584 


COAL  TRAFFIC  OF  THE  PENNSYLVANIA  RAILROAD. 

District.                                                                                                  Year  1878.  Year  1877. 

Anthracite 697,704  694,180 

East  Broad  Top 63,068  54,13?. 

Huntingdon  and  Broad  Top 76,826  87,905 

Cumbevland 167,t08  189,394 

Snow  Shoe 29,168  42,985 

Tyrone  and  Clearfield 1,270,612  1,340,744 

GiiUitzin  and  Mountain  region 200,099  184,464 

West  Pennsylvania  Railroad 186,308  187,345 

Coke 80,994  58,483 

Southwest  Pennsylvania  Railroad 25,663  39,010 

"                        Coke 786,805  635,990 

Westworeland  region 692,586  786,039 

"        Coke 78,766  64,905 

Pittsburgh  region 1,429,438  1,374,396 

"        Coke 128,918  107,840 

D.  H.  &  W.  Anthracite  72,440  94,685 

Lewisburg  Anthracite 1,758  10,789 

Total  in  tons  of  2,000  lbs.— coal 3,920,766  4,086,674 

Total  in  tx>ns  of  2,000  lbs.— coke 1,085,990  867,218 


Year  1876. 
687,172 

65,999 

44,461 
147,512 

50,916 

1,190,4  8 

209,315 

173,324 

57,797 
157,150 
539,640 
896,590 

59,462 

1,310,846 

102,126 

95,434 


4,018,159 
819,125 


IRON  AND  STEEL  PRODUCTION  OF  PITTSBURGH  AND  ALLEGHENY  COUNTY,  PENNSYLVANIA, 

FROM  1874  TO  1878. 
So  much  interest  is  taken  in  the  progress  of  the  ii'on  and  steel  industries  of  Pittsburgh  and 
vicinity,  tliat  we  have  annually  for  several  years  given  the  statistics  of  their  production  exceptional 
prominence.     In  the  following  table  these  statistics  for  the  past  five  years  are  presented: 


YEARS. 

Number 

of  Iron 

Rolling 

Mills. 

31 
31 
31 
31 
31 

Product  of  Iron  Rails, 
Bar,  .Angle,  Bolt,  Rod 
and  Hoop.    Net  tons. 

Product  of  Sheet  and 

Plate,  except  Nail 

Plate.     Net  tons. 

Product  of 

Nails.   Kegs 

of  100  lbs. 

Total  Rolled  Iron, 

including  Kails, 

Net  tons. 

1874 

194,114           1             52,361 
171,178           '            45,773 
189,511                        31,488 
208,342           i             30,254 
226  687           1            ^'^  ^^^ 

562,995 
442,359 
538,874 
597,806 
444,013 

274  625 

1875 

1876 

1877 

239.069 
247,943 
268,486 
282  333 

1878 

, .  .-..• 

YEARS. 

Number 
ot  Blast 
Furnaces 

Make  of  Pig 

Iron. 

Net  tons. 

Number  of 

St€el 

Works. 

Make  of 

Crucible  Steel. 

Net  tons. 

Make  of  all  other  Steel, 
incUuling  Bessemer 
Ingots.     Net  tons. 

Total  make 
of    Steel. 
Net  tons 

1874 

u 
11 
11 

12 
12 

143.6(i0 
131,856 
128,555 
141,749 
217,299 

14* 
14* 
14* 

14* 

17,915 
22,942 
25,009 
24,747 
27,866 

6,000 

15,498 

54,467 

82,401 

106.948 

23  915 

1875 

38,440 
79  476 

1876 

1877  

107  148 

1878 

134814 

*  Bessemer  steel  included;  four  of  these  works  are  also  iron  rolling  mills. 


AMERICAN  RAILROAD  BUILDING— 1878. 


73 


The  fact  ia  worthy  of  record,  that  during  1878,  there  was  a  greater  number  of  miles  of  raihvny 
built  in  America,  than  for  any  year  since  1873.  The  details  are  given  below,  and  are  all  collated 
from  the  Railroad  Gazette  : 

Year.  Miles  completed.  Year.  Miles  completed. 

1878 2,620  1874 2,025 

1877 2,281  1873 , 3,883 

1876 2,460  1872 7,340 

1875 1,561 

During  the  year  ju.st  ended,  Minnesota  built  338  miles;  Iowa,  255;  Colorado,  193,  of  which  86 
were  of  three  foot  guage;  Pennsylvania,  182;  New  York,  142;  Texas,  118;  and  at  the  other  ex 
trerae,  New  Jersey,  but  three  miles;  Massachusetts,  six,  and  Arkansas,  seven. 


IMMIGRATION  INTO   THE  UNITED   STATES,   1820-1878. 

Prior  to  the  j'ear  1820,  no  statistics  of  immigration  were  officiallj'  kept.  By  the  act  of  Con- 
gress of  March  2,  1819,  collectors  of  customs  were  required  to  keep  a  record  and  make  a  qunrterly 
return  to  the  Treasury  of  all  passengers  arriving  in  their  respective  districts  from  foreign  ports;  Jind 
these  reports,  published  from  time  to  time  by  the  officers  of  the  Treasury  Department,  constitute 
tiie  sources  of  information  as  to  the  growth  and  progress  of  immigration.  1  lie  total  number  of 
foreign-born  passengers  arriving  at  the  ports  of  the  United  States,  in  the  several  j-ears  from  1820  to 
1870,  inclusive,  is  given  below. 


Year. 


Total 
Immigration. 

1820 8,385 

1821 9,127 

1822 6,911 

1823 6,354 

1824 7,912 

1825 10,199 

1826 10,837 

1827 18,875 

1828 27,382 

1829 22,520 

18:^ 23,322 

1831 22,633 

1832 60,482 

1833 58,640 

1834 65,365 

1835 45,374 

1836 76,242 

1837 79,340 

1838 38,914 

1839 68,069 

1840 84,066 


Year. 


Total 
Immigration. 


1841 80,289 

1842 104,565 

1843 52,496 

1844 78,615 

1845 114,371 

1846 154,416 

1847 234,9(58 

1848 266,527 

1849 297,024 

1850 369,980 

1851 ■• 379,466 

1852 371,603 

1853 368,645 

1854 427,833 

1855 200,887 

1856 200,436 

1857.... 251,306 

1858 123,126 

1859 121,282 

1860 153,640 

1861 91,920 


Year. 


Total 
Immigration. 

1862 91,987 

1863 176,282 

1864 193,416 

1865 249,061 

1866 318,494 

1867 298,358 

1868 297,215 

1869 395,922 

1870 378,796 

1871 367,7^9 

1872 449,483 

1873 437,004 

1874 277,593 

1875 209,036 

1876 ]>S2.027 

1877 149,020 

1878  (6  months,  Janu- 
ary to  June)...     88,241 

Total 9,754,068 


Note. — ^The  above  figures,  from  1850  to  1877,  are  for  calendar  years — January  1st  to  Decern l>er  31st.  Other  state- 
ments of  immigration  vary,  being  for  fiscal  years  ending  June  30th.  Anotlier  source  of  variation  is  that  some  tables 
give  the  total  number  of  aliens  arriving  in  the  United  States;  others  what  is  called  tlie  net  iniiuigration  only.  As  the 
latter  is  uot  ascertainable  for  all  the  years,  the  figures  above  giveti  represent  the  total  immigration  of  aliens  in  each 
year. 


CHINESE    IMMIGRATION    INTO    THE    UNITED    STATES    FOR    EACH    CALEND.\R 
YEAR  FROM   1855  TO   1876,  INCLUSIVE. 


Year.  Number. 

1855 3,526 

1856 4,733 

1857... 5,944 


5,128 
3,457 
5,467 
7,518 
3,633 
1863 7,214 


1858. 
1859.. 
I860.. 
1861.. 
1862.. 


Year. 
1864.. 
1865.. 
1866.. 


Number. 

2,795 

2,942 

2,385 

1867 3,863 

1868 10,684 

1869 14,902 

1870 11,943 

1871 6,039 

1872...^ 10,642 


Year.  Number 

1873 18,154 

1874 16,651 

1875 19,033 

1,S76 16,879 

1877 10,379 

1878  (January  to  June)  6,269 

Total 200,110 


NOTK.— The  statement  is  made  that  nearly  one-half  of  all  the  Chinese  who  have  arrived  in  the  United  States  have 
irned  to  their  native  country. 


retu 


21,183 

82,000 

20,000 

85,000 

27,000 

9,200 

17,200 

25,000 

8,000 

9,000 

21,800 

80,000 

66,685 

45,000 


Ins.  Paid. 

7,183 

115,500 

G,5i)0 

27,350 

26,500 

10,040 


6,193 

7,454 

6,801 

7,650 

85,000 

7,500 

20,000 

33,245 

70,235 

11,500 

5,276 

23,210 

18,742 

78,432 

7,150 

60,000 

11,987 


«  19,183 
39,395 

7,000 
29,500 
15,000 

9,200 
17,200 
14,200 


FIEES  IN  FIPTEEN  TEAES-LIST  OF  THE  MOST  DESTEUOTIVE  FIRES  IN  ALLEGHENY  COUNTY 
SINCE  i864-QE0SS  LOSS  NEAELY  $iO,500,00[)-INSUEANCE  NEAELY  $6,000>000. 

Mr.  James  E.  Stevenson,  late  Fire  Marshal,  liaa  favored  us  with  a  list  of  the  principal  losera 
by  fire  in  Allegheny  County  from  August  20th,  1864,  to  March  23d,  1879,  as  follows: 

Year  1864. 

Gross  Loss.  Ins.  Paid. 

Choss,  Smythe  &  Co $  93,070  $  56,925 

Year  1865. 

J.  Y.  McLaughlin  &  Co S  40,000  $  10,200 

Reese,  Graff  &  Dull 11,000  11,000 

R.J.Baxter 20,000  7,500 

Gregg,  Alexander  &  Co 31,000  6,000 

Joseph  L.  Hezlep 20,000  11,000 

Spencer  &  McKay 36,425  36,425 

Huhbard  &  Long,  et  al 12,379  12,379 

Brewer.  Burke  &  Co 13,889  13,889 

Woolridge  &  Atwood 22,000  22,000 

Arde.sco  Oil  Refinery 70,463  60,882 

Graff,  Bennett  &  Co 47,000  17,000 

A.  H.  English  &  Co 9,439  9,439 

Wilson,  Carr  &   Co 8,566  8,566 

John  C.  Lappe 60,000  26,800 

Do.  other  losses 33,000  8,000 

Year  1866. 

Citizen's  Passenger  Railway $  24,000  $  11,781 

Dickson,  Marshall  &  Co 16,200  16,200 

Kauffiuan  &  Oppenheimer 21,897  21,897 

Fahncstock,  Hazlet  &  Schwartz 11,124  7,700 

Olnhausen  &  Crawford 10,543  9,500 

John  Heath  et  al 41,300  14,000 

Pittsburgh  Forge  &  Iron  Co 12,000  10,000 

Guthrie  &  Sill 31,215  21,C00 

Pittsburgh  Acid  Co 53,625  26,551 

Kier  &  Mitchell  et  al 12,200  11,000 

P.  Weisenberger  &  Co 13,000  8,000 

Lafayette  Hall 50,842  41,221 

Union  Iron  Company 14,000  9,600 

Hayes  &  Stewart  et  al 35,000  25,236 

Wormser,  MversA  Co 68,000  27,800 

ArdescoOilCo 35,000  18,034 

Laughlin&Co 65,000  12,875 

James  Bennry 20,800  15,000 

W.  &  D.  Rinehart 22,648  22,648 

Fleming,  Torrence  &  Co 33,069  23,069 

Fry  &  Scott 28,396  27,622 

Year  1867. 

White,  Berger  &  Co $  16,000  $    8,000 

Chess,  Smythe  &  Co 47,153  45,000 

Atlas  Works 18,000  13,230 

Miller,  Barr  &  Parkin 20,231  10,000 

Lafferty  &  Co.  et  al 27,000  11,865 

Wood  &  Lukens 16,000  8,373 

O'Hara  &  Robinson 11,5-19  11,549 

Gillespie  &  Mitchell 77,000  6,000 

Collins  &  Wright 16,534  16,534 

Reese,  Graff  &  Dull. 22,000  14,850 

W.    W.  Wallace 60,000  5,440 

Zug  &  Co 17,000  12,830 

Year  1868. 

A.  H.  English  A  Co.  et  al S117,563  69,853 

Stuckrath  &  Co 15,000  15,000 

Pittsburgh  Bolt  Company 50,000  37,999 

William  Semple 6,300  6,300 

Fulton,  Bolman  &  Co 119,000  92,719 

Vesta  Oil  Works 33,500  18,300 

J.  &  W.  Gaskell 18,012  18,012 

Slrub  &  Zahringer 7,185  4,510 

Belleheld  Church 18,300  14,800 

Year  1869. 

Pittsburgh  Glass  Company S  10,000  $    9,7G5 

Evans,  Clow,  Dalzell  4  Co 30,800  19,843 

James  Bown 8,913  7,032 

Hiawatha  House 24,535  6,535 

Semple,  Reynolds*  Co 21,561  15,646 

Lii  Belle  Steel  Works 27,187  16,689 

Forsythe  Bros.  &  Co 220,680  71,987 

House  of  Refuge  Shops 13,000  7,500 

John  F.  Wolfe  et  al.,  McK'pt 33,757  14,745 

Pennsylvania  Salt  Co 25,000  17,511 

Cubbage  &  Ferguson 15,000  8,100 

Armstrong  Bros.  &  Co 16,134  9,506 

Fi-azierBros 28,000  9,000 


Gross  Loss. 

S.  J.  &  J.  N.  Large 22,183 

A.  H.  Childs&Co 157,088 

A.  Hartupee 6,550 

Little  &  Baird 28  350 

Fifth  Ward  School,  Allegheny 26,600 

George  Smith  &  Co 16,600 

Year  1870. 

Mellinger,  Estep  &  Co 8  11,443 

Livingston  Brothers 16,000 

Douglass  &  Hayes 19,000 

Jackson,  McEwen  &  Co 7,650 

Sharpsburg  Bridge 45,000 

For.sythe  Brothers 13,500 

Ring  Oil  Company 83,000 

National  &  Citizen's  Oil  Company 33,245 

H.  W.  C.  Tweddle 73.000 

Kirkpatrick  &  Co 11,600 

Reese,  Graff&  Dull 6,300 

James  Callerv  et  al 34,500 

Pittsburgh  Tanning  Co.  etal 22,000 

Kennedy  &  Brother 109,283 

John  B.  Kennedy      7,150 

Jones  &  Nimick 157,000 

Chambers  &  Co _    11,987 

Year  1871. 

Lane  Brothers  et  al J$ 

Smith  &  Porter  etal 

Rylay  &  Robin.son „... 

Howard  &  Son  et  al 

St.  Bridget's  R.  C.  Church 

Eleventh  Ward  School  House 

Bailey,  Farrell  &  Co 

W.  D.  Wood  &  Co 

Jacob  Franz 

Sampson's  Heirs 

Wm.  McKoe  A  Co 

George  G.  Miller , 

McKnight  &  Co 

H.   M.    Bole „ 


Year  1872. 


.Tones  &  Laughlin ^69,435 

D.  P.    Reighard 10,000 

Waring  and  others 15,000 

B.   L.   Fahnestock 75,143 

W.  B.  Lupton  &  Co 20,900 

Hurtje.  Wvlie  &  Co 90,604 

Jo-scph  Walton 20,000 

Year  1873. 

Hamilton,  Lemon  &  Co ...$  38,960 

William  Gratr  &  Co 41,000 

National  Tube  Works 103,372 

Arbuckle  &    Co 10,649 

J.  K.   Moorhead $44,525 

Keefer  &  Herchenroetheretal 51,304 

Mulen,  Steen  &  Co 11,455 

Freeman  &  Burger 28,214 

George  W.  Jordan 10,000 

J   W.  Lewis 33,000 

W.  Smith  .k  Son 13,612 

Jo'in   Phillips 18,000 

Stewart,  Cook  .t  Co „    14,267 

G.  E.  Williams  &  Co 10,907 

Year  1874. 

Rellevue  School  House „..$  11,000 

A.  Garrison 10,000 

Pittsburgh  Car  Works 16,453 

Appe  &  Rogers,  and  others 88,350 

Allegheny  Car  C-ompanv 25,000 

W.  Frank  &  Sons ." 23,330 

Great  Allegheny  Fire 244,709 

Standard  Oil  Works 40,000 

Fairview  Oil  Works 43,729 

Reese,  OwensA  Co 26,918 

Jchn  Appel  et  al 23,882 

Oil  Works,  Herr's  Island „    30,700 

R.  P.  Burgan  et  al 14,000 

Wilkins  Hall 10,.525 


21,800 

56',585 
13,000 

8  82,500 


51,595 
8,700 

65,000 
5,000 


$  24,977 

'    41,000 

40,500 

10,6-19 

$  39,525 

26,604 

9,455 

16,000 


10,162 
13,612 
12,500 
14,207 
10,907 


S  7,000 


16,453 

23,900 

14,250 

22,530 

111,824 

27,253 

43,729 

26,918 

7,632 

6,000 

14,000 

7,000 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH. 


75 


Year  1875. 

Gross  Loss. 

Whitmore,  WolffA  Co.  et  al 8  54,236 

ElkinsA  Flack 18,000 

Harlin's  Color  Works 10,000 

County  Workhouse 60,000 

Hussey,  Binns  &  Co 18,000 

Brilliant  Oil  Works 75,000 

Bown  A'Sons  fire  107,525 

J.  B.  Young  &  Co 10,720 

Tear  187G. 

South  Side  Flour  Mill S  42,147 

Paine,  Ablett  &  Tripp  et  al 35,995 

Tarentuni  Camp  (iround _    35,000 

Berger's  Bucket  Factory  15,000 

National  Tube  Works 10,500 

American  Oil  Works  Tank 20,705 

Lindsay  AMcCutcheon 30,000 

Frame  Row,  Mansfield 15,970 

W    Fliiceus  <t  Sun 15,944 

La  Belle  Steel  Works 156,500 

Year  1877. 

Fort  Pitt  Boiler  Works S  46,495 

Mansfield  it  Co 20,000 

Davis,  Chambers  &  Co 55,923 

Pittsburgh  Steel  Company 23,788 

Jacobus*  Nimick 132,468 

John  A.  McRee  &  Sons 35,807 

A.  Hartupee  A  Co 104,631 

McKeesport  Car  Works 94,145 

GilnioreA  Co 16,060 

Pittsburgh  Di.spatch  etal 28,845 


Ins.  Paid. 
«  54,236 
13,008 
10,000 
22,700 
13,314 
58,950 
90,927 
10,720 


24,337 
31,684 
7,730 
10,000 
10,500 
20,705 
27.642 
11,580 
15,944 
65,000 


8  19,045 
16,735 
45,408 
23,788 
91,570 
25,795 
84,683 
65,610 
15,779 
21,061 


Year  1878. 

Gross  Loss.   Ind.Paid. 
$  29,585 


Fleming,  Agnew  &  Co %  40,295 

Hays  Coal  Co.,  tipple 10,000 

G.  McKeeetal.,  planing  mill 11,184 

Armstrong  Bros.  &  Co.,  cork  facta-  •  .  70,900 

Lewis,  Oliver  &  Phillips,  foundiy.;....  11,096 

Pittsburgh  Wagon  Works  Shop 32,575 

Rcymer  Bros.,  candy  :actory 24,GG2 

Recapitnlation. 

Comparative  statement  of  the  number  of  fires,  gross 
loss,  and  insurance  paid  from  August  20,  1864,  to  March 
23,  1879,  the  year  ending  the  fourth  Monday  of  March  in 
each  case. 


8,824 

56,939 

7,098 

1,406 

24,062 


No.  of 
Fires. 

Gross 
Loss. 

Insurance 
Paid. 

1805  (7  months) 

33 
64 
81 
77 
122 
127 
296 
298 
326 
198 
302 
322 
271 
362 
245 

3,124 

8       266,128 
741,225 
868,100 
815,559 
625,842 
852,.';G4 
1,349,727 
664,212 
520,298 
667,528 
809,385 
654,667 
548,944 
757,316 
324,842 

8     126,481 

1866 

336,014 
500,.n28 

1867 

1808  

311,264 

1869 

38.5.4a5 

1870 

433,092 

1871 

684,799 

1872 

355,472 

1873 

271,566 
419,097 

1874 

1875  

512,328 

1876 

490,3!;0 

1877 

347,426 

1873 

530,174 

1879 

20.'), 697 

Totals 

8  10,481,337 

8  5,909,7S7 

Statistics  of  THE  AMERICAN  IRON  TRADE,  and  of  THE  PITTSBURGH  IRON 

TRADE,  For  1877  and  1878. 


PRODUCTS. 

United    States. 

NKT     TONS. 

Allegheny  Co.,    Pa. 

XTK     TOX.S. 

1877. 

1878. 

1 

1877. 

1878. 

Production  of  Pig  Iron, 

2.314,585 
642,351 
720,531 
182,242 

4,828,918 
332,540 
432,169 

2,577,361 
574,565  i 
830,837  ! 
182,042  ; 

4,396,130  i 
322,890  i 
550,398  ; 
9  397 

141,749 

6,470 

206,171 

30,254 

597,806 

2,171 

54,685 

217,209 

Stocks  of  Pij:  Iron  unsold,  Dec.  31 

Production  of  I)ars,  aiijjles,  bolts,  rod.s  &  hoops 
Production  of  Plates  and  Sheets 

10,080 

224,248 

33,445 

Production  of  Nails  in  kegs   

444,013 

Production  of  Iron  Rails 

2  439 

Production  of  Bessemer  Steel  Rails 

72,246 

Production  of  Open-hearth  Steel  Rails 

1'otal  production  of  Rails 

764,709 
560,587 
40,430 
25,031 
11,924 
8,845 
47,300 

88 J, 685  ! 

.'i6.85fi 

74,685 

Production  of  Bessemer  Steel  In''ots 

732,226               73',278 
42,906  ;            24.747 

99,344 

"           of  Crucible  Cast  Steel 

27,866 

"           of  Open-hearth  Steel  Ingots 

of  all  other  Steel 

"      of  Spiegeleisen  (JDciadcd  in  pi?  iron  above';, 

36,126  : 

8,556 

10,674 

50,045 

800 
8,323 

1,025 
6,579 

ADDITIONAL  STATISTICS. 


Value  of  Iron  and  Steel  Imports, , 

Value  of  Iron  and  Steel  Exports, ■ 

Miles  of  Railway  constructed 

Number  of  Immigrants,, 

Production  of  Lake  Superior  Iron  Ore  in  Gross  Tons, 

Tonnage  of  Iron  Ships  built  (in  fiscal  years), 

Net  Imports  of  Merchandise  (in  fiscal  years), 

Domestic  E.xports  of  Merchandise  (in  "fiscal  years),... 

Net  Imports  of  Specie  (in  fiscal  years) 

Domestic  E.\ports  of  Specie  (in  fiscal  years) 


United  States. 


1877. 


$9,195,368 

16,659,675 

2,177 

130,503 

1,025,129 

5,927 

$4.38,518,130 

589,670,224 

27,746,915 

43,134,738 


1878. 


$8,943,043 

13,260,369 

2,747 

153,207 

1,125,231 

26,960 

$422,895,034 

680,709,258 

23,134,074 

27,061  885 


7G 


INDUSTRIES   OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 


PRICES  IN    DOLLARS    OF   AMERICAN    IRON    RAILS    IN    PHILADELPHIA,    FROM    1847    TO    1879. 

Per   To.v   op   2,240   lbs. 


Compiled  by  Th«  American  Iron  and  Steel  Association,  from  the  tales  books  of  several  prominent  Philadelphia 

Iron    Merchants. 


1847... 
1843... 
1849.. 
1850... 
18J1... 
1852... 
18.53... 
1854  .. 
1855... 
18.")6... 
1857... 
1858... 
1859... 
18G0... 
18GI... 
1862... 
1863... 
18G4... 
1865... 
1866... 
1867... 
18G8... 
1869... 
1870... 
1871... 
1872  .. 
1873... 
1874... 
1875... 
1876... 
1877... 
1878... 
1879... 


63 
Gl 
47 
43 

46>i 

74>| 

81 

70 

62% 

65)1 

50 

48!^ 
44 

36>< 
72'^ 
94 

125% 
90 
85 
&i% 
10% 
74 
C8V 

83>i 

06 

50 

38 

333^ 

34 


ik 

3 

J3 

6 

P. 

-1 

» 

$ 

» 

7% 

71)% 

70 

63 

C3 

63 

57X 

53% 

53% 

47>^ 

48 

49 

t45 

47% 

46>| 
77>| 

45 

46 ',4 

46% 

77% 

77>^ 

81 

81 

81 

65 

62'^ 

62% 

62>^ 
65<Z 

63% 

65 

65% 

50 

50 

50 

49V 

4934 

50% 

^sU 

48';| 

48% 

44 

44 

44 

36!^ 
69% 
lOlM 
121H 
90 

VM 

41% 
73% 

105 

111 

8t>| 

108% 
84% 

85 

m 

79 

79 

79 

76 

76 

76 

72>^ 

72>^ 

72% 
69 '4 
83% 

69 

69 

75% 

81% 

83 

83 

82 

64 

62 

60 

50 

50 

49 

43 

42% 

42 

38 

38 

33 '4 
35% 

33}^ 

8.3% 
35 

70 
63 
54% 
49 
45 

46% 
7731 
81 
60 
65 
67 
50 

50% 
48^ 
44 

41% 
7331 
120 
90>4 
8t 

82% 
79 
76 

72% 
71 

90% 
80 
60 
49 
42 
37 
33% 


<u 

s 

3 

>-> 

>-> 

$ 

5f 

70 

69% 

63 

63 

63% 

53% 

bo 

46 

48 

46 

463-^ 

4G% 
773| 

773^ 

81 

81 

58K 

59% 

65 

65 

67 

67 

50 

50 

50% 
48% 

49% 
48% 

44 

44 

41% 
78% 
127% 
84^ 
85% 

41% 
813| 
141l| 

82% 

8G>^ 

82'^ 

82'^ 

79 

79 

76 

76 

72% 

89 

90 

78 

76 

60 

60 

49 

48% 

41 

41 

m 

34% 
34 

69% 

<;i% 
533I 

4G% 

4534 

46 'I 

77>| 

81 

59% 

65 

67 

50 

!^^ 
46 

43% 

41% 

73% 

152 -I 

863I 

87 

82% 

79 

80 

7234 

71 

r^ 

58 

47 

41 

34 

34 


C7% 

Cl% 

52 

47% 

45 

47% 

7731 

81 

C4% 

65 

67 

50 

f7^ 

43 

43 

72% 
gl53!j| 
90 
87% 
82% 
79 
78% 

?/^ 

58 

46% 

40 

33 

34 


67% 
61 

513-^ 
43 
46 
51 

77% 
773I 
65 
65 

58% 
50 
48% 
47% 
363| 
46 

87% 
133i5| 
95 
85 
82% 
76 

78% 
70% 
71 

88% 
68 
52 

45% 
39% 
33 
34 


67% 

61 

51% 
+48  " 
1-16% 

61 

77% 

733I 

63 

64 

50 

50 

48% 

4G3l 

3G>?, 

46  ' 

87% 
132 

91 

85 

823-i; 

78?| 

78% 

70 

71 

85% 

66 

50 

43% 

39 

33 

34 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

no 

113 
145 
201 
157 
140 
138 
140 
136 
115 
112 
112 
113 
112 
114 
110 
105 
102 
100 


From  1847  to  180G  from  Philadelphia  prices  current,  except  for  years  1850  and  1851,  for  which  estimates  were  fur- 
nished by  Mr.  S.  J.  Reeves.  From  1SG6  to  1879  from  Bulletin  of  The  American  Iron  and  Steel  Association,  averagetl 
from  weekly  quotations. 

OSf  Prices  averaged  for  years  to  nearest  eighth.  *  For  latter  part  of  1857  prices  were  probably  only  nominal. 
t  Uncertain. 

X  Lowest  month,  532%-October,  1877.  jliiTgheyyeaV.^f  126^1864'.         ?  Highest  month,  $153%-»Sept.  1864. 

K^The  annual  premium  on  gold  is  calculated  from  daily  quotations  of  gold  sales  in  the  Bankers'  Magazine. 


PRICES  IN    DOLLARS   OF   AMERICAN    BESSEMER  STEEL   RAILS,    AT   WORKS,   FROM    1868   TO    1879. 

Pkr   Ton    of    2,240    lbs. 


< 

u 

3 

n 

►-5 

.0 

.a 

u 
a 

< 

3 
►-5 

3 
to 

a 

a 

a 

v 

m 

u 

0 

a 
> 

'A 

0 

1868 

1869 

1870 

1871 

1872 

1873 

1874 

1875 

1876 

1877 

1878 

1879 

165 

145 

110 

95 

'■;« 

67 
49 
41 
41 

s 

1G7J^ 
143>| 
110 
96 
104 
120 

65 
49 

41% 

s 

174 

135 

108% 

106 

104% 

1223^ 

115 

71 

62 

49 

41% 

43 

s 

172 
134 
107 

95 

111% 
1203^ 

98% 

69 

62 

49 

42 

42% 

s 

165 

130% 

106 

103 

110 

120 

98% 

79 

62 

47>i 

43% 

$ 
162% 
128 
109% 
104 
113 
121% 

96% 

69 

60 

46% 

43 

$ 
150 
130 
110 
103% 
11431 
121?| 

91 

69 

59 

45% 

433^ 

150 

130 

110 

104 

115% 

121% 

8934 

69 

59 

44% 

42% 

$ 
150 
130 
108% 
106 
114 
118 

78% 

69 

56 

44 

42% 

« 

150 

130% 

101% 

105% 

1133^ 

120 

78% 

67 

54 

42% 

423-1 

% 
148 
130% 
102'i 
105% 
113 
120 

75% 

66 

53 

403^ 

42 

s 

147% 
120 

98 

106% 
12U% 
120' 

75% 

65 

52 

40% 

41 

% 
l-.8% 
1323| 
100% 
IO23I 
112 
120% 
943-i 
08% 
5934 
453^ 
42% 

77 

WHOLESALE  STORE  PRICES  IN  DOLLARS  OF  BEST  REFINED  ROLLED  BAR  IRON  IN  PHILADELPUIA, 
FROM  1844  TO  1879.     PER  TON  OF  2,240  POUNDS. 


u 

^ 

cj 

o 

o 

'A 

Q 

» 

1844 

90  no 

1845 

8^  50 

1840 

95  00 

1847  

8o  00 

1848 

85  00 

1849 

70  00 

1850 

65  00 

1851 

55  0) 

1852 

54  00 

ia53 

90  00 

1854 

90  00 

1855 

82  50 

1850 

75  00 

18.57 

72  50 

1858 

65  00 

1859 

CO  00 

18C0 

00  00 

1861 

60  00 

1802 

02  50 

1863 

87  50 

1864 

115  00 

1805 

142  50 

18CG 

105  00 

1867 

95  00 

1868 

85  00 

1869 

82  50 

1870 

80  00 

1871 

72  50 

1872 

73  92 

1873 

90  32 

1874 

73  92 

1875 

02  72 

1876 

50  00 

1877 

48  72 

1878 

44  80 

1879 

10  32 

90  00 
87  50 
95  00 
85  00 
85  00 
70  00 
05  00 
55  00 
54  00 
90  00 
90  00 
80  00 
77  50 

72  50 
65  00 
CO  00 
57  50 
60  00 
62  50 
90  (0 

125  00 
135  00 
100  00 
92  50 
85  00 
82  50 

77  50 
75  00 

78  40 
94  OS 

73  92 
CO  48 
62  64 
47  (iO 
44  80 
42  66 


4£ 

90  00 
92  50 
90  00 
85  00 
85  00 

70  00 
05  00 
55  00 
62  50 
90  00 
90  00 
75  00 
77  50 
72  50 
65  00 
GO  00 
67  60 
CO  00 
02  60 
90  00 

130  00 
130  00 
97  50 
92  50 
85  00 
82  60 
77  50 
75  00 
87  30 
96  32 

71  03 
62  72 
62  04 
47  04 
44  80 
44  80 


90  00 
100  00 
92  50 
85  00 
85  00 

70  00 
02  60 
55  00 
52  50 
87  50 
90  00 
11  50 
77  60 
7i  50 
Ui  50 
00  00 
57  50 
60  00 
02  50 
90  00 

140  00 
110  00 
95  00 

90  00 
87  50 
82  50 
77  50 
77  60 
9t  08 

91  08 

71  68 
62  72 
52  64 
44  80 
44  80 
44  So 


90  00 
100  01) 
92  50 
85  00 
85  <iO 
70  00 
6'>  lit 
65  no 
62  5  I 
85  00 
9' I  00 
70  UO 
75  00 
72  60 
62  50 
CO  00 
57  50 
CO  00 
05  (10 
90  "0 
150  oo 
100  00 
92  50 
87  50 
87  5i» 
82  60 
75  no 
75  00 
90  32 
94  03 
07  20 
C2  72 
52  01 
44  8> 
44  80 


s 

$ 

82  50 

82  50 

10<>  110 

95  00 

92  60 

95  00 

90  <iO 

90  00 

80  0  ) 

80  Oo 

70  00 

05  00 

57  60 

57  50 

66  00 

65  Oi> 

52  50 

52  50 

80  "0 

80  00 

92  60 

95  UO 

70  00 

70  00 

72  50 

7u  00 

72  5> 

70  00 

05  00 

02  50 

GO  00 

60  oo 

57  5o 

57  50 

60  no 

00  00 

05  00 

70  on 

87  60 

87  50 

100  to 

105  00 

92  6  t 

90  00 

95  '10 

106  (Ml 

87  50 

85  on 

87  5o 

85  on 

82  50 

82  50 

77  5> 

80  no 

77  50 

77  5' 

98  50 

103  04 

91  84 

85  12 

67  2'i 

62  72 

02  72 

02  7.' 

52  64 

62  64 

44  80 

44  80 

44  80 

44  8i) 

8 

82  50 

92  50 

92  50 

85  no 

80  no 

65  00 

57  50 

55  no 

55  no 
77  no 
95  no 

72  50 
70  00 
70  00 

GO  (Ml 

CO  no 

GO  00 

Oo  no 

72  60 

87  6o 

170  00 

85  00 
loo  00 

82  50 

86  oo 
82  ho 
85  no 
80  00 

10->  28 
82  88 
67  20 
60  4H 
62  04 
44  80 
44  80 


82  60 

92  60 

90  no 

87  50 

75  00 

05  00 

"7  10 

54  00 

00  no 

77  5  1 

95  UO 

72  50 

72  50 

70  00 

60  no 

GO  OO 

00  OO 

02  50 

75  00 

87  hO 

100  00 

92  f>0 

100  no 
82  60 
85  OO 
80  00 
82  0(» 
82  60 

107  52 
80  04 
07  20 
60  48 
60  40 
44  8U 
44  80 


8 

8 

82  no 

82  60 

92  (jO 

9-1  00 

90  0> 

90  00 

86  00 

86  no 

76  Oo 

07  60 

05  oO 

Oi  f'O 

50  UO 

50  00 

64  00 

54  OO 

70  OO 

7u  no 

80  (0 

80  00 

92  nO 

90  00 

75  00 

77  hO 

72  6) 

72  6') 

70  to 

70  00 

00  00 

00  00 

GO  no 

CO  00 

CO  00 

00  00 

02  'lO 

62  50 

77  60 

82  60 

90  00 

96  00 

150  00 

147  50 

95  00 

100  00 

97  f-O 

95  00 

82  60 

82  60 

85  00 

86  00 

80  00 

80  00 

80  00 

77  (0 

82  fin 

82  50 

118  72 

107  62 

70  10 

73  92 

07  20 

02  72 

60  48 

M   00 

60  40 

10  40 

44  80 

44  80 

42  AG 

42  66 

1 

82  f.0 
96  00 
85  00 

85  .0 

70  00 
05  no 
66  00 
54  no 
80  00 

86  00 
90  00 
77  '0 
72  ftO 
07  fO 
GO  00 
00  00 
CO  00 
02  10 

87  /O 
110  00 
145  00 
105  00 

95  OO 
8i  OO 
8i  00 
80  00 
77  '0 
86  00 
100  80 

71  08 
02  72 
50  00 
49  21 
44  ^0 
42  hO 


$ 

85  62 
93  75 

91  ca 

86  Ot 
79  33 

67  "0 
59  64 
64  60 
58  79 
83  60 
91  33 
74  68 
73  75 
71  01 
02  29 
CO  00 

68  75 
CO  83 
70  42 
91  Ot 

140  40 
100  :^8 
98  13 

87  oa 

85  63 
81  CO 
78  98 
78  64 
97  03 
80  43 
07  9-> 
CO  85 
b-l  08 
46  65 
44  24 


The  highest  price  in  any  month  iti  tlio  abovo  table  was  reached  in  August,  1801,  5>J70;  tlie  lo"'eat  prico  in  any 
montli  was  in  January,  1879,  J'40.:!2.  The  highest  average  price  reached  in  anv  year  was  in  18G4,  $I4G4G;  the  lowest 
average  price  in  any  year  was  in  1878,  8-14.24.  Previous  to  the  present  era  of  low  prices,  the  lowest  point  touched  was 
852  50  in  March  to  July,  1852  ;  and  the  lowest  average  reached  in  any  year  was  8.'J4.GG  in  1851. 


PRODUCTION  OF  ANTHRACITE  COAL. 
The  following  figures  of  the  production  of  anthracite 
coal  are  taken  from  a  table  prepared  for  the  Coil  Trade 
Journal  by  John  H.  Jones.  The  aggregate  amount  of  an- 
thracite marketed  according  to  this  statement  foots  up 
over  307,000,000  tons : 


Year.  Tons. 

1820 3G5 

1821 1,07.3 

1822 3,',20 

1823 6,951 

1824 11,108 

1825 34,893 

1826 48,047 

1827 03,434 

1828 77,516 

1829 112,083 

1&50 174,7:54 

la'il 17G,8  0 

18:52 303,271 

18;i:i- 487.749 

18:J4 37C,G:i6 

18:55 500,7.58 

18:56 034,117 

18.37 809,441 

18:58 738,G97 

18.39 818,402 

1840 80-1,379 

1841 9.59,773 

1842 1,108,412 

184:5 1,2G3,.598 

1844 1,030,8.50 

184.5 2,013,013 

1846 2,344,005 

1847 2,882,309 

1848 :',039,2:;a 

1849 3,242,960 


Year.  Tons. 

1850 3,358,799 

1851. 4,418,916 

18.52 4,893,471 

1853 5,195,151 

18.54 0,202,3:54 

1855 C,C08,,5G7 

1856 6,927,550 

18.57 6,044,941 

18.58 C,8.39,:)G0 

18.59 7,808,2,55 

1800 8,51:5,123 

1861 7,9.54,204 

1862 7,809,497 

1803 9,.50G,000 

1864 10,177,475 

180.5 9,652,391 

1866 12,70:5,882 

1807 12,988,725 

1808 13,801,405 

1809 13,800,180 

1870 10  182,191 

1871 15;099,721 

1872 19,069,778 

1873 21,227,952 

1874 20,145,121 

187.5 19,712,472 

1876 rr.   ]8,.501,0I1 

1877 20,828,178 

1878 17,005,202 


Bitumi- 
nous. 


c;53 

91 
SIO 


n,:soo 


015 


EXPORTS   OF  COAL.. 
Shipments  of  coal  to  foreign  ports,  lor  the  fiscal  year 
ending  June  30,  1878:  .    ., 

"  '  Anthra- 

Coun  tries.  cite. 

Austria 202 

Brazil 1,8.50 

Central  American  States 11 

Chili 1,093 

China 8,059 

D:irii.sh  West  Indies 1,497 

France 704 

French  West  Indies  and  French  (Juiana        240 
Miquelan,  Langley  and  St  Pierre  Islands         30 

French  Po.sscssions,  all  other i.. 

Nova  Scotia,  New    Brunswick  and  Pr 

Edward  Island 80,395 

Quebec,  Ontario,  Manit-oba  and  North- 
west Tonitory 268,878 

British  Columbia 17 

Newfoundland  and  Labrador 98 

British   West  Indies  and  Honduras 1,471 

British  E:ust  Indies 454 

Hong  Kon;; 1,359 

British  Possessions  in  Au8trala.sia 10 

Hawaiian  Islands 842 

Hayii 

Italy 2,360 

Japan 706 

Mexico 7.56 

Dutch  East  Indies JOl 

Peru 1,878 

Azore,  Madeira  and  Cape  Verde  Islands       325 

Snn  Domingo 4:54 

Cuba 17,983 

Porto  Rico '. 43 

United  States  of  Columbia _     3,373 

Venezuela 630 


5,4,53 

214,982 
22 


1,222 


257 

713 

16 


8,144 


297 

62,613 

.32 

17,-131 

681 


Total _ 340,061        3:9,477 


78 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PJiNNSYLVAKIA. 


INTERNAL  REVENUE,  TWENTY-SECOND  PA.  DISTRICT. 

Tlie  following  tabulated  statcmenta  of  the  revenue  derived  from  spirits,  tobacco,  fermented 
liquors,  banks,  bankers,  Ac,  for  tlio  years  ondinj:  June  :')0,  1878,  and  June  .'50,  1879,  is  compiled 
from  the  reports  of  Hon.  Tliomas  \V.  Davis,  Collector  of  Internal  Revenue  for  the  Twenty-second 
Pennsylvania  District: 


FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDING  JUNE  30,  1878. 


1877. 

July t 

Aufiust. ... 
Scpt'bcr... 
October ... 
November 
December 

1878. 
.lanuary... 
I''t'bruary. 
March..  .. 

April 

May 

June 


Spirits. 

30,578  54 
38,411  07 
5'2,G55  11 
7-J,008  82 
36,001  57 
91,715  U7 

67,300  81 
60,000  41 
01  240  19 
45,!t89  43 
34,417  35 
16,244  30 


Tobacco. 

26,654  71 
29,215  44 
28,202  88 
3(1  863  32 
30,617  48 
30,391  81 

30,363  32 
25,030  Oii 
29,091  24 
40,779  52 
39,944  93 
27,912  95 


Fermented 
LiquDi'u. 

$  8,622  89 
0,791  07 
0,209  40 
7,016  74 
0,549  81 
7,570  67 

5  372  17 
5.835  15 
7,099  30 
8,841  75 
10,330  01 
7,283  21 


Blinks  luid 
UanUcru. 

$44,220  2i 
::7()  15 
271  50 


Collections 
otiierwisc. 


i;95  20 


45,401  22 


100  10 


120  24 
72  33 

132  "75 


Pennltles. 

$  27 

233  41 

19  77 

5  00 

2,801   12 

J  78  94 

86  83 

395  08 

8  58 

262  31 

19  85 
143  24 


TotaJ. 

110,070  03 
75,22.3  00 
87,418  06 

109,893  88 
70,029  98 

129,856  69 

148,524  35 
S7,80l  30 
98,859  05 
95.945  34 
84,712  14 
51,710  51 


Total $603,223  63     $309,0.7  00    $88,182  17    $90,269  19    $020  68    $4,155  00    $1,150  118  13 

FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDING  JUNE  30,  1879. 


1878. 


Spirit*. 


Julv $  10.88:?  03 

August 1(5, Ki!)  98 

Sopt'ber....  17,179  09 

October...  31,839  40 

November  53,018  94 

December.  28,035  17 

1879. 

.lanuary  ...  25,902  0(5 

K.'bruary..  28,364  30 

March 32.4.59  98 

April 119,321  25 

May 59,490  13 

June 24,338  98 


Tobncco. 

31,797  .52 
31,821  77 
30,7(58  35 
.30,(589  42 
30,4.52  94 
27,940  56 

29,130  15 
22,777  32 
28,521  70 
40,588  5G 
44,971  34 
27,275  43 


Fermented 
Liquors. 

5  9,(543  52 
8,132  73 
7,144  54 
7,. 594  95 
0,095  41 
0,318  10 

5.771  00 
5,033  11 
0,891  35 
9,708  50 
12,271  37 
11,:535  16 


Bnnks  and 
Bankers. 

$40,8(55  20 


Other 
Collections. 


3,052  33 


Penalties. 
$     3  33     $ 


38,121  G6   108  72 


147  44 
36  91 


0 

1 

81 

G3 
26 
64 

3 
16 

06 
79 

5 

00 

Total. 

93,192  60 

59.176  81 
55,098  61 
70,125  03 
90,248  91 
62,293  83 

99,034  19 

56.177  79 
68,037  26 

1(59,655  22 

116,732  84 

62,954  57 


$447,602  89  $376,735  06  $95,9:59  74  $78,986  86  3,;545  40  $117  71  $1,002,727  66 


YEARLY  PRICES  OP  COAL. 

We  {live  below  prices  for  Schuylkill  White  Ash  Lump  coal,  on  board  vessels  at  Philadelphia, 
from  18:54  to  1878,  inclusive,  prepared  oripinally  by  W.  G.  Neilson,  and  continut-d  by  J.  M.  Swank, 
bcinjj  the  average  rates  obtained  from  sales  during  the  year: 


Years. 

is:u.. 

18:55.. 

ls:U).. 

ih;?7.. 

is:?s. 

I  S3') 

1840.. 

1841. 

1842. 

1813., 

1844. 


Prices, 
.$1  84 
.  4  84 
.  6  (54 
.  6  72 
.  5  27 
.  5  00 
4  91 
.  5  79 
.  4  18 
.  3  27 
.  3  20 


Yoais. 

1845.. 

1846.. 

1847. 

1848. 

1849. 

1850. 

1851.. 

1852.. 

1853 

1854. 

1855.. 


Prices. 

Years. 

$3  46 

1856 

3  90 

1857 

3  80 

18.58 

3  50 

18.59 

3  62 

1860 

3  64 

1861 

3  34 

1862. 

3  46 

186:i. 

3  70 

1864. 

5  19 

1865 

4  49 

1866. 

Prices. 
.$4  11 
.  3  87 
.  3  43 
.  3  25 
.  3  40 
.  3  39 
.  4  14 
.  6  06 
.t8  :59 
.  7  86 
.  5  80 


"Lowest  average  for  year. 


t  Highest  average  for  vear. 


Years.  Prices. 

.1867 $-1  37 

1868 3  86 

1869 5  31 

1870 4  :59 

1871 4  46 

1872 3  74 

1873... 4  27 

1874 4  55 

1875 4  .39 

1876 3  87 

1877 *2  59 

1878 3  25 


CITY    OF   PITTSBUKGII. 


79 


THE  LEGAL  TON  AND  BUSHEL  IN  PENNSYLVANLV. 

Tlic  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania  have  enacted  in  reference  to  what  constitutes  a  bushel  or  a 
ton  of  Bituminous  coal. 

Section  1.  That  from  and  after  the  passage  of  this  act,  the  standing  weight  of  Bituminous 
coal  in  this  Commonwealth,  shall  be  seventy-six  pounds  to  the  bushel,  and  two  tiiousand  pounds 
shall  be  one  ton. 

Section  2.  If  any  person  or  persons  enga;:ed  in  the  business  of  mining  Bituminous  coal,  shall 
fix  or  establish  any  other  number  of  pounds  by  agreement  or  contiact  to  be  a  bushel  of  Bituminous 
coal,  than  is  provided  for  in  the  first  section  of  this  act,  such  person  or  persons  shall  be  guiltj'  of 
misdemeanor;  and  upon  conviction  thereof  shall  be  sentenced  to  pay  a  fine  not  less  than  five  hun- 
dred, and  not  exceeding  one  thousand  dollars,  and  all  penalties  recovered  under  this  act  shall  be 
paid  into  the  treasury  of  tlie  State. 


THE  BUSINESS  AND  POPULATION  OF  PITTSBURGH. 


In  the  preparation  of  a  work  of  this  description,  much  difficulty  is  experienced  in  obtaining 
reliable  statistics,  and  no  doubt  the  larger  number  of  fault-finders  will  be  those  who  have  refused  to 
give  our  reporters  information  relative  to  their  business  through  fear  of  ta.\-col lectors,  revenue 
officers,  or  from  an  inexcusable  stupidity  or  want  of  enterprise  and  i)usiness  sagacity.  We  liave 
spared  no  effort  or  expense  to  make  this  work  the  most  complete  compendium  of  the  business  inter- 
ests of  Pittsburgh  and  Al'egheny  ever  published,  and  all  failures  must  be  attributed  to  parties  who 
have  refused  to  aid  us  by  their  co-operation.  We  append  herewith  a  tabulated  statement  of  the 
number  of  firms  and  establishments  engaged  in  the  different  branches  of  business,  carefully  com- 
piled from  the  Pittsl)urgh  Directories  of  18GG,  1876  and  1879.  While  we  do  not  claim  that  the 
numlicrs  given  are  perfectly  accurate,  we  believe  that  in  most  branches  of  business  they  will  f-how  a 
f'avo'able  increase;  and  where  any  decrease  may  appear  we  have  no  doubt  it  is  owing  to  the  failure 
on  the  part  of  the  Directory  agents  to  ol)tain  the  full  information  desired.  The  population  of  Pitts- 
burgh and  .Allegheny,  as  shown  by  the  United  States  Census,  was,  in  1840,  81,155;  in  1850,  l;i8,2!)0; 
in  1860,  178,8;n  ;  in  1870,  262,201.  It  is  estimated  now,  by  the  most  reliable  judges,  that,  in  18K0, 
the  population  will  amount,  in  round  numbers,  to  fully  i-iuO.OOO.  While,  at  times,  during  the  past 
decade,  tiie  various  branches  of  business  carried  on  in  Pittsburgh  and  its  environs  have  been  tem- 
porarily affected  by  the  general  stagnation  of  business  in  all  parts  of  the  country,  the  indications 
are  now  favorable  for  a  steady  and  gratifying  inoren.se  in  all  the  industrial  pursuits  which  have 
given  to  Pittsburgh  a  world-wide  reputation  as  a  great  manufacturing  and  producing  metropolis. 


BUSINESS   STATISTICS   OF  PITTSBURGH. 


I860 

Arid  Manufacturers..    3 

Adverti.ting  Agents..    4 

Agricultural  Iiupl....    C 

"    Steels  &  Irons    1 

Air  Brakes 

Air  Furnaces 

Aldermen 12 

Ale,  Bottled 3 

Anthracite  Coal 3 

Architects 4 

Artific.  Iimlj8&  truss    1 

Artists 6 

"       MateriulB 2 

Attorneys 91 

Auctioneers  2 

Awnings   2 

Axle&  Roll  Greaso..    2 

Axles 3 

HaUers 16 

Baking  Powder 1 

Bankers 11 

Banks 26 

Barbers 16 

Barge  Builders 4 

Bell  Hangfirs 4 

Bellows  Mfrs 3 

Billiard  lUKnns 2 

Bill  Poster.s. 2 

Binders   and    Blatilc 

Book.s 5 

Blacksmiths 16 


1 
3 
7 
2 
1 
3 

78 
3 
2 

17 
2 

16 
2 
279 
8 
6 
2 
6 
108 
2 
6 

82 

75 
2 
6 
2 
7 
4 

13 
31 


1866  1876 

Rlk.  Lead  Crucildcs..    2  2 

Block  Makers 3  3 

Boat  Stores 5  2 

Boiler  Makers 6  15 

Bolls  and  Nuts 3  4 

Book  &. lob  Printers.  14  86 
Booksellers  and  Sta- 
tioners    10  34 

Boots  and  Shoes,  re- 
tail   10  151 

do.,  wholesale 16  9 

Boot  &  Slioe  Makers..  10  85 

Bottlers 1  4 

Box  Factories 2  10 

Brass  Founders 12  14 

Brass  Goods 2  2 

Brewers 11  19 

Brick  J.,aycr8  &  Job- 
bers  '. 4  3 

Bridge  Builders 2  2 

Brokers-Stock  &  Bill     7  20 

Broom  Mfrs 2  6 

Brush  Mfrs 1  7 

Butchers 12  148 

Butcher's  Tools 2  2 

Canned  (roods 2  4 

Car))enters  &  Build- 
ers.^     8  52 

Carpet  Weavers 14  12 

Carpets  <t  Oil  Cloths    5  13 

Carriage  Mfrs. 3  15 


1879 
3 
2 
2 
15 
7 
43 

;;i 


146 
10 

18 

18 

5 

26 

10 
4 

28 
5 
8 
105 
2 
7 

49 
18 
15 
20 


1866 

Cement 6 

Chain  Mfrs 2 

Cheese 4 

Chemicals 6 

Chemists „ 

Children's  Carriages  8 
China  Queens  Ware 

and  Glass  Ware 3 

Civil  Engineers 2 

Claim  Agencies 2 

Clothing— Retail 12 

"  — Wholesale  6 
Cloths  A  Cassemcres    4 

Coal  and  Coke 23 

CV)l1ce  lioasters 3 

Coke.. 3 

Com  mis.  Agencies....  24 

Confectioners -Retail    9 

"      -Wholesale    2 

Contractors 6 

Cooperages 15 

Copper  Mfrs 2 

Copper  Pipe  Mfrs 2 

Cordage,  Oakum  and 

Twine 2 

Corks 1 

Corrugated  Iron 1 

Cotton   Mills 4 

<otton  Ties 1 

(>>tton.<:Wool  Waste  2 
Cracker  Bakers 3 


1876 
6 
4 
4 
6 
1 
5 

11 

11 

2 

3/ 

4 

5 

89 

3 

13 

44 

26 

10 

17 

7 

2 

1 

4 
1 
1 
4 
1 
1 
6 


1879 
7 
3 
3 
4 
2 
6 

11 

11 

2 

41 

8 

6 

96 

5 

11 

47 

24 

10 

8 

9 

2 

2 

4 

1 
1 
4 
1 
2 
4 


80 


INDUSTPvLES   OP  PENNSYLVANIA. 


ISGG 

Curled  Hair 1 

Cutlery 12 

Dental  Depots 2 

Dentists 8 

Dining  Rooms 29 

Distilleries 2 

Dress  Makers CO 

Druggists 29 

Drugs— Wbolesiile....  12 
Dry  Gootis 20 

"  "  Wholesale  6 
Dyeing  and  Scouring    2 

Eating  Saloons 8 

Electrotypers 

Elevators 1 

Embroideries     and 

Laces 7 

Employment   Offices    2 

Enamelers 1 

Engine  Builders 15 

Engravers 2 

Express  Companies..    1 

Fancy  Goods 

Felt  Roofing 2 

File  Works 2 

Fire  Brick 2 

Fish 3 

Florists  1 

Flour— Wholesale....  11 
Flour,Grain  &  Feed..  13 

Flouring  Mills 4 

Forges 2 

Foreign  Fruits 2 

Founders 19 

FVesco  Painters 2 

Furnace  Builders 2 

Furniture 11 

Galv.  Iron  Cornice...    2 

Gas  Pipe 2 

Gas  &  Steam  Fitters  18 
Gas&  Water  Pipe....  2 
Gents'  Furnishing 

Goods (5 

Glass  Mtrs 2G 

Glass    Afoulds    and 

Presses 3 

GhiSvS  Stiiiners 3 

Glue  Mfrs 1 

Granite  Works 2 

Gravel  Roofing 2 

Grist  Mill  Maehin'v    1 

Grocers— Retail '.  23 

"      —Wholesale..  30 

Gum  Hose 4 

Gum  Packing 4 

Guns  and  Pistols 5 

Hair  Goods 5 

Hardware H 

Harness  Makers 3 

Hat5,  Caps  and  Furs..    6 

Horse  Shoers 14 

Hosiery  and  Gloves..    2 

Hotels" 21 

House    Furnishing 

Goods 3 

Ice  Companies ,    1 

Ins.  Agts.  &  Brokers  30 

Ins.  Co. 's— Fire 80 

Ins.   Co.'s— Life 39 

Iron  Pipe  Fitters 2 

Iron  Railings,  Prison 

Cells,  &c. 2 

Iron    Fences   and 

Railings 2 

Iron    Roofs,   Frames 

and  Roofing 2 

Iron  &  Nail  Mfrs 25 

.lapanned  Ware 

Jewelers 11 

Keg  Factories 2 

Kid  Gloves 2 

I.Amp  Chimuevs 2 

Lard  Oil  Mfrs.". 1 

I^ead  Pipe 1 

Leather  Belting  and 

Hose 2 

Leather   Hides,  Oils 

and  Tallow 2 

Leather  it  Findings..  2 
Light   Gray  Iron 

Castings..." 2 


S7G 

1879 

3 

1 

CG 

38 

1 

2 

30 

48 

20 

20 

G 

5 

2G 

."^I 

90 

104 

9 

10 

76 

7G 

9 

7 

15 

22 

24 

17 

3 

3 

1 

2 

4 

4 

6 

6 

1 

3 

18 

31 

5 

4 

3 

3 

IG 

20 

3 

3 

3 

4 

15 

16 

5 

G 

G 

7 

4 

11 

64 

65 

5 

2 

4 

7 

4 

8 

33 

33 

3 

6 

4 

6 

39 

39 

4 

3 

5 

4 

43 

66 

5 

4 

21 

31 

44 

41 

3 

2 

3 

3 

1 

1 

4 

5 

3 

10 

2 

1 

102 

342 

22 

26 

4 

8 

4 

6 

4 

5 

17 

15 

36 

45 

32 

30 

38 

31 

83 

49 

7 

12 

•15 

33 

14 

ri 

4 

13 

50 

70 

32 

126 

23 

29 

2 

3 

2 

3 

24 

27 

2 

o 

65 

62 

2 

4 

3 

3 

1 

11 

6 

6 

1 

1 

G 

6 

9 

11 

9 

10 

ISG6  1S7G 

Lime  and  Cement 3  5 

Linseed  Oil  Mfrs 1  2 

Liquors — Wholesale.  21 

"      —Retail 21  100 

Lithographers 2  4 

LiveryA  Sale  Stables  12  39 

Locksmiths 3  7 

Locomotives 1  2 

Looking  Glasses  and 

Picture  Frames  ...    5  11 

Lubricating  Oils 2  7 

Lumber 12  48 

Machinists 24  24 

]\Iachinist's  Supplies    4  7 

Maltsters 3  10 

Marbleized  Mantels..    2  4 

Marble  Works 5  20 

Mercantile  Agencies    2  3 

Mdse.  Brokers 12 

Merchant  Tailors 28  lOG 

Milliner.s 41  52 

^lillinery  Goods 7  5 

Mineral  "Water 2  3 

Mining  Co.'s 2  10 

JIusic  Teachers 10  10 

Nails  and  Tacks 1 

Neats  Foot  Oil 2  2 

Newspapers 13  SJ 

Notaries  Public 3  63 

Notions C6  111 

"        Wholesale...    3  12 

Novelty  Works 2  3 

Nurserymen 2  5 

Oculists 1  4 

Oil  Cans  and  Tanks..    6  1 

Oilcloths 1  13 

Oil  Dealers 27  23 

Oil  Refiners  18  24 

Opticians 2  3 

Oyster  Depots 2  3 

Painters 11  70 

Paper  Bags 2 

Paper  Box  Mfrs 2  5 

Paper  Mfrs 2  8 

Paper  R.ngs 9  3 

Patent  Medicines...      5  4 

Patent  Solicitors 2  10 

Patterns  and  Models    1  4 

Pawn  Brokers 2  10 

Photographers 7  22 

Physicians 59  247 

Pianos  and  Organs...    6  10 

Pictures  &  Franjes...    4  9 

Planing  Mills 10  39 

Plow  Mfrs 4  3 

Plumber's  Materials    1  2 

Pork  Packers 6  8 

Potteries 1  4' 

Powder  Agents 1  2 

Publishers 2  10 

Publisher's  Agents...    3  8 

Pumps 3  4 

Queensware 4  11 

Railroad  Supplies I  5 

Real  Estate 11  51 

Restaurants 11  11 

Ribbons  and  Silk 2  3 

Rivets 2  1 

Rolls     1  2 

Roofing  Materials 2  4 

Rubber  Goods 2  3 

Rubber  Stamps 1  2 

Saddlerv  Hardware..    7  7 

Safe  Mfrs 2  4 

Saloons 13  423 

Saltworks 2  2 

Sand  and  Gravel 4  5 

Sash&  Door  Factories    6  25 

Saw  Mills 10  10 

Saw  Mill  Mach'y 2  2 

Scales 1  3 

Schools 19  55 

Scrap  Iron 2  4 

Scroll  Sawing 2  2 

Sculptors 1  2 

Seedsmen 1  5 

Sewer  Pipe 2  10 

Sewing  Machines 6  12 

Sheet  Iron  Workers..    8  13 

Shovel  Mfrs 1  2 

Showcases 2  3 


1S73 

9 

4 

24 

105 

3 

o9 


51 
33 

6 
16 

4 
18 

3 

18 

106 

77 

5 

3 
13 
10 

2 

3 
41 
95 
50 
13 

2 

4 
5 
2 
15 
24 
16 
4 
9 
65 
4 
5 


12 

6 

11 

23 

£37 

6 

11 

30 

3 

1 

9 

5 

3 

5 

4 

3 

13 

8 

52 

12 

3 

2 

3 

0 

3 

6 
3 

46") 

li) 

19 

10 

2 

4 

55 

15 

2 

3 

5 

0 

17 

15 

2 

4 


ISGG  187G 

Silver*  Gold  Plating    l  3 

Slate  Roofing 4  4 

Soap  and  Candles 3  4 

Soda  Ash 3  7 

Spices 2  3 

Spikes  and  Rivets...    2  3 

Springs 3  6 

Stair  Builders 2  8 

Staves 3  5 

Steamboat  Agents 3  5 

Steamboat  Joiners...     2  3 

Steam  Fitters 2  4 

Steam  Pumps 3  7 

Steamship  Agency...    2  8 

Steel 7  8 

Steel  Castings 3 

Steel  Stamps 4 

Stencil  Cutters 1  5 

Stencil  Stock  Mfrs 1 

Stenographers 1  2 

Stills 3  11 

Stone  Flagging 3  5 

Stoves 13  12 

Straw  Goods 2  4 

Stucco  Workers 2  2 

Surveyors 1  4 

Tailor's  Trimmings..    2  6 

Tanks  (Iron) 3  12 

Tanners 2  8 

Teas 4  7 

Telegraph  Co.'s 2  2 

Terra  Cotta  AV are 1  4 

Tinners  an  d    T  i  n, 

Copper  and   Sheet 

Iron  Ware 11  93 

Tinners  Stock 2  2 

Tobacco  Leaf i  5 

Tobacco  Mfrs 2  5 

Tobacco  and    Cigars 

—Retail 17  189 

Tobacco    and    Cigars 

—Wholesale 2  15 

Tow  Boat  Offices 2  50 

Toys 2  6 

Trimmings 8  22 

Trunks  &  Valises„...    5  4 

Trusses 3 

Undertakers 5  31 

Upholsteres 3  12 

Varnish 1  1 

Veterinary  Surgeons    2  5 

Vinegar..." 5  5 

Wagon  Makers 2  27 

AVall  Paper 5  18 

Whip  Mfrs 1  2 

White  Lead 4  7 

Window  Shades 2  14 

Wire  Works 2  4 

Wood  Carvers 2  1 

Wood  Engravers 1  2 

Wood  Turners 2  10 

Wood  A  Willow  Ware  2  9 
W  o  o  a    Working 

Machinerv  1  3 

Wool .'. 3  3 

Woolen  Mills 3  2 

Wrought  Iron  Pipe...    2  5 

Yeast'. 1  1 

LODGKS — 

Masonic 15  3G 

Odd  Fellows 28  73 

A.  O.  U.  AV 20 

Knightsof  Pythias  ...  36 

G.  A.  R 5 

L  O.  R.  M 13 

Church  KS — 

Baptist 12  12 

Catholic 19  46 

Disciples 2 

Episcopal 19  12 

Ev.  Lutheran 12 

Meth.  Episcopal....  29  28 

African  M.  E ...  6 

Methodisi 6  10 

Presbvterian 36  24 

United  Pres 17 

Re-formed  Pres 4 

Cumberland  Pres 1 

Reformed 7 

Jewisli  Svnagogues    1  3 

Welsh  Churches....    1  3 


1879 
2 
o 
4 
10 
4 
3 
8 
7 
5 
7 
3 

8 

7 

Jl 

2 

4 

3 

2 

4 

14 

5 

12 

4 

3 

5 

5 

14 

11 

11 

2 

5 


73 
2 
5 
3 

222 

15 
62 

8 
23 

6 

4 
41 
19 

2 

h 

32 

19 
3 
7 

18 
6 
2 
3 
7 

10 

3 
3 
2 
5 
2 

32 
73 
25 
30 
8 
13 

12 

49 

2 

13 

15 

28 

7 

10 

26 

17 

4 

1 

7 

2 

3 


To  THE  People  of  Pittsburgh, 

BUSINESS  MEN  OF  PENNSYLVANIA  AND  THE  GREAT  WEST. 


We  present  to  our  readers  and  business  community  herewith  a  brief  historical  review  of  the 
prominent  business  houses  and  manufacturing  firms  of  the  City  of  Pittsburgh.  It  will  be  interesting 
as  an  exhibit  of  the  growth  of  the  citj'  for  the  past  thirty  years.  The  notices,  as  a  group,  embrace 
numbers  of  substantial  and  enterprising  firms  in  every  department  of  trade,  including  manj- 
specialties  not  to  be  obtained  in  any  other  market,  and  will  be  an  assurance  to  those  contemplating 
a  visit  for  the  purpose  of  purchasing  supplies,  that  their  every  want  can  be  more  fully  satisfied,  on 
as  favorable  terms,  than  at  any  other  point  in  the  United  States. 


McCONWAY,  TORLEY  &  CO.-Eagle  Malleable  Iron  Works, 

Cor.  2oih  &  Liberty  Sts. 
The  supremacy  of  Pittsburgh  as  an  iron  manufacturing  centre  is  never  so  clearly  demonstrated  as  by  a  detailed  in- 
spection one  after  the  other  of  those  various  firms  and  establishments  thai  by  the  development  of  this  great  staple  in- 
dustry have  secured  for  our  municapality  the  well  deserved  title  of  Iron  city.  In  making  such  a  review  the  firm  of 
MeConway,  Torley  &  Co.,  in  the  particular  branch  of  the  trade  with  which  it  is  identiiied,  will  h.Tve  to  be  accorded  the 
first  place,  not  only  on  account  of  the  magnitude  of  its  business  but  also  with  reference  to  the  amplitude  of  its  facilities 
and  the  quality  of  its  products.  The  house  was  originally  established  in  1868  under  the  style  and  by  Lewis  &  Co.,  wlio 
gave  place  to  the  present  proprietors  some  years  siiice,  the  latter  having  greatly  increasedthe  resources  as  well  as  the 
means  and  appliances  for  a  more  extensive  manufacture  of  malleable  iron  castings  of  all  descriptions,  especially  those 
of  more  than  ordinary  size,  for  which  their  facilities  are  particularly  comprehensive  and  complete.  To  this  end  the 
plant  which  covers  about  half  an  acre,  is  supplied  witli  one  cupola  and  two  air  furnaces,  four  annealing  furnaces,  one 
powerful  steam  engine  with  10-inch  cylinder,  18-inch  stroke,  and  other  machinery  of  the  best  devices.  From  ."iO  to  GO 
operatives,  most  of  whom  are  e.xpert  mechanics  are  employed  by  the  firm,  whose  trade  reaches  from  Maine  to  California, 
all  over  the  United  States  and  is  rapidly  increasing.  Mr."  Win.  MeConway  is  a  native  of  Ireland,  where  he  was  born  in 
18-12;  upon  the  removal  of  his  parentslo  this  country  and  city  in  1849,  he  accompanied  them,  and  when  but  twelve 
years  of  age  began  the  acquisition  of  his  present  vocation.  He  belongs  to  the  representative  class  of  what  may  be  called 
"self-made  men."  Mr.  John  J.  Torley  was  horn  in  New  York,  in  18.30,  and  during  the  same  year  was  brought  to 
Pittsburgh  with  whose  interests  and  vicissitudes  he  has  been  connected  all  his  life,  by  the  closest  ties  of  public  spirit 
and  personal  prosperity.  These  gentlemen  are  active  partners  in  the  house  of  MeConway,  Torley  &  Co.,  whose  opera- 
tions are  conducted  by  these  gentlemen,  demonstrating  in  its  success  the  wisdom  of  the  policy  upon  which  it  is  carried 
on,  and  achieving  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  the  trade  and  the  general  public. 

EBERHARDT  Sc  O'BER— Lager  Beer  Brewers  and  Maltsters, 

Nos.  1  to  9  Try  Hill  Road,  Allegheny. 
The  business  was  first  e.stablished  by  Mr.  C.  Eberhardt  in  1852.  The  firm  w.as  changed  to  Eberhardt  &  Ober  in 
1870.  The  business  was  commenced  on  a  very  small  capital  and  has  increased  very  largely.  Mr.  Eberhardt  was  the 
third  person  who  commenced  the  brewing  of  Lager  Beer  in  Allegheny  County.  The  buildings  consist  of  one  two- 
story  frame  structure,  40x44,  malt  house,  50x85,  four  stories  high,  with  a  capacity  of  20,000  bushels;  brewery  and 
boiler-house,  two-story  brick  stru  ture  40x50.  The  power  consists  of  two  large  boilers  20  feet  long  by  42  inches  in  di- 
ameter, and  two  engines  of  20  and  15-horse  power  respectively.  They  have  three  large  rock  vaults  with  a  capacity  of 
5,000  barrels,  and  are  aboi.t  erecting  a  large  new  ice  house,  50x80,  with  a  cellar  underneath  of  4,000  barrels  capacity 
and  a  capacity  of  2,000  tons  of  ice.  Connected  with  their  ponds  and  ice-houses  in  the  country  is  a  large  steam  elevator 
with  a  capacity  of  lifting  800  tons  per  day.  They  employ  fifteen  hands  constantly  and  their  pay-roll  averages  S175  per 
week.  The  Lager  Beer  manufactured  is  not  excelled  by  any  in  Western  Pennsylvania.  Having  been  permitted  a 
complete  inspection  of  the  establishment,  we  have  no  hesitation  in  pronouncing  it  one  of  the  very  best  and  most  com- 
plete in  the  country. 

McKEESPORT  IRON  WORKS -t^.  D.  Woodd  Co.,  Office,  777  Water  St. 

Manufaciurers  of  Patent  Planished  Sheet  Iron.  Works,  McKeesport,  Pa. 
The  McKeesport  Iron  Works  are  eligibly  situated  on  the  bank  of  the 
Monongahela  River,  eleven  miles  above  Pittsburgh,  covering  an  area  of 
five  acres,  and  affording  employment  to  about  300  men.  The  senior  part- 
ner of  the  firm,  Mr.  W.  D.  Wood,  some  thirty  years  ago  began  a  series  of 
experiments  in  the  manufacture  of  sheet  iron,  the  end  sought  after  being 
to  produce  as  durable  and  as  finely  finished  an  article  as  the  "Paissia 
Iron."  Many  others  in  this  country  and  in  Europe  have  made  similar  at- 
tempts, but  he  alone  succeeded,  and  the  McKeesport  Iron  AVorks  is  to-day 
the  only  mill  outside  of  Pvussia  manufacturing  this  class  of  iron.  The  firm 
(composed  of  W.  D.  Wood  and  his  sons,  Richard  G.  and  Alan  W.  Wood,) 
commenced  manufacturing  an  article  in  imitation  of  Russia  Iron  as  early 
as  1851,  at  the  works  pictured  above,  (then  just  builf).  In  the  year  1870 
tliey  made  a  great  improvement  in  their  process,  and  the  product  was  sold 
as  American  Russia  Sheet  Iron.  In  1873  further  improvements  were  made, 
including  their  Patent  Planishing  Process,  and  since  then  the  product  has  been  sold  as  Patent  Planished  Sheet  Iron. 
This  iron  is  equal  in  all  respects  to  the  Imported  Russia.  The  principal  railroad  lines  in  the  United  States  and  Canada 
have  adopted  the  Patent  Planished  Iron  for  covering  their  locomotives  and  for  mounting  the  stoves  in  the  passenger 
coaches.  The  Company  also  manufacture  tliree  other  grades  of  sheet  iron,  known  to  the  trade  as  the  ."smooth  surfaced 
common,  charcoal,  and  Juniata.  Patent  Planished  Sheet  Iron  is  made  exclusively  of  the  best  hammered  charcoal 
bloom  iron  (made  at  the  McKeesport  Iron  Works)  and  finished  under  planishing  hammers  weighing  about  three  tons, 
striking  300  blows  per  minute,  with  an  estimated  force  of  20  tons  to  each  stroke.  This  planishing  process  imparts  to  it 
that  beautiful  gloss  and  dappled  appearance  of  Russi^.  Iron,  and  closes  the  pores  so  effectually  that  it  will  resist  the 
action  of  the  atmosphere  fully  as  long.  The  capacity  of  the  works  is  about  30,000  packs  of  Planished  and  about  5,000 
tons  of  all  kinds  of  sheet  iron  per  annum. 

(6)  8! 


82 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


FLEMING,  AGNEW  &  CO -Stamped  &  Japanned  Ware, 

61,  62,  63  &  64  Third  Av. 

This  extensive  establishment  was  founded  in  1856  by  Mr.  John  Fleming  in  a  comparatively  small  way.  He 
continued  the  business  alone  for  two  years,  when  Mr.  Joseph  Torrence  was  adiuitted  as  a  partner,  under  the  style  of 
Fleming  &  Torrence.  In  1865  new  partners  being  admitted  the  firm  became  Fleming,  Torrence  &  Co.,  and  in  1808 
it  changed  to  its  present  style  of  Fleming,  Agnew  &  Co.,  who  have  ever  since  carried  on  the  business.  The  members 
of  the  firm  as  it  now  stands  are  Mr.  John  Fleming,  Mr.  Edward  Agnew  and  Mr.  John  Hamilton,  all  of  whom  are  thor- 
oughly practical  business  men,  through  whose  skill  and  experience  this  branch  of  industry  has  been  largely  developed 
and  extended.  They  occupy  as  w;u-erooms  and  office  a  substantial  four-story  brick  structure  50x60  feet,  and  as  a  manu- 
factory a  similar  four-story  building  directly  opposite  on  the  same  street  60x75  feet  in  size,  in  which  tliey  employ  sev- 
enty-five hands,  with  a  pay-roll  amounting  to  about  §2,500  per  month.  In  this  factory  they  have  the  best  and"  most 
approved  machinery  to  be  found  in  any  establishment  of  this  kind  in  the  United  States,  with  one  forty-horse  power 
engine  and  boiler,  the  finest  in  the  city. 

The  facilities  enjoyed  by  this  liouse  for  turning  out  superior  articles  rapidly  are  not  surpassed.  They  carry  an 
average  stoclc  of  about  |60,000,  and  tlieir  annual  sales  amount  to  not  less  than  f^2iiO,000;  their  trade  extending  all  over 
the  Union.  Among  the  various  articles  manufactured  by  this  firm  which  have  given  them  such  a  wide-spread  reputa- 
tion, we  may  mention  Japanned  cake  boxes,  candlesticks,  canisters,  cash  boxes,  coal  hods  and  vases,  cuspadores,  tea 
caddies,  toilet  sets  in  great  variety,  bowls  and  pitchers,  tin  toys,  miner  lamps,  and  every  article  in  that  line  that  may 
be  required.  Stamped  ware,  including  every  variety  of  plates,  cake  pans,  patty  pan,  pot  and  kettle  covers  and  bot- 
toms, dippers,  milk  pans,  wash  basins,  etc.  They  are  also  extensive  importers  of  and  dealers  in  tinner's  stock,  tin 
plate  metals,  etc.  This  house  stands  prominent  among  the  leading  branches  of  industry  and  has  contributed  largely 
to  the  resources  and  reputation  of  tlie  Iron  city  at  home  and  abroad.  Mr.  Fleming  and"  Mr.  Hamilton  are  natives  of 
Pennsylvania,  and  Mr.  Agnew  was  born  in  the  county  Down,  Ireland,  but  for  many  years  has  been  a  resident  of  this 
city. 

LION  'B'R.'SI'WIESL'Y, -Corner  of  Vineal  and  Villa  Sfs. 

This  large  and  commodious  establishment,  the  Lion  Brewery,  is  where  the  f  nest  and  Viest  quality  of  Lager  Beer  is 
manufactured.  The  brewery  was  first  started  in  1858  by  Hethelman  &  ( d. — changed  to  the  Lion  Brewing  Co.  in  1874, 
in  1878  to  Lutz  A  Walz,  and  "to  D.  Lutz  &  Son  in  1879.  The  entire  estalilisliment  consists  of  five  buildings,  as  follows  : 
One  two-story  frame,  28x46,  one  three- story  brick,  54x72,  one  two-story  brick  storehouse,  30x42,  one  two-story  frame, 
30x42,  and  an'  ice-house,  46x72,  with  a  capacity  of  1,200  tons.  They  turn  out  about  12,000  barrels  of  beer  annually,  and 
the  business  amounts  to  the  comfortable  sum  of  $70,000  per  year,  with  a  stock  on  hand  of  S18,000.  They  have  eighteen 
hands  constantly  employed  and  their  pay-roll  amounts  to  S220  per  week.  The  power  consists  of  one  boiler,  one  en- 
gine of  26-horse  power.  The  quality  and  excellence  of  their  Lager  Beer  is  not  surpassed  by  any  brewery  in  Western 
Pennsylvania  and  finds  a  ready  and  rapid  sale  in  all  parts  of  the  country.  Everything  in  and  about  the  establishment 
is  conducted  in  a  neat  and  orderly  manner. 

D.  LUTZ  &  SON,— Lager  Beer  Brewers,  Nos.  7  to  11  Spring  Garden  Av.,  Allegheny. 

The  above  firm  is  amongst  the  largest  and  most  extensive  brewers  of  Lager  Beer  in  Western  Pennsylvania.  Their 
establishment,  commonly  known  as  the  Allegheny  Brewery,  is  located  at  Ncs.  1,  3,  5,  7,  9  and  11  Spring  Garden  ave- 
nue, Allegheny.  The  business  was  first  established  by  Lutz  &  Walz  in  1853  on  a  very  small  capital,  which  has  largely 
increased  and  now  amounts  to  the  large  and  magnificent  sum  of  $105,000  per  annum,  with  a  stock  on  hand  of  820,000. 
The  firm  was  dissolved  in  March,  1879,  by  the  death  of  Mr.  Walz,  and  Mr.  Anton  Lutz  was  admitted  into  partnership. 
The  brewery  is  one  of  the  largest  and  most  complete  in  Western  Pennsylvania,  and  turns  out  about  15,000  barrels  of 
beer  annually.  The  buildings  consist  of  one  tliree-story  brick,  50x44,  one  three-story  brick,  32x140,  one  two-story 
brick,  50x108,  and  one  two-story  brick,  25x36  feet  in  size,  one  boiler  and  one  engine  of  32-horse  power.  The  firm  has  a 
wide  reputation  for  the  quality  and  excellence  of  their  beer  and  command  a  large  and  extensive  trade.  Mr.  I).  Lutz, 
the  senior  member  of  the  firm,  was  born  in  Wurtemburg  in  1822  and  came  to  Allegheny  in  1848.  Anton  Lutz  was  born 
in  Pittsburgh  in  1853. 


D.  RISHER  &  CO.-/.  X.  L.  Tug  Link,  62  Wood  St. 

The  inventor  or  manufacturer  of  every  useful  and  ingenious  device  or  apparatus,  especially  such  as 
either  mitigates  toil  or  increases  its  efiBcacy,  is  not  only  to  be  regarded  with  consideration  by  the 
community  to  wliich  he  belongs,  but  is  in  reality  the  means  of  affording  a  new  outlet  for  labor  and 
capital,  perhaps  otherwise  unemployed.  In  devising  the  I.  X.  L.  Tug  Link,  Messrs.  Daniel  Risher,  Jr, 
and  Daniel  R.  McClure,  as  D.  Risher  &  Co.,  may  properly  be  classed  among  those  to  whom  these  re- 
marks apply  as  in  the  manufacture  of  their  specialty  they  are  not  only  supplying  an  appliance  greatly 
needed,  but  contribute  in  no  small  degree  to  the  comfort  and  ease  of  draft  animals.  The  Tug  Link  of 
which  the  accompanying  cut  presents  an  admirable  idea,  is  designed  as  an  intermediate  attachment 
between  the  single  tree  and  trace  on  all  road  vehicles  and  agricultural  implements,  and  its  action  not 
only  tends  to  increase  the  durability  of  gear  and  harness  by  the  neutralization  of  all  shocks  in  start- 
ing or  jars  from  sudden  obstruction's,  but  lessens  the  racket  upon  the  horse  by  softening  the  strains 
upon  the  collar.  These  links  are  warranted  not  to  gel  out  of  order  more  than  an  ordinary  trace  chain, 
and  are  constructed  for  simple  and  easy  application  with  ring  hook  or  open  link ;  are  sold  at  tlie  very 
moderate  price  of  fl.75  per  pair.  Those  ordering  by  mail  should  describe  which  of  the  above  styles 
they  desire.  Endorsements  of  this  effective  little  apparatus  come  from  all  parts  of  the  country  and 
are  backed  by  the  best  houses  in  Pittsburgh. 

Thomas  "C.  Jenkins,  the  well  known  wholesale  grocer,  says  :  "  They  are  the  most  complete  in- 
vention yet  introduced." 

C.  P.  Markle  ct  Sons,  the  celebrated  paper  manufacturers,  write:  "We  consider  your  Tugs  a 
greater  benefit  and  saving  than  tlie  springs  of  a  buggy  or  wagon  " 

Mr.  C.  S.  Sedgewick,  the  agent  of  the  Adams  Express  Co.,  remarks,  after  describing  the  action  of 
the  link  at  some  length  :  "  They  have  my  hearty  endorsement  as  avoiding  concussions  and  protect- 
ing the  shoulders  of  the  horses.  " 

These  with  hundreds  of  others,  after  extended  trial  and  experiment,  concur  in  one  uniform  te.sti- 
mony  to  the  value  of  the  I.  X.  L.  Tug  Link.  They  are  also  beginning  the  manufacturing  of  a  valua- 
ble improvement  of  a  permanent  spring  attachment  to  the  end  of  the  whiflle  tree  for  buggies  and  car- 
riages, to  which  is  a  secure  fastening  for  the  traces  ;  advantages  attained  by  this  article  are  a  saving  to 
traces  and  a  great  comfort  and  ease  to  the  rider,  giving  mucli  more  regular  motion  to  the  vehicle. 
Both  members  of  the  house  are  natives  of  this  city  and  were  born  respectively  in  1842  and  1846.  They 
are  energetic,  ingenious,  practical  and  reliable  gentlemen,  well  known  in  this  community  and  richly 
entitled  to  tlie  signal  success  that  has  and  is  attending  their  efforts. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH,  83 


VULCAN  STEAM  BOILER  &;  SHEET  IRON  WORKS,      '» 

Jamp.s  McNeil  &  £ro..  Railroad  Street,  betiveen  2dth  &  '60/h  Sis. 
The  general  remarks  elsewhere  are  particukuly  applicable  to  the  firm  of  James  McNeil  Sc  Bro.,  pro- 
prietors of  the  Vulcan  Steam  Boiler  and  Sheet  Iron  Works,  and  manufacturers  of  every  description  of  steam  boilers, 
portable  and  stationary,  oil  stiils  and  tanks,  whiskey  stills,  blast  furnaces,  silver  furnaces,  and  all  kinds  of 
sheet  iron  work,  and  dealers  in  new  and  second-hand  engines  and  machinery.  This  firm,  which  is  one  ot  the 
representative  ones  of  the  Iron  city  in  this  particular  line,  was  founded  in  1865,  at  first  on  a  comparatively 
small  scale  and  with  moderate  means,  but  their  business  has  since  increased  to  such  an  extent  that  tliey  have 
been  compelled  to  consideralily  enlarge  their  facilities,  and  the  amount  of  capital  now  invested  by  tliis  house  is 
huge.  Their  trade,  which  extends  over  a  great  portion  of  the  United  States  and  Territories,  amounts  to  many 
tliousands  of  dollars  per  annum  and  is  steadily  increasing.  Their  office  and  works  are  located  on  Railroad 
street,  between  29th  and  30tli,  and  cover  an  area  of  100x135  feet,  supplied  with  the  most  complete  and  perfect 
machinery,  tools  and  appliances,  to  he  found  in  any  similar  establishment  in  the  West.  Th<'  business  is  sys- 
tematically conducted  under  two  general  sub-divisions,  viz:  boiler  department  and  machine  department,  in  which 
thirty-five  skilled  and  experienced  workmen  are  constantly  employed  under  the  immediate  supervision  of  the  mem- 
bers of  the  tiriu,  who  are  lioth  thoroughly  practical  mechanics.  The  various  articles  manufactured  by  this  well  known 
firm,  a  portion  of  which  we  have  enumerated  above,  are  of  the  best  material  and  most  thorough  workmanship.  The 
sec(jnd-hand  machinery  and  engines  offered  by  them  are  thoroughly  overhauled,  repaired  and  put  in  perfect  order, 
before  offering  them  for  sale,  and  customers  may  depend  upon  finding  them  exactly  as  represented.  Messrs.  McNeil  & 
Bro.  have  recently  shipped  a  fine  silver  smelting  furnace  to  LeadviUe,  Colomdo,  on  the  order  of  one  of  the  leading 
mining  companies  of  that  section,  and  are  e.xpecting  further  orders  from  that  vicinity  with  the  development  of  the  im- 
mense resources  of  that  argentiferous  region.  They  constructed  some  beautiful  flanges  for  iron  firms  in  the  city  vv'hich 
were  exhibited  at  the  Centennial  Exhibition  in  Philadelphia  in  1876,  and  attracted  much  attention  and  very  compli- 
mentary comments.  While  there  may  be  other  houses  in  the  city  with  Itrger  capital  and  more  extensive  works,  we  are 
safe  in  "saying  that  tliere  are  none  with  more  perfect  and  complete  machinery  and  facilities  and  none  more  widely  and 
favorably' known  for  the  superiority  and  reliability  of  their  products.  The  members  of  the  firm  are  conscientious  and 
energetic  business  men,  who  have  attained  their  present  eminence  in  the  business  in  which  they  are  engaged  by  their 
own  unaided  efforts,  industry,  jierseverauce  and  probit)'.  Mr.  James  jMcNeil,  the  senior  member  of  the  firm,  is  a  na- 
tive of  Scotland,  and  was  born  in  1837,  and  has  resided  in  the  United  States  since  he  was  thirteen  years  of  age.  He  is 
a  boiler  maker  by  trade  and  worked  at  that  business  many  years  before  embarking  in  his  present  business,  acquiring  a 
thorough  practical  knowledge  of  the  trade  in  all  its  departments,  and  has  had  charge  of  some  large  manufacturing  es- 
tablishments in  the  East  i'l  that  line  of  business.  Mr.  McNeil  is  highly  respected  as  a  citizen,  and  lias  occupied  the 
position  of  school  director  for  many  years.  Mr.  Thomas  McNeil,  junior  member  of  the  firm,  was  born  in  Scotland  in 
1847.  He  is  a  practical  machinist  and  has  had  a  long  experience  in  that  branch  of  business.  He  has  been  a  member  of 
the  school  board  and  stands  very  high  in  the  community  in  which  he  resides.  He  was  elected  to  represent  his  ward  in 
the  City  Councils,  but  removing  from  the  district  before  the  commencement  of  his  term,  r>'.signed  the  position  to  which 
he  had  been  called  by  a  flattering  majority.  Both  members  of  the  firm  are  gentlemen  of  sterling  integrity  and  worth 
and  noted  for  their  enterprise,  l)usiness  qualifications  and  unquestionable  reliability  in  all  matters  pertaining  to  the 
social  walks  of  life  as  well  as  in  their  commercial  transactions. 

THE  ROCHESTER  TUMBLER  CO.,  OF  PITTSBURGH,  PA. 

Office,  Liberty  and  Ninth  Sts.;     Worku,  Roclipstcr,  Pa. 

Organized  by  Pittsburgh  capital  and  directed  by  Pittsburgh  enterprise,  the  Rochester  Tumbler  Company  and  its 
operations  are  justly  entitled  to  consideration  in  any  work  devoted  to  a  detailed  review  of  the  industries  of  this  city. 
From  its  organization,  in  1872,  till  the  present,  the  success  that  has  attended  the  enterprise  has  been  happily  commeii- 
surafe  with  the  capacity  and  resolution  of  those  to  whose  direction  the  business  was  enti'usted.  The  works  were 
located  at  Rochester,  on  the  line  of  the  P.,  Ft.  W.  and  C.  R.  R.,  about  35  miles  from  the  city,  this  spot  being  chosen 
not  only  for  unrivalled  facilities  in  shipping  or  receiving  freights  by  railroad  from  all  points,  and  the  further  dvan- 
tages  conferred  in  the  same  direction  by  the  Ohio  river,  upon  whose  banks  the  plant  is  situated,  but  mainly  on  accou  t 
of  an  inexhaustible  flow  of  natural  gas  from  two  wells  upon  the  premises,  by  means  of  which  the  expense  for  fuel  is 
greatly  modified,  and  certain  portions  of  the  work  )  erformed  with  more  speed  and  perfection  than  attained  by  any 
previoHs  methods.  The  works,  when  first  constructed,  were  considered  extensive,  but  the  steadily  increasing  demand 
upon  the  resources  of  the  Company  for  production  required  additions  and  enlargements  of  the  manufactory  fr  in  time 
to  time,  in  order  to  keep  pa„e  with  the  growing  trade,  until,  at  this  period  of  its  liistory,  the  works  a:e  three  times  as 
large  as  at  first  constructed,  with  four  times  the  pi'oductive  capacity,  and  are,  beyond  question,  the  most  extensive  of 
the  kind  in  the  world.  Every  appliance  or  improved  apparatus  that  modern  ingenuity  can  devise  or  ample  capital 
supply  is  to  be  found  in  this  factory  not  only  for  the  manufacture  of  glassware,  but  the  construction  of  all  the  neces- 
sary pots,  molds  and  models  required  in  the  business,  the  motive  power  for  operating  the  machinery  being  furnished 
by  two  steam  engines,  having  an  aggregate  of  35-horse  power.  Ten  structures,  of  various  dimensions,  the  largest  being 
200x200  feet,  constitute  the  plant,  which  covers  in  all  an  area  of  2]^  acres — fire-proof  buildings  being  used  for  the  secu- 
rity of  molds,  models,  &c. ;  a  provision  found  only  in  this  establishment.  The  work  is  subdivided  into  seven  depart- 
ments, wiiich  embrace  not  only  the  constructive  portions  of  the  manufacture,  but  the  making  of  boxes,  jiacking,  ship- 
ping, mold  and  model-making,  clerical,  &c.,  employing  in  all  300  operatives  and  expert  artisans,  at  an  expense  of  $9,000 
per  month,  the  working  year  occupying  50  weeks,  the  fires  never  having  been  put  out  since  the  commencement  of  the 
enterprise.  The  advantages  derived  from  the  use  of  natural  gas  (before  referred  to),  which  issues  continually  from  two 
wells  upon  the  premises,  each  1200  feet  dee)),  and  originally  sunk  for  oil  (?),  are  very  obvious,  as  cheapening  production 
and  making  the  best  fuel  known  for  annealing  glass  and  preserving  its  color,  luster  and  translucency,  for  which  prop- 
erties the  goods  manufactured  by  the  Rochester  Tumbler  Company  have  acquired  a  reputation  that  is  coextensive  with 
the  trade  of  the  concern,  which  is  not  confined  to  the  United  States,  but  reaches  Great  Britain,  Germnny,  Spain,  Rus- 
sia, South  Africa,  South  America,  Cuba,  Japan,  Australia,  British  America,  and,  in  fact,  almost  every  available  market 
in  the  world.  The  magnitude  of  the  enterprise  cannot  be  readily  shown  without  the  art  of  the  illustrator,  but,  from 
the  fact  that  the  works  are  capable  of  turning  out  25,000  dozens  of  Tumblers  per  week,  some  idea  may  lie  gained  of  their 
extent.  In  the  production  of  choice  and  beautiful  designs  in  Tumblers  and  bar  goods,  this  Company  is  unrivalled, 
continual  improvements  in  this  direction  keeping  it  constantly  in  advance  of  the  trade,  and  ensuring  benefits  to  cus- 
tomers not  to  be  duplicated  by  any  cotemporaneous  concern,  entitling  the  Rochester  Tumbler  Company  to  the  splendid 
success  it  has  so  richly  deserved,  and  which  has  proved  of  so  great  an  advantage  in  fostering  the  industrial  thrift  cf  tliis 
community. 

JACOB  "YOlJTXCrr-Grocenes  and  Produce,  No.  2525  Sarah  St 

This  establishment  was  started  by  Mr.  Young  in  1875,  wit  ha  small  capital,  which  he  has  since  considerably  increased. 
He  keeps  a  full  and  general  assortment  of  all  kinds^  goods  generally  found  in  a  first-class  Grocery  and  Provision  Store, 
including  Fruits  and  Vegetables,  Choice  Family  Flour,  Sugars,  Coffees,  Teas,  Spices,  Dried  Meats,  Canned  Goods,  &e. 
Mr.  Young  is  always  attentive  and  obliging  to  his  customers.  He  occupies  a  commodious  store-room,  which  he  keeps 
filled  with  the  freshest  and  best  class  of  goods  for  home  and  family  use.  Mr.  Young  was  born  in  this  city  in  1848.  He 
is  eminently  worthy  the  liberal  patronage  he  receives. 


84  INDUSTRIES   OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 

SPANG,  CHALFANT  &  CO -Etna  Rolling  Mills,  Office,  Sandusky  St,  Allegh'y. 

No  peneral  description  of  the  staple  industries  of  Pittsburj:h,  however  carefully  compiled,  or  even  reduced  to  a 
statistical  basis,  could  possibly  give  one,  unfamiliar  with  this  great  workshop  of  America,  any  adequate  idea  of  its  real 
inagiiitude,  especially  with  relation  to  tlie  manufacture  of  Iron.  By  a  review  of  each  establishment  engaged  in  this 
enterprise  only,  can  a  reasonable  conception  be  conveyed  of  the  ponderous  interests  involved  by  tiie  trade  in  this  city, 
or  material  be  furnished  for  a  proper  appreciation  of  the  development,  resources  and  capacities  of  this  community.  To 
supply  such  information  in  detail  is  the  object  of  this  work,  and  in  so  doing  the  mills  of  Messrs.  Spang,  Chalfant"&  Co. 
are  entitled  to  more  than  ordinary  consideration.  Tliese  works  were  established,  originally,  in  1828  by  H.  S.  Spang,  and 
are  outranked  in  age  by  not  more  than  one  or  two  similar  concerns  in  Western  Pennsylvania  or  the  entire  West,  and 
may  be  catalogued  in  the  same  class  with  reference  to  size  and  importance.  When  first  constructed,  the  mills,  though 
dependent  on  water  power  and  employing  not  more  than  50  operatives  in  all,  wcie  considered  for  that  period  remarka- 
bly extensive,  and  for  nearly  10  years,  under  the  original  management,  pursued  a  successful  and  useful  career.  In  1837 
C.  F.  Spang,  James  McAuley  and  Joseph  Long  assumed  control  of  tlie  business  under  the  style  of  Spang  &  Co.,  a  title 
which  remained  unchanged  ui.til  1858,  though  the  last  named  partner  was  associated  with  thecnterprise  but  12  months. 
The  latter  date  marks  the  period  when  the  existing  firm,  composed  of  Messrs.  C.  H.  Spang,  J.  W.  Chalfant,  C.  B.  Her- 
ron  and  Geo.  A.  Chalfant,  succeeded  to  the  business,  and  from  that  time  to  the  present  the  history  of  the  enterprise  is 
distinguished  by  a  series  of  enlargements,  improvements  and  a  vast  increase  in  production,  as  well  as  greater  perfec- 
tion in  the  methods  employed  and  general  results. 

The  scope  of  manufacture  has  also  been  widely  extended.  Originally  confined  to  the  product  of  Merchant  Bar 
and  Blooms,  the  output  of  the  mills  now  consists  of  Bar  Iron,  Nails,  Boiler  Plate  and  Wrought  Iron,  lap  welded  Tubes 
for  boilers  and  Steam  Pipe.  In  this  latter  branch  of  manufacture  the  firm  is  the  pioneer  west  of  the  Alleghenies,  and 
was  the  first  to  engage  in  this  department  of  the  trade,  obtaining  from  the  outset  a  celebrity  for  work  of  this  descrip- 
tion that  has  been  sedulously  maintained  and  enhanced  by  the  application  of  every  modern  appliance  likeiy  to  increase 
tlie  excellence  of  this  jiroduct.  The  mills  are  located  at  Etna,  a  point  about  5  miles  above  tlie  city  proper,  on  the  North 
Side  of  the  Allegheny  River.  In  an  article  in  the  New  York  Times  of  March  27,  1877,  upon  the  iron  interests  of  Pitts- 
burgh, considerable  space  is  devoted  to  a  description  of  these  mills,  from  the  fact  that  the  fuel  employed  for  all  the 
operations,  involved  by  the  working  of  iron  and  machinery,  consists  of  natural  gas  conveyed  by  a  line  of  pipe  18  miles 
long  from  the  oil  regions  in  Butler  County.  In  the  adaptation  of  puddling  and  heating  furnaces,  and  for  the  use  of 
this  gas,  material  changes  were  required,  and  obstacles  to  be  overcome  that  taxed  both  the  ingenuity  and  capital  of  the 
firm  to  no  meagre  extent.  All  difficulties,  however,  were  finally  removed,  and,  for  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  tho 
iron  industry,  gas  was  used  alone,  without  the  adjunct  of  any  other  fuel,  for  the  purpose  of  manufacturing  iron  suc- 
ces.sfully  in  every  process  to  which  it  is  subjected,  requiring  heat. 

The  plant  at  Etna  consists  of  two  rolling  mills  and  two  pipe  mills,  in  which  are  employed  about  450  operatives, 
whose  earnings  average  from  $20,000  to  S;25,000  per  month,  nine  batteries  of  boilers  and  ten  steam  engines  being 
necessary  for  the  supply  of  motive  power,  much  of  the  machinery  being  of  the  heaviest  construction.  Part  of  the 
apparatus  consists  of  22  puddling  furnaces,  9  heating  furnaces,  6  trains  of  rolls,  22  nail  and  spike  machines  and  other 
appliances,  some  of  which  belong  exclusively  to  the  firm  under  letters  patent,  especially  such  as  pertain  to  the  rapid 
and  perfect  construction  of  sockets  and  couplings  for  wrought  iron  pipes,  the  capacity  of  the  mills  being  not  less  than 
12,000  tons  per  annum.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  say  that  the  house  of  Spang,  Chalfant  &  Co.  occupies  a  position  among 
its  cotemporaries  devoid  of  blemish.  The  impetus  given  to  the  industries  of  this  community  by  the  capital  and  en- 
terprise of  the  firm  is  not  unrecognized,  and  the  general  consideration  with  which  it  is  regarded  is  the  natural  out- 
growth of  a  career,  which  for  more  than  half  a  century  has  embodied  the  highest  principles  of  commercial  integrity 
and  personal  honor. 

PEOPLES  SAVINGS  BANK  OF  PITTSBURGH -57  Fourth  Av. 

The  marked  success  attendant  upon  the  career  and  operations  of  the  Peoples  Savings  Bank  of  Pittsburgh  i,s  of  such 
a  pronounced  and  obvious  character  as  to  demand  more  than  ordinary  attention  in  making  a  careful  review  of  the  fidu- 
ciary institutions  of  this  city.  This  bank  was  established  in  the  Fall  of  1866,  its  chief  executive  officer  being  the  late 
lamented  Henry  Lloyd  ;  William  Kea,  Esq.,  Vice  President ,  Mr.  S.  F.  von  Bonnhorst  occupving  the  positions  of  Sec- 
letary  and  Treasurer,  trusts  which  he  still  holds.  The  charter  autliorized  a  capital  stock  of  $300,000,  but  the  report  of 
the  Treasurer  for  the  first  year  of  its  existence  shows  that  while  $100,000  in  stock  had  been  .subscribed,  but  $.34,920  had 
been  actually  paid  in,  the  installment  system  for  making  payments  being  adopted,  to  encourage  the  investment  of  those 
of  small  means.  From  that  time  every  annual  report  shows  a  marked  increase  in  deposits,  assets  and  general  useful- 
ness. In  1872  the  capital  was  increased  to  the  full  extent  of  its  charter  limit,  which  now  gives  the  bank  the  largest 
capital  of  any  similar  institution  in  the  State.  Upon  the  30th  of  Julv,  1867,  the  total  assets  of  the  concern  were 
$102,388.75,  and  on  the  30th  of  July,  1878,  they  had  reached  the  prodigious  aggregate  of  Si ,314,176.08,  including  a  con- 
tingent or  surplus  fund  of  $80,000,  a  showing  that  reflects  the  highest  credit  upon  the  skill  and  integritv  that  contribu- 
ted to  such  a  splendid  result.  The  present  officers  of  the  bank  are  as  follows: — Wm.  Rea  and  Thomas  Wightman.  Pres- 
ident, Vice  President  and  also  Trustees  ;  Messrs.  E.  P.  Jones,  Att'y  at  Law  ,  Edward  Gregg,  of  Logan,  Gregg  *  Co., 
hardware  ;  Hon.  J.  K.  Moorhead,  Geo.  Wilson,  Esq.,  Ex-mayor  of  the  city  ;  Hon.  Edwin  H.  Stowe,  president  judge  of 
Common  Pleas  Court ;  Jno.  A.  Caughey,  of  Caughey  &  Robinson,  metal  dealers;  and  David  McK.  Lloyd,  1st  National 
Bank  of  Altoona,  trustees  ;  S.  F.  von  Bonnhorst,  Secretary  and  Treasurer,  and  N.  G.  von  Bonnhorst,  Teller  and  Book- 
keeper. Such  being  the  management,  the  success  of  the  enterpri.se  was  a  foregone  conclusion,  und  the  high  position  it 
occupie,s  among  the  financial  concerns  of  this  city,  is  a  sufficient  guarantee  that  its  course  has  been  directed  by  a  wise 
and  honorable  policy. 

KEYSTONE  GAS  LIGHT  CO.  (Limited)  ,-C#c5.  44  Ninth  St. 

Since  Pittsburgh  became  the  commercial  center  of  the  oil-producing  regions  of  Pennsylvania,  many  attempts  have 
been  made  here  and  elsewhere,  with  a  greater  or  less  share  of  success,  to  rapidly  convert  the  lighter  products  evolved 
in  the  process  of  distillation  or  refining  into  gas  for  illuminating  purposes.  In  April,  1878,  was  incorporated  the  Key- 
stone Gas  Light  Co.  (limited),  with  a  capital  of  $6,500,  having  for  its  object  the  manufacture  of  a  device  that  should 
greatly  improve  upon  all  previous  methods  of  producing  gas  from  oil  or  its  products  and  providing  a  cheap,  brilliant 
and  safe  illuminator,  thoroughly  applicable  to  every  purpose  for  which  coal  gas  is  now  used.  The  success  of  the  en- 
terprise so  far  has  been  commensurate  with  the  undoubted  advantages  obtained  by  the  process  to  which  it  claims  ex- 
clusive title.  The  principle  upon  which  the  apparatus  is  constructed  is  simple  but  ingenious  and  consists  of  the  "ame 
being  utilized  to  manufacture  the  gas  consumed  by  it.  A  tank  containing  naphtha  is  placed  above  a  Belden  burner 
and  so  connected  with  it  that  the  contents  in  transit  are  re-distilled  and  issue  from  the  burner  carbureted  hydrogen. 
The  whole  arrangement  is  economic  and  efficacious,  the  estimated  cost  of  one  burner  being  stated  at  about  one  mill  an 
hour.  Since  its  organization  the  stock  has  been  increased  to  $8,000,  the  officers  being,  IT.  S.  A.  Stewart,  President, 
H.  Campbell,  Secretary  and  Treasurer.  Managers — Henry  Holdship,  H.  S.  A.  Stewart,  II.  Campbell,  Lewis  Irwin, 
and  Harry  C.  Campbell,  all  of  whom^are  intimately  associated  with  the  oil  trade  and  recognized  as  practical  and  thor- 
oughly responsible  gentlemen  in  every  respect.  By  addressing  the  company  at  the  above  address,  those  at  a  distance 
will  be  placed  in  possession  of  the  details  of  the  enterprise. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  85 


HUSSEY,  HOWE  &  CO -Mfrs.  of  Steel;  Office  d  Works,  J7th  St  &  Penn  Av. 

There  have  been  certain  epochs  in  the  history  of  the  American  Iron  trade  so  vital  in  import  and  of  such  over- 
whelming signilicance  with  regard  lo  the  future  of  all  mechanic  and  most  industrial  arts,  as  to  arrest  at  once  the 
profound  atteution  of  all  who  trace  tlie  records  of  the  development  and  elaboration  of  our  material  resources.  Tlie 
inauguration  of  the  manufacture  of  crucible  cast  and  open  hearth  steel,  marks  an  era  of  this  description,  the  full  force 
of  which,  with  reference  to  the  gi'owth  and  prosperity  of  Pittsburgh,  will  only  be  fully  realized  by  the  historian  of  a 
remote  subsequent  period,  who  will  then  be  able  to  observe  with  unclouded  vision  the  moiuontous  consequences  that 
hinge  upon  it.  To  the  house  of  Hussey,  Howe  &  Co.  is  justly  ascribed  the  merit  of  first  producing  steel  tliat  should 
compete  with  the  best  imported  English  brands,  and  finally  effecting  an  entire  revolution  of  the  trade,  not  only  in 
this  country,  but  in  England.  This  jesult,  however,  was  only  achieved  by  years  of  unremitting  endeavor,  and  the 
expenditure  of  nearly  half  a  million  of  money  before  the  efforts  of  the  firm  in  this  direction  were  crowned  by  a  com- 
plete and  signal  success.  The  obstacles  and  discouragements  to  which  the  projectors  of  this  enterprise  were  subjected 
required,  in  the  highest  degree,  courage,  tenacity  of  purpose  and  resolution  to  overcome.  It  was  asserted  on  tlie  part 
of  the  forei,t;n  manufacturers  that  the  texture,  quality  and  properties  of  American  ore  and  iron  were  unsuited  to  the 
proper  nianufuclure  of  steel,  and  that  even  the  characteristics  of  our  coke  and  coal  were  unfitted  for  this  purpose. 
When  these  allegations  had  been  entirely  confuted  by  the  actual  product  of  steel  that  would  compare  favorably  with 
any  made  iu  the  world,  it  became  dilHcult  to  induce  American  consumers  to  even  give  it  afair  trial,  so  entirely  preju- 
diced liad  they  become  by  the  arguments  of  British  importers  and  producers.  Every  obstruction,  however,  finally 
disappeared  before  tlie  unrivalled  excellence  of  the  steel,  and  the  determination  of  its  manufacturers. 

The  firm  was  originally  established  in  1858,  the  plant  being  located  on  the  corner  of  17th  st.  and  Penn  ave.,  cover- 
ing an  area  of  about  one  acre,  and  considered  at  that  time  prodigious  in  extent.  The  work  of  production  was  com- 
menced in  April,  1859,  and  was  regarded  as  an  undertaking  that  was  certain  1o  culminate  in  the  same  disaster  that  had 
overwhelmed  every  previous  attempt,  in  a  similar  direction,  made  in  this  country  up  to  that  time.  Proceeding,  how- 
ever, with  the  greatest  circumspection,  for  nearly  a  year  the  efforts  of  the  firm  can  hardly  be  said  to  have  been  more 
than  a  series  of  .skillful  and  cautious  experiments.  Every  grade  of  American  iron  was  tested,  and  the  results  of  each 
operation  closely  scrutinized.  During  the  first  three  months  but  10  tons  of  steel  were  produced,  and  afier  the  lapse  of 
15  months  the  total  product  had  reached  but  280  tons.  New  methods  were  employed,  and  it  was  demonstrated  that  the 
English  system  of  roasting  the  iron  between  layers  of  charcoal  before  the  final"  crucible  carbonization,  could  be  dis- 
pensed with  entirely,  and  the  whole  operation  confined  to  the  crucible  alone.  This  was  a  discovery  of  ])aramount  im- 
portance, and  is  properly  attrii)Uted  to  this  firm,  as  being  the  first  to  devise  and  carry  it  to  asucccKsful  issue.  The  intro- 
duction of  tool  steel  to  tlie  American  trade  had  from  the  first  a  considerable  effect  upon  the  price  of  the  imported  arti- 
cle, and  as  it  gradually  became  better  known  and  was  found  to  answer  perfectly  every  requisite,  the  demand  rapidly 
increased,  necessitating  enlarged  facilities,  which  were  promptly  supplied.  Additional  works  were  erected,  which  now 
occupy  an  area  of  over  four  acres,  and  are  equipped  with,  the  most  perfect  apparatus  and  machinery  known  to  the 
trade.  These  appliances  consist  in  jiart  of  eight  trains  of  rolls,  eight  steam  engines,  with  several  batteries  of  boilers, 
twenty  in  all,  nine  steam  hammers,  five  toll  hammers,  one  hundred  and  two  coke  melting  furnaces,  four  twenty-four 
pot  Siemen  furnaces  for  melting  by  gas,  Siemen's  Martin  open  hearth  furnace,  besides  steam  shears,  hydranlic  presses, 
Ac.  The  product  consists  in  all  descriptions  of  the  finest  quality  of  tool  steel,  and  all  kinds  of  agricultural  and  other 
steels.  Tiiey  have  also  lately  introduced  a  very  superior  article  of  structural  steel,  which  is  used  for  building  bridges 
and  for  armor  and  ship  plates,  out  of  which  they  have  furnished  in  the  last  few  months  some  1,500  tons  to  build  a 
bridge  across  the  Missouri  River  at  Glasgow,  Mo.,  on  the  Chicago  and  Alton  R.  R.  This  is  the  first  bridge  built  entirely 
of  sieel  in  the  United  States,  and,  perhaps,  in  the  world.  It  was  completed  in  Ai)ril  last,  and  has  given  the  most  com- 
plete satisfaction.  As  to  the  quality,  Mr.  Ames,  of  the  Chicopee  Ames  Manufacturing  Company  of  Massachusetts, 
testified  before  a  congressional  committee,  that  in  the  conversion  to  sabres  of  200  tons  of  this  material,  a  loss  was  su.s- 
tiiined  of  less  than  two  per  cent,  in  defective  metal,  a  result  never  equalled  by  the  use  of  the  best  English  steel.  The 
members  of  this  firm  are  gentlemen  too  well  known  in  tliis  city  to  require  mention  of  a  personal  character.  Commenc- 
ing operations  with  a  capacity  of  about  300  tons  of  steel  i)or  annum,  the  resources  of  the  enterprise  have  been  so 
enlarged  as  to  be  capable  of  producing  at  present  from  10,000  to  12,000  tons  yearly.  As  promotive  of  the  general  indus- 
trial welfare,  the  firm  of  Hussey,  Howe  ct  Co.  perform  a  work  of  great  magnitude  in  this  direction,  employing  from 
500  to  600  skilled  workmen,  at  an  average  outlay  of  from  $28,000  to  830,000  per  month,  and  conducting  a  business  that 
reaches  almost  every  State  of  the  Union,  and  Increases  with  a  steady  and  prosperous  development.  The  most  exten- 
sive enterprise  of  the  kind  upon  this  continent,  its  history  is  closely  identified  with  the  most  important  Interests  of 
Pittsburgh  and  the  community  at  large.  Since  its  inception  the  importation  of  English  steel  has  fallen  away  to  less 
than  one-tenth  of  its  former  bulk,  and  there  is  every  appearance  that  under  existing  conditions  It  may  terminate  alto- 
gether, and  to  all  intents  and  purposes  is  no.v  a  dead  letter.  While  enterprising  and  honorable,  the  business  policy  of 
the  firm  is  liberal,  and  in  this  respect  has  few  compeers  in  this  city,  no  house  having  achieved  so  remarkable  a  success, 
and  at  the  same  time  retained  the  high  consideration  of  the  trade,  and  the  cordial  esteem  of  the  public,  whose  advantage 
has  been  fostered  so  materially  by  its  operations. 

PARK,  SCOTT  &  CO. -Copper.  Office,  122  Second  Av. 

As  one  of  the  only  two  houses  in  Pittsburgh  engaged  in  the  smelting  and  rolling  of  copper,  the  firm  of  Park,  Scott 
&  Co.  is  not  properly  to  escape  mention  in  this  work.  The  history  of  this  house  and  its  predecessors  carefully  pre- 
sented In  detail,  would  involve  so  much  of  the  commercial  career  and  growth  of  Pittsburgh  as  to  occupy  more  space 
than  could  be  accorded,  even  if  the  necessary  facts  were  at  hand  to  supply  the  material.  In  brief,  however,  the  origi- 
nal founder  of  the  firm  was  Mr.  James  Park,  Sr.,  who  establislied  himself  in  1813  as  a  wholesale  dealer  in  groceries  and 
metals,  a  combination  at  that  time  by  no  means  uncommon.  For  thirty  years,  during  what  may  be  designated  in  local 
history  as  the  pack  saddle,  mule  train  and  canal  epoch,  Mr.  Park  pursued  his  avocations  with  uniform  success,  laying 
tlie  basis  for  a  substantial  fortune,  and  upon  his  demise  in  1843  resigning  the  business  to  his  sons  D.  E.  and  .T.  Park, 
Jr.,  who  under  the  stylo  of  James  Park  &  Sons  continued  the  trade,  confining  themselves,  however,  exclusively  to 
transactions  in  metals  In  1846  the  house  became  Park,  McCurdy  &  Co.  and  finally  in  1877  assumed  its  present  status 
and  title.  From  the  inception  of  the  firm  to  this  day,  during  the  few  changes  that  have  taken  place  in  its  management 
and  composition,  it  has  never  failed  to  occupy  a  prominent  place  among  tlie  institutions  of  the  Iron  city,  or  exert  an 
active  Influence  in  the  promotion  of  every  measure  that  seemed  likely  to  redound  to  the  general  advantage.  The  pro- 
ducts of  the  firm  consist  of  rolled  lake  superior  copper,  refined  sheets,  bars  and  ingots,  or  special  shapes  made  to  order. 
The  plant  is  an  extensive  one,  the  machinery  and  appliances  being  of  the  best  modern  description,  employing  the  labor 
of  numerous  skilled  mechanics  and  ordinary  workmen.  In  its  business  policy  and  charteristics  tin?  firm  is  liberal,  en- 
terprising and  honorable,  commanding  the  respect  of  the  community  and  inspiring  a  degree  of  confidence  that  few 
houses  are  ever  so  fortunate  as  to  acquire. 

J.  E.  "LTSBY, -Dentist.  No.  4309  Butler  St. 

Dr.  J.  E.  Llbby,  Dentist,  has  his  OflSce  and  Dental  Rooms  at  No.  4309  Butler  St.,  where  his  skill  and  abilities  are 
rapidly  making  success.  The  Doctor  was  born  in  Carroll  county,  Ohio.  He  learned  his  profession  under  the  tuition 
ol  Dr."Templeton,  of  this  city— a  dentist  of  higli-  abilities  and  culture.  He  afterwards  attended  the  Pennsylvania 
College  of  Dental  Surgery,  in  Philadelphia,  completing  his  education  and  fully  graduating  him  for  the  successful  prac- 
tice of  Dentistry.  He  began  the  practice  of  his  profession  in  this  city,  and  afterwards,  in  1877,  removed  to  Lawrence- 
ville. 


86  INDUSTKIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

WILLIAM  HASLAGE,— £/(?(^6^r  and  Retailer  in  Groceries,  Provisions,  &c. 

No.   18  Dininoncl  Square. 

A  striking  example  of  progress,  and  of  what  energy,  knowledge  of  business  and  fair  dealing  may  accoiuidish,  is  af- 
forded by  the  history  of  this  well-known  house,  which  has  become  one  of  the  business  landmarks  of  the  city.  Mr. 
Haslage  was  born  in  "Germany  in  1827,  and  came  to  this  city  in  1845.  After  being  engaged  about  two  years  as  a  clerk, 
he  started  business  for  himself  on  the  South  Side  in  an  extremely  small  way,  having  a  capital  of  but  $29.  By  atten- 
tion to  his  business  it  graduallj^  gi'ew,  and  he  removed  to  tlie  Diamond.  From  the  small  beginning  above  men- 
tioned, his  business  has  grown  to  be  tlie  largest  in  the  retail  grocery  line  in  the  city,  the  stock  usually  being 
valued  at  about  875,000,  and  sales  amounting  to  $200,000  yearly.  The  extensive  building,  erected  for  the  purposes 
of  Mr.  Haslage's  extensive  business,  is  a  hive  of  industry  and  activity.  The  store  room  has  a  front  of  30  feet, 
and  a  depth  of  150  feet.  There  are  four  floors,  connected  by  elevators  operated  by  steam  power.  The  upper  floors  are 
used  for  storing  goods,  and  also  for  roasting  coffee  and  grinding  and  packing  coffee,  spices,  etc.  The  carrying  on  of 
tliese  operations  in  the  building  under  the  direct  supervision  of  the  proprietor,  enables  the  house  to  guarantee  the 
purity  and  good  quality  of  all  the  packed  goods  they  put  upon  the  market,  and  has  given  to  their  coffees  and  spices  a 
reputation  second  to  none.  The  sauje  care  and  attention  have  been  given  to  every  other  department  and  have  made  it 
one  of  the  most  noteworthy  of  our  flourishing  business  houses.  Some  idea  of  the  extent  of  its  business  may  be  gained 
from  the  fact  that  it  gives  employment  to  about  25  persons  in  various  capacities,  and  its  pay-roll  amounts  to  about 
$1,000  per  month.  In  addition  to  "Groceries  and  Family  Supplies  in  general,  the  first  specialty  of  the  house  is  in  deal- 
ing in  fine  Teas,  in  which  line  a  larger  quantity  is  sold  by  Wm.  Haslage,  at  retail,  than  by  any  two  jobbers  in  tlie  city 
together,  at  wholesale.  The  secret  of  the  immense  tea  trade  of  this  house,  which  reaches  over  50,000  pounds  yearly, 
lies  in  the  advantages  afforded  customers  in  procuring  here  the  same  mixtures  as  can  be  obtained  in  any  part  of  Europe, 
the  same  which  has  given  London,  Belfast  and  other  European  cities  such  a  reputation  as  tea  centers.  These,  with 
other  fine  groceries,  are  imported  direct  by  Mr.  Haslage,  and  he  is  the  exclusive  dealer  in  this  city  for  these  choice 
goods.  The  second  specialty  of  the  house  is  the  importation  of  pure  Brandies  and  AVines  for  medical  purposes  ;  also 
of  domestic  wines,  principa:l]y  of  Mr.  Haslage's  own  production.  The  entire  business  of  this  house  is  transacted 
strictly  upon  a  cash  basis,  and  no  deviation  is  made  from  the  established  prices  of  goods.  Its  trade  is  extended  in 
every  direction  from  the  city  within  a  radius  of  150  miles.  Mr.  Haslage's  business  qualifications  have  been  called  into 
requisition  in  several  corporations.  He  has  filled  the  office  of  Director  in  the  Artisans  Insurance  Company  since  its 
organization,  and  for  the  past  four  years  has  been  a  Director  in  the  German  National  Bank. 

S.  B.  HEDGES  Sl  CO»-Oom.  Mer.  for  Cattle,  Hogs  d  Sheep.  Central  Stock  Yards. 

Among  the  tens  of  thousands  of  producers  this  work  will  reach,  showing  the  various  industries  and  avocations  of 
the  Iron  City,  there  will  be  a  large  number  who  are  interested  in  the  raising,  buying  and  shipping  of  cattle,  hogs  and 
sheep,  and  as  tlie  advantages  here  presented  will  directly  interest  them,  we  append  a  brief  notice  of  one  of  the  most 
enterprising  and  worthy  firms  connected  with  the  stock  yards  of  this  city.  Messrs.  S.  B.  Hedges  &  Co.  are  successors 
to  the  lirm  of  Hedges  &  Taylor,  who  started  in  this  business  in  1867.  Mr.  Taylor  retiring  from  the  firm,  Mr.  S.  B. 
Hedges  continued  tlie  business  in  connection  with  others  whose  names  are  not  essential  to  this  sketch,  and  after  some 
few  changes,  the  present  reliable  company  was  established,  consisting  of  Messrs.  S.  B.  Hedges,  the  head  and  senior 
member  of  the  Company,  who  was,  in  connection  with  Mr.  Taylor,  the  original  founder  of  this  important  business  en- 
terprise, and  H.  B.  Pepper  and  Mr.  F.  Hedges,  a  brother  of  Mr.  S.  B.  Hedges,  each  of  whom  is  thoroughly  conversant 
with  the  business  in  all  its  details,  thus  forming  one  of  the  most  prompt  and  reliable  firms  operating  in  this  line  of 
business  in  Pittsburgh.  They  control  a  cash  capital  of  $40,000  and  transact  a  very  large  and  lucrative  business,  al- 
tliough,  on  account  of  discriminations  in  freight  and  general  depression  in  business  of  all  kinds,  this  branch  has  been 
largely  reduced  from  former  years,  when  the  business  was  more  than  $1,000,000  annually.  This  brief  statement  will 
convey  to  producers  and  dealers  throughout  the  country  the  ample  facilities  enjoyed  by  this  firm  and  insure  entire 
confidence  in  tiieir  transactions.  S.  B.  Hedges  &  Co.  are  Commission  Merchants  for  the  sale  of  Hogs,  Cattle  and  Sheeji, 
with  their  office  located  at  the  Central  Stock  Yards,  where  all  communications  may  be  addressed.  They  employ  one 
book-keeper  and  a  thorough!}'  competent  salesman,  besides  giving  their  personal  attention  to  the  details  of  their  ex- 
teasive  business.  Mr.  S.  15.  Hedges  was  born  in  Ohio  in  1829.  Mr.  F.  Hedges  was  also  born  in  that  State  in  183-t,  and 
Mr.  H.  B.  Pepper  was  born  in  Chester  County,  this  State,  in  1851.  This  firm  enjoys  a  high  and  honorable  reputation 
in  the  city  and  country. 

HOLBSHIF  &  ISCWTN, -American  Oil  Works,  Office,  49  Fifth  Avenue. 

One  of  the  first  refineries  erected  in  Pittsburgh  after  the  production  of  petroleum  in' Pennsylvania,  was  the  Wood- 
ville  Oil  Works,  built  by  Henry  and  George  Holdship  in  1859-60.  Purchasing  the  American  Works  (formerly  called 
the  "Forsyth  Oil  Works"),  in  1870,  the  Woodville  Works  were  removed  to  the  same  site  and  merged  into  one  con- 
cern. At  that  time  these  works  were  the  [largest  in  capacity  in  the  State,  and  even  at  this  time  are  exceeded  in  these 
respects  by  but  three  or  four  refineries  in  this  section.  In  1864  Mr.  George  Holdship  retired  from  the  business  and 
was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Lewis  Irwin.  The  works  are  located  near  Sharpsburg  Station,  within  the  limits  of  the  city,  and 
cover  an  area  of  about  seven  acres.  When  in  full  operation  the  produce  5,000  barrels  of  refined  oil  per  week,  fifty  men 
being  required  to  conduct  the  various  processes,  whose  earnings  are  about  $2,500  per  month.  There  are  .some  facts  in  re- 
gard to  the  career  of  this  firm  and  its  operations  that  single  it  out  from  all  others  and  entitle  it  to  more  than  usual  consid- 
eration, and  while  we  are  debarred  by  the  character  of  this  work  from  any  further  comment  on  this  subject,  it  must 
be  proper  to  say  that  the  evidences  given  by  this  firm  of  a  high  standard  of  personal  and  commercial  lienor  and  spot- 
less integrity,  are  such  as  to  place  it  in  a  position  peculiarly  its  own.  Both  members  of  the  firm  are  natives  of  Pitts- 
burgh, widely  known  to  the  community  at  large  and  in  no  small  degree  aiding  in  various  ways  its  development  and 
prosperity. 

ERNEST  G.  "KREH. AN, -Interpreter  for  the  Courts,  Alderman,  Conveyancer,  etc. 

1101  Bingham  St.,  South  Side. 
The  career  of  Alderman  Krehan  has  been  one  of  such  eminent  usefulness  as  to  entile  him  to  brief  recognition  in 
these  pages.  A  native  of  Weimar,  Germany,  where  he  was  born  Oct.  30,  1835,  at  the  early  age  of  eighteen,  impelled 
by  the  most  laudable  youthful  jispirations,  he  emigrated  to  this  country,  and  after  residing  at  Buifalo,  N.  Y.,  for  one 
year,  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1854,  and  for  a  quarter  of  a  century  has  identified  himself  with  the  best  interests  of  the 
community.  Soon  after  his  arrival  in  this  city  he  applied  himself  to  the  drug  business,  in  which  he  .shortly  became 
an  adept,  comencing  operations  for  himself  in  1860,  quitting  the  same  in  1866,  since  which  time  he  has  continued,  in 
spite  of  other  pressing  demands  upon  his  time,  to  occupy  a  high  positi(m  in  the  profession.  Under  the  administration 
of  Presidents  lancoln  and  Johnson  he  was  appointed  Postmaster  of  Birmingham,  which  was  not  at  that  time  annexed 
to  Pittsburgh  by  consolidation,  and  in  1867  was  created  oflScial  Interpreter  of  the  Allegheny  County  Courts  by  Gov. 
Geary,  whose  action  was  confirmed  by  the  Senate  of  Pennsylvania,  and  in  1876  he  was  reappointed  by  Gov.  Hart- 
ranft  for  a  term  of  three  years.  As  Alderman  of  the  29th  ward, 'Squire  Krehan  was  elected  in  1870,  a  choice  which 
liroved  so  satisfactory  to  his  constituents  that  be  was  again  elected  to  the  same  office  in  1875,  bis  term  in  this  capacity 
not  expiring  till  March,  1880.  Expert  as  a  linguist,  clement,  but  just,  as  an  alderman,  and  reliable  in  his  profession 
and  all  relations  with  others,  'Squire  Krehan  deserves  the  esteem  which  he  has  achieved  and  the  friendship  which  his 
uniform  course  has  inspired. 


CITY   OP   PITTSBURGH,  87 


DUQUESNE  BOILER  WOIfKS-James  Thorn&Co.,  Diiquesne  Way&2dSt. 

Fainilirtr  with  the  constitution,  manufacture  and  capabilities  of  iron  in  all  its  forms,  from  the  crude  ore  to  the 
finished  plate,  the  skilled  mechanics  and  enterprising  manufacturers  of  Pittsburgh  find  no  obstacles  in  the  construc- 
tion of  anything  of  which  iron  is  the  material  or  forms  a  component  part,  from  the  smallest  tack  requiring  thousands  to 
make  a  pound,  to  an  ocean  steamship  of  the  most  magnificent  proportions.  In  everybranch  of  industry  pertaining  to 
the  various  specialties  of  iron-working  are  representative  houses  whose  names  have  become  familiar  not  only  through- 
out our  own  country,  but  in  every  quarter  of  the  globe.  Few  manufacturing  establishments,  if  any,  have  contributed 
more  largely  to  spread  the  fame  and  reputation  of  Pittsburgh,  as  the  grea^  industrial  center  of  the  western  hemisphere, 
than  that  of  Messrs.  James  Thorn  &  Co.,  proprietors  of  the  Duquesne  Boiler  Works  and  manuiacturers  of  Steam  Boil- 
ers, Oil  Stills  and  Tanks,  Agitators,  Salt  Pans,  and  every  description  of  Wrought  and  Sheet-Iron  Work,  including  Steel 
and  Iron  Hulls  for  vessels,  steamboats,  barges,  &c.  This  business  was  established  by  Thos.  McCtolloster  &  Esche- 
bann,  in  1S40,  and  others,  and,  after  various  changes  in  style  of  firm  and  management,  came  into  possession  of  the 
present  proprietors  in  18G1.  The  premises  occuj)ied  by  this  firm  are  on  the  corner  of  Second  St.  and  Duquesne  Way, 
covering  an  area  of  150x200  feet,  with  spacious  and  conveniently-arranged  buildings  for  the  prosecution  of  their  busi- 
ness in  all  its  departments,  and  the  most  perfect  and  complete  machinery  and  tools  to  be  found  in  any  similar  estab- 
lishment in  the  country,  including  a  steam  engine  of  25  horse-power.  Thirty-five  skilled  hands  are  constantly 
employed  at  these  extensive  work.s,  with  a  monthly  pay-roll  aggregating  about  $1,800.  Their  trade  is  principally 
derived  from  the  two  cities,  the  oil  regions  and  the  steamboat  interests  of  our  own  and  western  rivers,  iron  mills,  etc., 
although  they  are  rapidly  acquiring  not  only  a  national  but  a  world-wide  celebrity.  During  the  year  1873  this  firm 
constructed  for  an  English  company  a  steel  steamship  hull,  for  use  in  South  American  waters,  which  not  only  gave  the 
most  perfect  satisfaction,  but  surpa.s.sed  their  utmost  expectations,  drawing  only  22  inches  of  water,  whereas  those  of 
English  build  which  had  previously  been  constructed  for  the  same  purpose  were  found  to  be  utterly  impracticable  and 
unserviceable  in  the  shallow  waters  of  the  Magdalene  river,  drawing  more  than  four  feet  of  water.  This  hull  was  man- 
ufactured and  completed  entirely  in  Pittsburgh,  and  then  taken  apart  and  shipped  in  sections  by  rail  to  New  York, 
thence  to  South  America,  where  it  was  put  together  again  by  men  sent  from  this  establishment  for'tbat  purpose.  The 
wood  work  for  this  steamship  was  also  built  in  this  city  by  Messrs.  Slack  &  Sholes,  a  description  of  wliich  will  be  found 
in  this  work  under  the  article  devoted  to  that  firm,  ^lpssrs  Thorn  &  Co.  are  now  negotiating  for  the  construction  of 
two  other  large  hulls  for  New  York  parties,  and  are  making  arrangements  to  con.siderably  enlarge  their  works  and 
increase  their  facilities.  Both  members  of  this  firm  are  thorough,  practical  mechanics.  Mr.  James  Thorn  is  a  l)lack- 
smith,  and  during  the  war  of  the  rebellion  was  in  the  employ  of  the  United  States  government,  in  the  construction  of 
government  gunboats.  He  is  an  energetic,  enterprising  business  man,  and  thoroughly  conversant  with  all  the  details 
of  the  business  in  which  he  is  engaged.  Mr.  James  Reese,  the  other  partner,  is  a  practical  machinist,  and,  in  connec- 
tion with  his  interest  in  this  business,  carries  on  extensive  machine  and  engine  works  at  the  corner  of  Fourth  St.  and 
Duquesne  Way.  It  is  to  the  enterprise,  ability  and  skill  of  such  gentlemen  as  these  that  our  city  is  largely  indebted 
for  the  proud  position  she  occupies  to-day  among  the  manufacturing  cities  of  the  world. 

M  ACKEO  WN,  THOMPSON  &  OO, -Oldest  Wholesale  Drug  House  in  the  city. 

195  Liberty  Street. 
As  the  Oldest  Wholesale  Drug  House  in  the  city,  conspicuous  for  the  general  extent  of  its  business  and  resources, 
the  firm  of  McKeown,  Thompson  &  Co.  is  entitled  to  most  favorable  consideration  in  a  work  designed  to  exhibit  in 
detail  the  Industries  of  Pittsburgh.  Mr.  John  Hanlon,  the  pioneer  druggist  of  this  city,  was  the  founder  of  tiiis  house 
in  1825,  with  very  limited  capital  and  in  an  extremely  small  way.  With  the  natural  growth  of  the  city  the  trade  grew 
in  proportion  until  it  became  a  marked  feature,  and  passing  into  the  hands  of  the  present  firm  many  years  ago,  was 
considerably  augmented  and  a  new  impetus  given  to  the  concern.  The  premisesof  the  house  are  most  eligible,  situ- 
ated at  195  Liberty  street,  and  consist  of  one  large  four-story  brick  edifice  with  finished  basement,  22.K110  feet,  con- 
taining a  carefully  selected  assortment  to  the  value  of  from  $40,000  to  $50,000,  forming  the  basis  lor  an  annual  trade  of 
$120,000  to  $150,000,  exclusively  at  wholesale.  In  connection  with  the  drug  business,  embracing  all  and  singular  com- 
plete supplies  in  this  branch,  this  house  is  recognized  as  general  headquarters  for  Paints  of  all  kinds,  Spirits  of  'tur- 
pentine. Resin  and  Pine  Tar,  Sperm,  Whale,  Fish,  Lard,  Engine  and  Lubricating  Oils,  etc.  In  these  articles  they 
deal  very  largely,  sales  of  Pure  Lead  alone  amounting  to  one  hundred  tons  per  annum.  Twelve  hands  are  employed 
in  the  various  departments  of  the  trade,  which  has  gradually  extended  over  Western  Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio  and 
West  Virginia,  and  is  increasing  yearly  under  the  liberal  and  enterprising  policy  of  the  firm.  All  the  members  of 
this  firm  are  natives  of  this  city,  to  the  prosperity  of  which  their  thrift  and  enterprise  has  largely  contributed.  In 
those  particular  lines  in  which  Messrs.  MacKeown,  Thompson  &  Co.  are  engaged,  they  are  heartily  couimeuded  as 
being  reliable  and  agreeable  people  to  deal  with,  having  facilities  for  the  supply  of  the  trade  which  cannot  be  dupli- 
cated in  Pittsburgh  and  which  are  certain  toaftbrd  buyers  every  advantage  in  price,  quality  and  circumstance. 

ARTISANS  DEPOSIT  BANK ,-^orw^r  of  Third  Av.  and  Wood  St 

The  financial  institutions  of  Pittsburgh,  though  numerous,  are  yet,  as  a  rule,  characterized  by  a  fair  and  hopeful 
degree  of  prosperity  and  a  general  management  safe  and  conservative,  though  enterprising.  These  remarks  are  as  ap- 
plicable to  the  Artisans  Deposit  Bank  as  any  similar  concern  in  this  city,  of  which  it  forms  part  of  the  fiduciary  sys- 
tem. The  Ijank  was  organized  in  1870  and  incorporated  under  the  State  law,  with  a  paid-up  capital  of  $180,000,  with 
the  privilege  of  increasing  it  to  half  a  million.  Conducting  a  legitimate  banking  business  in  loans,  discounts,  deposits, 
collections  and  exchange,  some  idea  of  the  ability  of  its  management  may  be  derived  from  the  fact  that  since  its  estab- 
lishment it  has  paid  from  its  earnings  as  dividends  to  tlie  stockholders  about  $100,000.  Such  success  is  of  course 
owing  to  the  fidelity  with  which  the  officers  have  administered  their  trusts,  and  without  any  fortuitous  conditions  of 
finance  or  trade  daring  the  period  of  the  existence  of  the  institution.  From  its  inception  to" the  present  time  Messrs. 
Wm  H.  Smith  and  J.  F.  Stark  have  respectively  occupied  the  positions  of  president  and  cashier,  the  former  being  also 
president  of  the  Artisans  Insurance  Co.  The  directors  are,  besides  the  chief  executive,  Messrs.  John  Dunlap,  manufac- 
turer of  tinware  ;  J.  P.  Barr,  editor  and  proprietor  of  the  Daily  and  Weekly  Post;  James  McGinnis;  W.  S.  Jackson, 
Id  le  wood  Hotel ;  J.  T.  Colvin,  of  Colvin,  Atwell  &  Co.,  wholesale  grocers;  F.M.Hutchinson,  secretary  and  treasurer 
of  the  Fort  Wayne  Railway  Co  ;  .lohu  J.  Pettit,  of  .1.  J.  Pettit  &  Co.,  produce,  and  L  Glesenkamp,  of  L.  Glesenkamp 
A  Co  ,  carriage  manufacturers.  The  cashier's  staff  is  now  composed  of  James  P.  Gelston,  teller  and  book-keeper,  and 
Wra.  F.  Miller,  Messenger.  The  success  of  the  Artisans  Deposit  Bank  under  such  control  is  equal  to  that  of  any  insti- 
tution started  under  similar  conditions  and  auspices,  and  the  consideration  in  which  it  is  held  speaks  strongly  in  its 
fuvor  as  a  solid  and  popular  institution. 

A.  G.  CRONER,-/"//?,  Copper  and  Sneet-lron  Ware,  St.  Clair  St.,  Mt  Washington. 

This  business,  purchased  from  his  predecessor,  Mr.  Reigle,  has  been  carried  on  by  Mr.  Croner  since  the  Spring  of 
1878,  having  then  started  with  a  good  capital,  which  he  has  since  increased.  He  has  an  extended  custom  and  trade  for 
many  miles  around,  carrying  a  fair  stock  on  hand  of  Tin,  Copper  and  Sheet-Iron  Ware,  variety  of  Stoves,  Hardware 
and  House-furnishing  Goods.  Stoves  exchanged  and  repaired,  Tin-Roofing  and  Job  Work  of  all  kinds  promptly 
attended  to.  All  work  warranted  to  give  satisfaction.  Mr.  i^roncr  was  born  in  Washington  county,  Pennsylvania,  in 
1851,  and  began  business  here  in  this  city  in  1878,  and  is  well  deserving  of  public  patronage. 


88  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

TRADESMENS  NATIONAL  BANK -Cor.  Wood  St  &  Fourth  Av. 

The  Tiadcsniens  National  Bunk  is  another  of  tho  financial  institutions  of  Pittsburgh,  the  wisclom  of  whose  nianajie- 
nient  has  been  cndoiHed  by  success,  as  well  us  by  the  high  position  it  enjoys  in  the  esteem  and  consideration  of  the 
comnuinity.  This  bank  was  orgijnized  upon  its  present  basis  January  1st,  1865,  with  a  capital  of  $400,000,  and  was 
shortly  afterwards  appointed  as  a  United  States  depository  for  this  district.  The  officers  are  prominent  in  the  various 
industries  of  this  city  and  are  as  follows  : — A.  Bradley,  Esq.,  President,  and  seniormember  of  the  firm  of  A.  Bradlev  & 
Co.,  stove  founders,  "has  occupied  this  position  since  the  establishment  of  the  bank.  Wm.  Vankirk,  Esq.,  Vice  Presi- 
dent, associated  with  the  same  firm,  and  iMr.  Cyrus  Clarke,  Jr.,  for  twelve  years  performing  the  duties  of  cashier  with 
recognized  ability.  Tlie  directors  besides  tlie  President  and  Vice  President,  are  Messrs.  John  Dunlap,  Jas.  M.  Schoon- 
maker,  Jno.  F.  Dravo,  W.  Dewes  Wood,  Oliver  P.  Scaife,  Sullivan  Johnson  and  John  C.  Risher  ;  gentlemen  so  well 
known  as  successful  merchants,  manufacturers  and  producers,  as  to  require  no  personal  mention.  The  staff  of  the 
cashier  is  composed  of  Messrs.  Ross  W.  Drum,  teller  ;  E.  L.  (lOff,  ass't.  teller  ;  A.  J.  Lawrence,  General  bookkeeper; 
J.  B.  Van  Wagener,  individual  bookkeeper;  B.  M.  Davis,  discount  and  loan  clerk;  J.  K.  Crawford,  corresponding 
clerk,  and  Samuel  Story,  messenger.  That  the  operations  of  the  bank  have  been  ably  conducted  requires  no  other 
demonstration  than  that  up  to  January  1,  1879, 1528,000  had  been  paid  the  stockholders  as  dividends  and  a  surplus  ac- 
cumulated of  over  $100,000.  Very  few  banks  in  this  city  have  done  better,  or  more  deservedly  enjoy  the  confidence 
and  respect  of  the  public. 

ARMSTRONG,  BRO.  &  CO -Mfrs.  of  Corks  and  Bungs,  24fh  &  Railroad  Sts. 

The  manufacture  of  Corks  and  Bungs  is  extensively  carried  on  at  the  corner  of  Twentyfourth  and  Railroad 
streets,  by  the  firm  of  Armstrong,  Bro.  &  Co.  Tlie  business  was  originated  in  this  city,  in  18-54,  by  Mr.  Harry  Overing- 
ton.  on  a  compai'atively  small  scale,  and  with  moderate  means,  on  Smithfield  street.  He  was  succeeded  by  the  firm 
of  John  D.  Glass  &  Co.,  and  they  in  turn  by  Armstrong,  Bro.  &  Co.,  who  considerably  increased  the  facilities  and 
enlarged  the  business.  In  1862  they  removed  to  Third  street,  now  Third  avenue,  where  they  re-modeled  and  enlarged 
the  spacious  three-story  brick  structure,  which  had  been  previously  occupied  by  Lewis,  Oliver  &  Phillips.  They 
remained  in  this  location  for  six  years,  when  they  were  compelled  to  seek  more  commodious  quarters,  and  removed  to 
the  large  double  warehouse,  Nos.  44  and  46  Fir.st  avenue.  In  1878  the  entire  establishment  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and 
the  firm  immediately  proceeded  to  erect  tlieir  present  commodious  and  spacious  manufactory,  which  is  four" stories  in 
height,  and  built  in  the  form  of  an  "  L,"  with  a  frontage  of  two  hundred  feet  on  TwentyfouVth  street,  and  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  feet  on  Railroad  street,  and  supplied  with  the  most  perfect  and  complete  machinery.  The  trade  of 
this  bouse  extends  over  every  portion  of  the  United  States,  from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the  Pacific  slope.  They 
employ  on  an  average  about  one"  hundred  and  seventy-five  hands,  with  a  weekly  pay-roll  aggregating  about  $1,200, 
They  import  the  raw  material  directly  from  the  cork  forests  of  sunny  Spain,  and  manufacture  every  description  of 
Corks,  from  the  most  diminutive  sizes  to  the  largest  known  to  the  trade,  and  cut  cork  to  any  desired  shape  and  style, 
such  as  life  preservers,  &c.  Shavings  from  the  factory  are  largely  used  for  the  manufacture  of  beds  and  mattresses, 
and  are  higlily  commended  for  that  purpose  by  all  who  have  tliem.  In  addition  to  the  manufacture  of  Corks  this  firm 
has  a  large  factory  in  Warsaw,  Indiana,  where  they  produce  an  immense  number  of  compressed  wooden  bungs  for 
barrels,  which  meet  with  a  ready  sale  for  a  variety  of  purposes. 

Mr.  T.  M.  Armstrong  is  a  native  of  New  York  City,  and  was  born  in  1836.  Ho  has  resided  in  Pittsburgh  since  he  was 
ten  years  of  age,  and  since  1860  has  been  identified  with  the  cork  business,  having  been  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Jno. 
D.  Glass  &  Co.  Mr.  A.  J.  Armstrong  was  born  in  Allegheny  City  in  1847,  and  "has  been  a  life-long  resident  of  this 
county.  Mr.  Wm.  L.  Standish  is  a  native  of  West  Virginia  and  has  resided  in  Pittsburgh  since  1864,  and  connected 
witVi  this  establishment  during  the  entire  period.  Mr.  R.  D.  Armstrong,  who  was  for  many  years  the  financial  mana- 
ger of  the  house,  was  born  in  New  York  city  in  1837,  and  came  to  this  city  at  the  age  of  three  years  and  entered  the 
firm  at  its  organization.  He  was  a  genial,  affable  and  highly  respected  gentleman  in  all  the  walks  of  life  and  univer- 
.sally  esteemed  and  respected;  he  died  in  October  1878.  At  the  time  of  his  decease  he  was  a  member  of  the  board  of 
directors  of  the  United  Slates  bank  and  had  for  many  years  been  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  noble,  conscientious  and 
honorable  individuals  in  tlie  ranks  of  Pittsburgh's  representative  men.  The  surviving  members  of  the  firm  are  enter- 
prising, able  and  energetic  gentlemen  of  the  highest  standing  and  of  unsullied  reputation. 

J.  W.  McFARLAND  &  CO -Carpets,  No.  101  Fifth  Av. 

Among  the  several  firms  in  Pittsburgh  engaged  in  the  Carpet  trade,  perhaps  none  will  bear  a  favorable  comparison, 
■with  reference  to  extent,  general  appointments  and  magnitude,  as  well  as  variety  of  stock,  with  the  enterprise  of 
Messrs.  J.  W.  McFarland  &  Co.  This  widely-known  house  was  established  in  1803,  under  the  style  of  JfcFarland, 
Collins  &  Co.,  the  senior  partner — J.  W.  IMcFarland — being,  in  reality,  the  sole  manager  and  active  worker  of  the  con- 
cern, and  in  1877  the  title  of  the  firm  became  as  at  present,  the  Company  being  nominal  e.Kcept  in  i^o  far  as  represent- 
ing some  interests  vested  in  tlie  business  by  members  of  the  family  of  Mr.  McFarland.  The  premises  occupied  by  the 
house  are  situated  most  eligibly  on  Fifth  Av.,  the  main  thoroughfare  of  the  city,  next  door  to  the  Post  Office — the 
building,  an  ornate,  wire-front  structure,  being  one  of  tlie  handsomest  in  Pittsburgh.  Three  floors  of  this  edifice,  each 
being  30x120  feet  in  dimensions,  are  engrossed  by  the  firm  and  fitted  up  for  the  rapid  and  convenient  transaction  of 
business,  in  a  manner  worthy  of  the  character  and  standing  of  the  concern.  Two  patent  elevators  conduce  to  the 
pleasant  avoidance  of  stairways,  while  the  general  furnishing  is  all  that  could  be  desired — the  shelving  on  one  floor 
alone,  wliich  is  sustained  by  iron  rods  and  braces  from  the  ceiliu'^s,  costing  over  $1000.  The  first  floor  is  occupied  as 
the  main  salesroom,  and  is  not  only  admirably  lighted,  but  is  laid  with  South  Carolina  yellow  pine  of  unusually  fine 
quality,  and  has  an  altitude  of  20  feet,  which,  with  other  advantages  in  the  way  of  decoration,  &c.,  makes  it,  perhaps, 
the  most  elegant  and  spacious  business  aiiartinent  in  the  city.  The  second  andthird  floors  are  used  as  store,  stock  and 
work-rooms  in  the  upholstery  department,  which  branch  of  the  trade  is  carried  on  very  extensively,  the  whole  force  of 
employees  being  five  salesmen,  two  clerks,  two  porters,  one  driver,  four  upliolsterers,  six  sewing  girls — making  a  .^itaff 
of  19  assistants  in  all ;  besides  which,  a  team  of  horses  and  two  wagons  are  required  for  the  delivery  of  gowls  through 
the  cities  and  to  .steamboats,  railways,  &c.  The  stock  embraces  Carpets  of  every  grade,  make  and  quality,  imported 
and  domestic.  Window  Shades  and  Fixtures  in  great  variety.  Curtains,  Cornices,  Floor  and  Table  Cloths.  Mattings, 
Rugs,  Druggets,  Oil  Cloths  and  every  species  of  floor  covering^  having  an  average  value  of  from  $1.5,000  to  $20.000 — the 
annual  business  amounting  to  $40,000  and  upwards.  Mr.  RIcFarland  is  a  native  of  Franklin  county,  Pennsylvania, 
!x)rii  in  1833.  He  became  a  resident  of  this  city  when  20  years  of  age,  and,  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century,  has 
exerted  a  marked  influence  in  liis  vocation,  to  the  benefit  of  the  general  public,  by  whom,  he  is  justly  esteemed  as  the 
oldest  as  well  as  the  most  widely  experienced  representative  of  the  business  in  Pitt.sburgh.  Mr.  McFarland  is  a 
remarkably  rapid  and  decisive  thinker  and  a  plea.singly  fluent  speaker.  In  his  thorough  and  detailed  knowledge  of 
everything  pertaining  to  or  contingent  upon  his  occupation  he  has  few  compeers;  nor  are  his  attainments  limited  to 
the  channels  of  trade  and  commerce.  Proinpt,  reliable,  liberal,  with  an  activity  and  industry  that  knows  no  pause, 
be  has  made  bis  housea  favorite  one  for  those  who  have  once  appreciated  the  advantages  to  be  derived  there  in  prices; 
and,  more  than  all,  that  considerate  and  honest  advice  which  no  one  is  better  able  or  more  willing  to  offer  than  Mr. 
ISIeFarland.  With  these  facilities,  natural  and  acquired,  it  is  no  matter  of  surprise  that  the  trade  of  this  firm  has 
embraced  not  only  western  Pennsylvania,  but  a  large  part  of  West  Virginia  and  Ohio — orders  having  been  received 
even  from  Iowa  and  Mis.souri,  as  the  result  of  a  business  policy  based  upon  principles  that  none  may  successfully 
ignore. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH. 


89 


WILSON,  WAIiKER  &  CO -Union  Forge  and  Iron  Mill,  29th  &  Railroad  Sis. 

It  is  only  by  a  careful  review  in  detail  of  the  industries  of  Pittsburgh  that  any  adequate  idea  can  be  pained  in  re- 
gard to  the  real  magnitude  of  those  interests  which  are  of  such  vital  importance,  not  only  to  this  comnuiuity,  but  llio 
American  public  at  large.  It  being  the  main  object  of  this  work  to  present  such  facts,  t)ricf  descriptions  of  the  prin- 
cipal manufacturing  enterprises  arc  not  only  proper  but  essential,  and  in  this  connection  the  firm  of  Messrs.  Wilson, 
Walker  &  Co.  is  entitled  to  more  than  passing  notice.  Tlie  Union  Forge  and  Iron  Mill  was  established  in  1801,  by 
Messrs.  Kloraan  &  Pliipps,  who  were  succeeded  by  Messrs.  Carnegie,  Kloman  &  Co.  in  1866,  and  carried  on  the  busi- 
ness until  1873,  when  the  present  firm  was  organized,  being  composed  individually  of  John  T.  &  James  R.  Wilson  and 
John  Walker  as  general  partners,  and  Andrew  Carnegie,  of  New  York,  as  special  partner.  Under  this  management  the 
Rcope  of  the  mill  was  greatly  incre.ised  and  its  facilities  in  all  departments  much  enlarged.  The  main  mill  now 
covers  an  area  of  90x300  feet,  the  blacksmith  shop  72.n:2,')0  feet  and  the  forge  and  machine  shop  72x200  feet,  which,  to- 
gether with  other  buildings  of  smaller  dimensions,  occupy  an  area  of  about  two  acres.  To  operate  the  powerful  and  in 
many  instances  intricate  machinery  with  which  the  works  are  thoroughly  equipped,  requires  ten  steam  engines  of 
various  powers  and  ten  boilers,  the  apparatus  consisting  in  part  of  fifteen  single  puddling  furnaces,  six  heating  furna- 
ces, nine  steam  hammers,  five  trains  of  rolls,  one  18,  one  15  and  one  10  inch  and  two  universal  plate  trains.  With  these 
and  other  appliances  and  facilities,  the  products  of  the  mill  are  of  the  finest  grades  known,  and  consist  of  all  descriptions 
of  railroad  car  and  locomotive  forgings,  bar  iron,  universal  mill  plates,  bridge  irons  and  special  shapes  of  all  kinds  to 
order,  shafting,  splice  bars,  &c.,  and  for  the  manufacture  of  these  specialties  the  works  are  said  to  be  the  best  furnished 
and  most  extensive  in  the  United  States.  Besides  the  ordinary  machinery  usually  found  in  such  establishments  and 
generally  known  to  the  trade,  Mr.  J.  T.  Wilson,  who  is  a  practical  iron  worker  and  mechanician,  has  devised  and  in- 
vented numerous  pieces  of  mechanism  for  special  purposes,  labor  and  time  saving,  that  are  only  to  be  found  in  this  mill 
and  will  greatly  add  to  the  general  efficacy  of  the  work,  the  total  productive  capacity  being  about  12,000  tons  per  an- 
num. The  operatives  employed  at  these  works  range  from  175  to  350  and  average  about  350,  which  represents  the  main- 
tenance of  two  thousand  individuals,  and  conveys  an  idea  of  the  usefulness  of  the  firm  in  the  promotion  of  the  indus- 
trial welfare  of  the  community.  The  plant  being  located  upon  the  line  of  the  Allegheny  Valley  K.  B.  with  connect- 
ing sidings,  possesses  certain  advantages  in  making  direct  shipments  upon  all  roads  centering  in  Pittsburgh  not  easily 
duplicated,  and  the  introduction  of  the  wires  of  the  Western  Union  Telegraph  Co.  into  the  oflSce  adds  still  further  to 
the  facility  for  transacting  a  business  which  ranges  over  the  entire  United  States  and  Canadian  Provinces.  As  a  firm 
it  is  not  going  too  far  to  say  that  the  house  of  Wilson,  Walker  &  Co.  has  achieved  a  position  and  success  acquired  by 
few  of  its  cotcmporaries,  and  enjoys  the  high  esteem  of  the  trade  and  the  consideration  of  the  general  pul)lic,  which 
derives  such  marked  advantages  from  its  enterprise  and  capacity. 

PETER  SOTTJ^'L-Boofs  and  Shoes.  Sycamore  St.,  8 2d  Ward. 

Among  the  industries  of  the  City  of  Pittsburgh  to  which  this  work  is  devoted,  there  is  .scarcely  any  one  class  outside 
of  the  great  Iron  and  Glass  trade  which  deserves  more  liberal  notice  than  that  of  the  general  Boot  and  .Shoe  trade.  So 
great  is  the  competition,  that  greater  energy  and  enterprise  are  essential  to  success,  and  in  this  connection  we  desire  to 
call  attention  to  the  excellent  store  and  stock  of  Mr.  I'eter  Sofl'el,  located  on  Sycamore  street  in  the  32d  Ward.  This 
business  was  started  by  the  present  proprietor  in  ISGl,  with  comparatively  small  capital,  but  which  has  been  very 
materially  increased  by  the  liberal  patronage  he  has  constantly  leceived  since  that  time.  He  carries  a  stock  ranging 
from  $2,500  to  $4,000,  embracing  the  most  desirable  and  reliable  goods  for  Blen,  Women,  Boys,  Misses  or  Children,  and 
his  prices  are  lower  than  his  competitors.  The  length  of  time  Mr.  Sofi'el  has  been  in  i)usiness  has  enabled  him  to  estab- 
lish an  envialile  reputation  for  fair  and  .square  dealing,  and  given  liim  great  popularity  in  his  ward.  lie  was  twice  a 
member  of  the  Borough  Council,  also  School  Director  previous  to  this  part  of  the  city  being  incorporated  in  the  city 
limits.  Mr.  Sofl'el  was  born  in  Gernumy  in  18:i8,  and  caiue  to  tins  city  in  1S54,  where  he  enjoys  a  flourishing  trade  and 
the  esteem  and  confidence  of  a  large  circle  of  friends  and  patrous. 


ADAMS  &  CO -Table  Glassware:  Office  &  Works,  Wth  &  Williams  Sts.,  South  Side. 

In  making  a  detailed  review  of  the 
glass  trade,  as  having  a  powerful  influ- 
ence upon  the  industries  of  Pittsburgh, 
the  well-known  house  ot  Adams  &  Co., 
manufacturers  of  Crystal  Glass-ware, 
should  not  be  overlooked.  This  firm 
was  originated  in  1851  by  and  under 
the  style  of  Adams,  Macklin  &  Co., 
who  commenced  operations  uiuler  many 
disadvantages  and  with  a  capital  that 
would  now  be  con.sidered  altogether 
inadequate.  The  business  prospered, 
however,  under  a  shrewd  and  practical 
management,  and  became  an  established 
success  after  several  years  of  unremit- 
ting exertion  on  the  part  of  its  project- 
ors. In  18t)l  a  change  in  the  firm  took 
place,  the  title  becoming  as  at  present, 
the  members  of  the  house  now  being 
John  Adams,  Esq.,  Geo.  F.  Easton, 
Godfried  Miller,  A.  A.  Adams,  .las. 
Dalzell,  and  W.  Adams — all  of  whom  take  an  active  interest  in  the  work,  i  he  plant  is  located,  as  above,  in  Willmms 
St.,  South  Side,  and  has  been  greatly  enlarged  and  improved  since  the  .succession  of  the  CM'^tmg  firm  It  (on'-ists  ot 
five  large  buildings,  covering  in  all  an  area  of  about  two  acres,  and  containing  two  factories  and  two  furn.ice^,  h.iMnt;, 
in  all,  23  pots,  one  engine  and  boiler,  besides  all  the  necessary  machinery  and  appliances  for  conducting  o[)erations 
upon  the  largest  scale. 

Here  are  employed  about  200  expert  artisans,  to  pay  whom  a  weekly  disbursement  is  entailed  upon  the  firm  of 
$2,000,  the  total  annual  business  transacted  amounting  to  between  $175,000" and  $200,000,  and  extending  throughout  the 
United  States,  Canada,  Cuba  and  South  America.  The  products  of  the  firm  are  widely  known  for  superior  excellence, 
in  finish  and  design;  they  consist  mainly  of  Table  Glassware,  Lamp  Chimneys,  Lamps  and  Jelly  Tumblers,  greatly 
improved,  upon  which  the  firm  holds  several  patents,  the  right  to  manufacture  being  exclusively  confined  to  this 
house.  Of  the  several  members  of  the  firm,  all  are  natives  of  Allegheny  county  except  Mr.  Miller,  who  was  born  in 
Germany.  Mr.  John  Adams,  the  senior  partner,  is  closely  identified  with  the  industrial  development  of  this  city, 
being  connected  with  many  institutions  prominent  for  their  uscfulno&s.  As  a  late  member  of  the  city  councils,  his 
influence  was  always  directed  to  the  support  of  those  measures  which  seemed  best  calculated  to  promote  the  general 
good  ;  and,  as  a  director  of  the  Iron  and  Glass  Dollar  Savings  Bank,  street  railway  companies,  and  tlie  Flint  Glass  Asso- 
ciation, Mr.  Adams  has  done  no  little  to  foster  tlje  resources  of  this  city.  The  firm,  of  which  he  is  the  esteemed  head, 
occupies  a  high  position  in  the  trade  and  cmnniands  the  respect  of  thccommunity.  Its  business  operations  are*a.sed 
upon  a  i)nlicy  of  honorable  as  well  as  liberal  dealing,  and  can  offer  advantages  to  the  trade  that  make  it  a  most  demrablo 
house  with  which  to  establish  relations. 


90  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

PITTSBURGH  BANK  FOR  SAVINGS -yi/^.  61  Fourth  Av. 

This  favorite  financial  institution  was  incorporated  under  a  special  ctiarter  by  the  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania, 
April  11,  18(i2,  as  tlie  "Dime  Savings  Institution  of  Pittsburgli,"  a  title  wlaich  gave  place,  however,  subsequently  to 
that  at  present  employed,  which  conveys  very  clearly  the  main  object  <jf  its  organization.  That  the  design  of  its 
founders  has  been  realized  to  a  marked  degree,  may  be  readily  inferred  from  some  figures  taken  from  the  Thirty-lir;^t 
Semi-annual  Attested  Report,  which  shows  the  available  assets  of  the  concern  to  be  $lJ7o,332.04,  and  a  contingent  or 
surplus  fund  of  $91,745.77 — or  %\&,H5.11  more  than  the  capital. •stock.  Such  results  are  of  course  almost  entirely  due  to 
the  conservative  and  conscientious  manner  in  which  the  affairs  of  the  bank  have  been  managed,  and  necessarily  re- 
dound to  the  credit  of  those  to  whom  the  business  has  been  entrusted.  Among  these  it  may  lie  natural  to  expect  to 
find  some  of  the  most  prominent  names  in  the  city — an  anticipation  by  no  means  defeated,  as  proved  by  the  following 
list  of  officers  and  directors  : — Geo.  A.  Berry,  Esq.,  President — also  President  of  Citizens'  National  Bank,  Director  of 
Moiiongahela  Insurance  Co.,  and  connected  with  numerous  other  institutions  ;  John  Scott,  Esq.,  and  James  Park,  Jr., 
Vice  Pi-esidents,  the  former  being  President  of  the  Allegheny  Valley  R.  R.,  also  President  of  the  P.  V.  &  C.  R.  R.,  Di- 
rector of  the  Merchants'  and  Manufacturers'  National  Bank,  and  largely  interested  in  the  manufacturing  interests  of 
the  community.  The  latter  is  of  the  firm  of  Park  Bro's.  &  Co.,  proprietors  of  the  Black  Diamond  Steel  Works  and  in- 
timately Identified  with  the  development  of  the  natural  resources  of  Pittsburgh  ;  Mr.  Chas.  G.  Mllnor,  Treasurer  and 
Secretary,  well  known  for  an  extended  banking  experience  prior  to  his  connection  with  this  institution  ;  Mr.  David 
W.  Jones,  Teller  and  Book-keeper,  also  an  expert  in  his  department  of  the  business.  The  Board  of  Managers,  while, 
including  the  president  and  vice-presidents  heretofore  named,  consists  also  of  the  following  gentlemen  :— A.  Bradley, 
Esq.,  President  of  the  Tradesmen's  National  Bank  and  senior  partner  in  the  house  of  A.  Bradley  &  Co.,  stove  found- 
ers; R.  C.  Schmirtz,  Esq.,  President  of  the  Allemania  Insurance  Co.  and  largely  engaged  in  the  glass  trade.  Hon. 
James  L.  Graham,  influentially  allied  to  numerous  important  organizations;  Frank  Rahm,  Esq.,  President  of  the 
Woodruff  Sleeping  Car  Co.  and  L.  M.  Plumer,  Esq.,  Attorney  at  Law,  Solicitor.  Under  the  management  and  direction 
of  such  officers  and  managers,  the  signal  success  that  has  attended  the  career  of  the  Pittsburgh  Bank  for  Savings  be- 
comes readily  accounted  for,  and  a  future  of  equal  prosperity  and  usefulness  seems  as  certainly  assured. 

JULIUS  VOETTER,-/1^5Z«;  York  Hog  Trade  Stock  Yards.  East  End. 

About  two-thirds  of  the  stock  disposed  of  are  sold  in  the  New  York  market  and  the  other  third  here,  in  Philadel- 
phia and  other  points.  In  handling  hogs  for  the  New  York  trade,  Mr.  Julius  Voetter  does  a  yearly  business  of  over 
half  a  million  dollars.  He  commenced  here  in  1856  in  a  small  way,  with  a  capital  of  only  $200  or  S300,  but  under  his 
judicious  management  it  has  increased  until  it  now  reaches,  if  it  does  not  exceed  $15,000.  He  occupies  an  office  at  the 
stock  yards  and  may  also  be  communicated  with  at  J.  D.  Huffman's  butcher  shop.  He  employs  ten  men,  with  a 
monthly  pay-roll  of  $800.  His  business  is  conducted  under  two  separate  departments,  in  the  tirstof  which  he  has  as- 
sociated with  him  Mr.  J.  G.  Struble  in  the  butchering  department  and  Mr.  J.  D.  Huffman.  At  this  place  on  Penn 
avenue  they  use  one  engine  boiler,  two  meat  choppers  and  lard  tanks.  Mr.  Voetter  is  a  native  of  Germany,  born  at 
Wurtemburg  Nov.  15,  1836.  He  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  18-56,  and  to  the  stock  yards  in  1864.  He  commenced  business 
in  1854  at  Salem,  Ohio,  and  has  been  actively  engaged  in  the  stock  trade  ever  since. 

JACOB  RUCH  &  "BRO. -Carriage  Manufacturers,  804  &  306  5th  Av. 

The  gentlemen  composing  this  firm  are  both  natives  of  this  city  and  were  i)orn  on  the  very  street  where  now 
stands  the  factory  they  operate.  Established  in  1876,  on  a  capital  of  about  $4,000,  which  has  since  been  augmented, 
it  may  now  safely  be  placed  at  $12,000.  They  carry  a  stock  of  $9,000  and  transact  an  annual  business  of  from  $10,000  to 
$12,000.  Their  factory  is  two  stories  high  and  50x100  feet  in  size,  and  is  divided  into  four  departments,  viz.:  Wood- 
working, Blacksmithing,  Trimming  and  Painting.  Ten  hands  are  employed,  with  a  pay-roll  amounting  to  $110  per 
week.  The  work  turned  out  embraces  Barouches,  Doctors  Phaetons,  Jaggers  and  Buck  Wagons,  etc.  This  concern  is 
noted  for  the  excellence  of  their  work,  employing  none  but  the  best  mechanics  and  using  only  the  best  material. 
Coach  work  made  to  order  is  one  of  the  specialties  of  this  house.  The  success  attending  this  establishment  is  evidence 
of  its  appreciation  by  the  citizens.    Jacob  Ruch  was  born  in  1840  and  Fred.  Ruch  in  1838. 

JOHN  lSLUS^i:E:R.,-Meat  Market,  127  Beaver  Av.,  Allegheny. 

This  is  one  of  the  old  established  and  successful  business  houses  of  the  city,  having  been  established  more  than 
forty  years  ago  by  the  present  proprietor.  Mr,  Mussler  is  a  native  of  Germany,  but  he  has  resided  in  Allegheny  since 
1837,  and  been  engaged  in  his  present  line  of  business  since  1839.  His  extensive  establishment  is  located  at  No.  127 
Beaver  avenue,  and  consists  of  a  three-story  brick  building  20x55,  occupied  as  a  meat  market  with  three  smaller  build- 
ings in  the  rear.  He  is  assisted  by  his  son  and  does  his  own  .slaughtering  ;  customers  may  be  assured  of  procuring  at 
all  times  the  choicest  and  freshest  meats  in  the  market.  Beef,  pork,  mutton,  lamb,  veal,  &c.,  replenished  daily  and 
all  kinds  of  pickled  and  smoked  meats,  sausages,  &c.  ;  his  annual  sales  will  reach  at  least  $15,000.  Mr.  Mussler's  estab- 
lishment is  desirably  located  and  his  surroundings  are  such  that  he  enjoys  the  patronage  of  many  of  the  principal 
families  of  the  city. 

J  AS.  W.  I^'RAJP^,— Auctioneer,  Real  Estate  and  Insurance,  7  J2  Federal  St.,  Allegheny. 

This  well-known  knight  of  the  hammer  and  master  of  "going  going,  gone  !"  began  business  in  1872,  and  has  con- 
ducted it  with  marked  success.  The  business  transacted  ranges  from  $150,000  to  $200,000  yearly,  with  gradual  increase. 
The  business  of  such  a  man  is  multifarious,  special  attention  being  given  to  buying  and  selling  Stocks,  and  ne- 
gotiating Mortgages,  and  acts  as  Notary  Public,  House  Agent,  Appraiser,  Broker,  etc.  Mr.  Drape  employs  three 
hands.  His  business  is  chiefly  in  Allegheny  County,  hut  extends  on  occasions  into  various  parts  of  Ohio.  He  was 
l)orn  in  Scotland  in  1837  and  came  to  this  city  in  1866.  He  began  in  Pittsburgh  in  1868  a  general  jobbing  business  in 
nails,  hardware,  etc.,  and  in  this  line  did  a  very  large  business.  He  is  enterprising  and  has  a  great  personal  and  pro- 
fessional popularity. 

W.  W.  HECHELMAN,  M.  I},-65  Madison  Av.,  Cor.  Washington  St.,  Allegheny. 

This  well-known  Physician  and  Surgeon  commenced  his  professional  career  in  Allegheny  City  in  1871.  He  gradu- 
ated at  Jefferson  Medical  College,  Philadelphia,  in  1R69,  and  also  resided  as  a  medical  student  for  sometime  at  Munich, 
Germany,  and  graduated  in  1870  at  that  jilace.  In  the  Franco-Prussian  War  he  was  engaged  as  surgeon  and  profited 
greatly  in  a  professional  way  by  the  opportunities  afforded  him.  Dr.  Hechelman  gives  special  attention  to  diseases  of 
the  eye  and  ear.  His  treatment  of  such  cases  is  said  to  be  eminently  successful.  For  the  treatment  of  these  delicate 
organs  he  has  the  latest  and  most  improved  instruments.  The  doctor  has  a  large  and  growing  practice  in  Allegheny 
City,  Pittsburgh,  Birmingham  and  througliout  the  county  generally.  He  was  born  in  Germany  in  1848,  and  came  to 
this  citv  in  1S60,  and  is  an  honor  to  the  profession. 

is) 


CITY    OF   PITTSBURGH.  91 


E.  &  G.  H.  ZACHARIAS,-^/;§-ar  Manufacturers,  723  Perm  Av. 

Among  the  proiuinent  houses  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  Hgars  in  this  city,  we  would  make  mention  of  E.  & 
G.  H.  Zacliai'ias,  proprietors  of  factory  No.  118,  located  at  No.  723  Peiin  avenue,  and  also  proprietors  of  the  cigar  store 
on  Sinithfield  street  in  the  Central  Hotel  building.  This  house  was  established  in  1862  by  the  present  proprietors,  at 
first  in  a  small  way  as  a  retail  cigar  store,  but  their  business  rapidly  increased  and  they  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of 
cigars,  which  they  now  carry  on  extensively,  employing  a  number  of  hands,  making  both  hand  and  mould  work,  rang- 
ing in  price  from'^l.T  to  $70  per  thousand.  The  celebrated  "  Champion  "  brand  is  their  specialty,  it  is  a  five  cent  cigar 
whicli  meets  witli  popular  favor.  Their  factory  on  Penn  avenue  is  a  three-story  brick  structure  14xG0  feet  in  .size. 
Their  Smitlifield  street  establisliment  under  the  Central  Hotel  is  tilled  with  a  choice  slock  of  foreign  and  domestic  ci- 
gars and  manufactured  tobacco  of  the  finest  brands.  Their  business  at  both  places  is  both  wholesale  and  retail,  carry- 
ing an  average  stock  of  about  60,000  cigars,  principally  of  their  own  manufacture  with  trade  all  over  this  and  other 
Statrs.  Mr.  E.  Zacharias  has  charge  of  the  factory  and  store  at  723  Penn  avenue,  from  which  the  wliolesale  and  retail 
trade  is  principally  supplied  ;  Mr.  G.  H.  Zacharias  attends  to  the  management  of  the  Smithfield  street  establishment. 
Botli  brothers  are  natives  of  Maryland,  but  have  resided  in  Pittsburgh  for  over  twenty  years. 

A.  ANDRIESSEN ,— Z?^^/^r  in  Wines  and  Liquors,  178  Federal  St.,  Allegheny. 

Was  formerly  engaged  in  business  at  Nos.  40  and  42  Ohio  street,  and  removed  to  his  present  place  of  business  in 
the  new  and  elegant  buildings  adjoining  the  Franklin  Savings  Bank.  Was  born  at  Detroit,  Mich,  in  1849,  and  came 
to  Alleglieny  in  1872.  He  keeps  constantly  on  hand  a  choice  assortment  of  foreign  and  domestic  wines  and  liquors, 
and  is  also  a  large  and  extensive  dealer  in  the  far  famed  wines  and  brandies  of  California,  the  "  Golden  State."  Start- 
ing in  business  with  the  limited  capital  of  §4,000,  he  has  increased  it  to  about  S8,000.  His  stock  of  liquors  amounts  to 
$10,000,  and  his  sales  foot  up  annually  to  $20,000.  Parties  in  want  of  good  pure  liquors  for  medical  or  other  use  can  be 
suited,  both  as  regards  price  and  quality,  by  calling  on  him.  All  brands  of  pure,  unadulterated  Manongahela  Eye 
Whiskey,  from  one  to  ten  years  old,  are  kept  constantly  on  hand,  and  warranted  superior  to  any  in  the  city.  Remem- 
ber No.  173  Federal  street,  Allegheny,  Pa. 

F.  TIC'H.T'B'L -Grocer,  75  Carson  St. 

Mr.  Fichtel,  who  established  his  present  business  in  1877,  is  among  the  best  known  dealers  in  Groceries  on  the 
South  Side.  His  stock,  which  amounts  to  $15,000,  comprises  everything  usually  found  in  a  first-class  establishment  of 
the  kind.  The  store,  which  is  32x60  feet  in  size,  is  one  of  the  most  commodious  business  structures  in  that  sectioii  of 
the  city.  The  annual  sales  amount  to  $20,000  and  are  steadily  increasing.  The  success  that  has  attended  this  gentle- 
man since  he  has  been  engaged  in  his  present  business  is  an  evidence  tiiat  his  establishment  will  always  be  ranked 
among  the  leading  concerns  of  the  kind  in  the  city. 

WM.  A.  Sm'LI'NG.-Bufcher,  HI  Beaver  Av. 

The  business  now  conducted  by  Mr.  Seiling  was  originally  established  by  Mr.  Hugh  Murphy.  Mr.  Seiling  became 
proprietor  in  1877,  and  under  his  management  the  business  has  steadily  increased.  He  occupies  the  two-story  brick 
building,  18x40,  at  No.  141  Beaver  avenue,  with  a  stock  averaging  in  value  about  $300,  and  transacts  a  yearly  business 
of  not  less  than  $8,000.  He  keeps  a  choice  variety  of  fresh  Meats,  Beef,  Pork,  Veal,  Lamb,  Mutton,  &c.,  and  all  kinds 
of  smoked  and  pickled  meats  for  family  use.  His  prices  are  as  low  as  the  lowest.  Mr.  Seiling  was  born  in  Allegheny 
City,  where  he  has  a  large  and  extensive  acquaintance. 

T.  B.  STEWART  &  SO'N,- Dealers  in  Coal,  cor.  43d  St.  &  A.  V.  R.  R. 

The  office  and  yards  of  this  firm  are  located  at  the  corner  of  43rd  st.  and  A.  V.  R.  R.,  where  the  business  was 
started  by  Mr.  Stewart  22  years  ago.  They  have  two  large  coal  yards,  with  convenient  sidings  and  tracks,  one  being 
70x150  feet,  and  the  other  50.xl60  feet,  from  which  the  very  superior  coal  of  the  N.  Y.  &  Cleveland  Gas  and  Coke 
Co.  is  delivered  to  their  customers.  They  are  now  delivering  from  30,000  to  40,000  bushels  of  Coal  per  month, 
mainly  to  private  families.  Mr.  Stewart  was  born  in  Pittsburgh,  in  1824,  and  has  lived  there  ever  since.  He  learned 
the  carpenter  trade,  working  at  it  for  a  muuber  of  years,  afterwards  engaging  in  his  present  business.  Mr.  Stewart 
has  been  connected  with  the  public  affairs  of  his  ward  for  many  years,  and  is  prominently  identified  with  the  public 
schools,  being  still  a  member  of  the  school  board  of  his  ward. 

JOSEPH  'Dl'EBO'LD,— Groceries  &  Provisions,  Cor.  11  th  and  Bradford  Sts. 

This  is  one  of  the  oldest  Grocery  stores  in  this  part  of  the  city,  having  been  originally  started  by  ^fr.  John  Trig- 
esser  about  30  years  ago.  In  1870  it  came  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Diebold,  and  by  his  excellent  bu-^iness  manage- 
ment has  worked  up  an  established  trade  that  will  compare  well  with  similar  stores  in  this  part  of  the  city.  He  keeps 
a  general  assortment  of  first-class  Groceries  and  Provisions,  such  as  are  demanded  by  every  home,  and  sells  at  very 
low  figures.  He  occupies  a  two-story  brick  structure,  40x40  feet  in  size,  and  gives  his  personal  attention  to  the  busi- 
ness assisted  by  members  of  his  own"  family.  He  was  born  in  this  city  in  1839,  and  is  at  present  a  member  of  the  Coun- 
cil from  the  29th  Ward.     Occupying  a  prominent  position,  he  wields  a  sttong  influence  in  his  section  of  the  city. 

J.  S.  HOUjINGER— Merchants'  Dining  Rooms,  46  South  Diamond  St.,  Allegheny. 

This  excellent  caterer  and  enterprising  man  of  business  opened  his  rooms  in  1876  and  since  that  time  has  fur- 
nished thousands  of  "square"  meals  in  the  highest  style  of  modern  cookery,  at  the  most  reasonable  rates.  His  rooms 
are  models  of  taste  and  cleanliness  and  nothing  is  wanting  on  his  tables  to  satisfy  the  most  fastidious  epicure.  Mr.  Hol- 
linger  occupies  a  building  adapted  to  his  business  in  all  respects,  and  the  stand  being  in  the  Diamond  is  most  eligible. 
His  building  is  20x45  feet.  He  employs  eight  as.sistants,  supplying  the  choicest  delicacies  of  the  season.  Mr.  Hollin- 
ger  was  born  in  Fayette  County,  Pa.,  in  1833  and  came  to  this  city  in  1836.     He  is  a  man  of  worth  and  respectability. 

JAMES  HJJSSm'L'Ly-Boots  and  Shoes,  No.  92  Federal  St..  Allegheny. 

This  enterprising  shoe  dealer  succeeded  the  firm  of  Russel  &  Kahn  in  1869  with  a  large  capital.  The  amount  of  his 
present  stock  may  be  placed  at  $25,000,  and  his  annual  sales  do  not  fail  short  of  $35,000.  These  figures  will  serve  to 
show  the  extent  of  the  trade,  which  is  both  wholesale  and  retail.  Five  salesmen  are  employed,  with  a  weekly  pay-roll 
of  $40.  The  trade  embraces  both  cities,  countyTind  adjacent  regions.  Mr.  Russell  was  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1828  and 
came  to  this  city  in  1854.  He  began  business  here  in  1870  with  his  son-in-law,  Mr.  Kahn,  who  died  in  1877.  Mr. 
Russell  is  an  excellent  man  of  business,  intelligent  and  enterprising. 

(/) _^ 


92  INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

THIRD  NATIONAL  BANK,-/1^05.  146  d  148  Wood  St. 

Justly  ranked  among  the  most  solid  fiduciary  institutions  of  Pittsburgh,  the  Third  National  Bank  takes  a  promi- 
nent phice,  and  exerts  an  active  influence  upon  the  financial  condition  of  this  community.  This  bank  was  organized 
in  186-1,  with  a  capital  of  S300,000,  whit'h  has  subsequently  increased  to  8500,000  as  at  present.  The  management  from  its 
inception  has  undergone  but  comparatively  few  changes.  The  President,  W.  E.  Schmertz,  Esq.,  has  tilled  that  posi- 
tion with  distinction  for  about  14  years.  Mr.  Wm.  Steinmeyer  has  occupied  the  office  of  Cashier  for  more  than  eiglit 
years,  and  though  the  board  of  directors,  from  death  and  other  causes,  has  been  subject  to  the  greatest  mutations,  yet 
the  policy  upon  which  the  institution  was  first  conducted,  has  never  changed,  and  its  wisdom  has  been  amply  demon- 
strated by  a  success  that  is  remarkable  even  among  the  successful.  As  an  evidence  of  this  it  is  but  necessary  to  slate 
that  the  profits  of  the  bank,  as  paid  to  stockholders  in  dividends,  amount  to  nearly  fSOO,000  in  all  since  its  establish- 
ment, leaving  a  present  surplus  of  $145,000.  The  directors,  of  which  the  following  is  a  list,  are  more  than  usually 
prominent  in  their  various  vocations  or  professions,  and  represent  not  only  a  vast  amount  of  wealth,  but  the  solid 
and  conservative  element  of  the  community  :  W.  E.  Schmertz,  Chas.  Meyran,  Geo.  D.  McGrew,  Henry  Dallmeyer, 
Peter  Keil,  Chas.  F.  Wells,  JnQ.  Daub,  A.  C.  Draro,  and  Jno.  M.  Kennedy.  With  such  a  management  the  Third  Na- 
tional Bank  is  a  favorite  institution,  and  while  achieving  success  in  all  legitimate  banking  operations,  has  at  the  same 
time  retained  the  respect  and  consideration  of  the  community. 

UNION  NATIONAL  BANK -^or.  4th  Av.  &  Market  St. 

The  success  that  has  attended  the  career  of  this  well  known  financial  institution  has  been  a  matter  of  frequent  re- 
mark and  in  reviewing  the  monetary  organizations  in  this  city,  a  rank  must  be  accorded  it  among  the  first  cotempora- 
neous  concerns  in  Pittsburgh.  The  Union  National  Bank  commenced  business  under  the  National  Bank  act  of  the 
general  government,  Febrdary  1st,  1865,  with  a  capital  of  $250,000,  and  its  surplus  at  tlie  present  time  is  over  $200,000, 
and  undivided  profits  $35,558  :  a  pretty  healthy  commentary  upon  the  ability  with  which  the  institution  is  managed 
and  the  acumen  that  directs  its  affairs.  Mr.  John  B.  McCune,  a  gentleman  whose  active  interest  in  every  measure 
promotive  of  the  general  good,  has  been  displayed  on  many  occasions,  occupies  the  position  of  chief  executive  officer  of 
the  bank,  and  Mr.  B.  S.  Smith,  assisted  by  C.  F.  Dean,  performs  the  duties  of  cashier  with  tact  and  discrimination. 
The  busine.ss  of  the  Union  National  Bank  is  very  extensive,  the  deposits  averaging  considerably  over  half  a  million 
dollars,  the  loans  and  discounts  at  the  last  statement  being  $712,727.  General  banking  operations  are  transacted,  col- 
lections made  on  all  points  and  exchanges  effected  in  Europe  or  the  East.  Conducted  upon  a  policy  that  involves  the 
highest  commercial  code,  the  Union  National  Bank  is  justly  entitled  to  a  prosperity  achieved,  while  conserving  at  the 
same  time  the  public  confidence,  esteem  and  consideration. 

PH.  HAMBURGER,-/?;/^  and  Bourbon  Whiskies,  29  &  SO  Diamond  Square, 

Mr.  Hamburger  commenced  busine.ss  in  1870,  with  a  comparatively  small  capital,  which  has  since  increased  about 
600  per  cent.  He  occupies  the  entire  three-story  brick  building,  fronting  on  Diamond  Square  24  feet,  and  extending 
back  120  feet,  carrying  a  stock  of  fine  old  Monongahela  Bye  and  Bourbon  Whiskies,  Wines,  Liquors,  Brandies,  Bums, 
Gins,  &c.,  of  both  foreign  and  domestic  manufacture,  valued  at  not  less  than  $25,000.  He  transacts  a  large  and  con- 
stantly increasing  business  througliout  the  two  cities.  Western  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  West  Virginia,  amounting 
to  $100,000  or  $100,2.50  per  annum.  Mr.  Hamburger  gives  his  personal  attention  to  the  business  and  employs  five  assist- 
ants in  the  various  departments  of  his  establishment.  This  house  is  noted  for  the  pure  and  unadulterated  old  Whi.s- 
kies  always  on  liand,  and  the  uniform  reliability  of  all  goods  kept  in  stock.  Mr.  Hamburger  is  a  native  of  Germany, 
but  has  for  many  years  resided  in  this  city,  and  been  actively  engaged  in  business  here. 

R.  DIETZ  &  'BR.O,-Boot  and  Shoe  Manufacturers,  243  Federal  St.,  Allegheny. 

At  243  Federal  street,  west  side,  above  the  parks,  and  adjoining  Geo.  Bitter's,  is  the  boot  and  shoe  store  of  Messrs. 
E.  Dietz  &  Bro.,  who  were  born  in  Germany,  and  emigrated  to  this  country  and  settled  in  Allegheny  in  18G0.  Their 
business  is  carried  on  in  a  large  three-story  brick  building,  20x60  feet  in  size.  Messrs.  Dietz  &  Bro.  both  being  first- 
class  workmen,  they  command  a  large  custom  trade,  and  have  had  a  gradual  increase  in  trade.  Their  stock  of  fine 
French  calf-skin  boots  cannot  be  surpassed  by  any  house  in  the  city.  They  warrant  good  stock  and  neat  fits,  and  do 
what  they  agree. 

A.  ARMOR,— Druggist,  57  Taylor  Av.,  Allegheny. 

The  establishment  of  A.  Armor  is  on  the  corner  of  Taylor  ave.  and  Monterey  street,  on  the  line  of  the  Pleasant 
Valley  Passenger  Bailway.  The  building  is  a  large  and  commodious  two-story  brick  structure.  Mr.  Armor  keeps  a 
choice  assortment  of  pure  drugs  and  perfumeries  which  will  be  sold  at  bottom  figures.  He  has  increased  his  business 
largely,  now  doing  a  trade  of  $5,000  per  year,  with  a  stock  on  hand  of  $4,000.  Mr.  Armor  was  born  in  Guernsey  Co., 
Ohio,  in  1851,  came  to  Allegheny  in  1870,  and  engaged  as  clerk  with  Jos.  Park,  Esq.,  until  1873,  when  he  engaged  in 
business  at  50  Taylor  ave.,  firm  of  Eamsey  &  Armor.  The  firm  was  dissolved  in  1875  by  the  withdrawal  of  Mr.  Bam- 
sey.    In  March,  1878,  Mr.  Armor  removed  to  this  present  location. 

G.  F.  'SA.UER,— Looking  Glasses,  Picture  Frames,  etc.,  87  Beaver  Av.,  Allegheny. 

Every  description  of  Looking  Glasses,  from  the  finest  French  Plate  to  the  more  common  and  less  expensive  grades, 
may  be  fouml  in  great  variety  at  the  establishment  of  Mr.  G.  F.  Bauer,  No  87  Beaver  avenue.  He  also  keeps  a  fine 
assortment  of  I  Uiin  and  colored  Engravings,  Lithographs,  Chromes  and  other  works  of  art  and  manufactures  Picture 
and  Looking  Glass  Frames  in  gilt,  walnut  or  any  material  desired.  He  also  keeps  in  stock  a  full  line  of  frames  suitable 
for  any  kind  of  picture.  The  average  stock  carried  by  him  is  valued  at  about  $500.  He  does  a  flourishing  business, 
which  is  steadily  increasing,  and  with  light  expense  can  offer  rare  inducements. 

JACOB  FTl'EL— Groceries  and  Provisions,  No.  1111  Bradford  St. 

The  Grocery  and  Provision  business  is  of  interest  to  every  family,  and  to  the  citizens  of  the  South  Side,  we  direct 
attention  in  this  work  to  the  House  of  Mr.  Jacob  Pfiel  at  No.  1111  Bradford  street.  You  will  find  here  a  desirable 
assortment  of  Groceries  and  Provisions,  embracing  Teas,  Coffees,  Sugars,  Spices,  Canned  Goods,  Soaps,  Coal  Oil  and  a 
hundred  other  articles  suited  to  house  and  table,  and  can  buy  of  him  on  reasonable  terms.  He  occupies  a  three  story 
brick  building,  18x30  feet  in  size,  and  you  will  find  it  a  pleasant  trading  place.  lie  started  in  business  in  1875  with  a 
limited  capital,  and  has  met  with  a  very  good  trade.  He  was  born  in  Butler  Co.  Pa.,  in  1848  and  came  to  this  city  in 
his  youth. 

(«) 


CITY   OP   PITTSBURGH.  93 


KEVSTOXE  AXLE  WORKS-Ahlborn  &  Neckeman.  Thirty-third  St. 

The  importance  of  a  work  of  tins  character  can  hardly  be  overrated  in  its  compilation  of  the  business  industries  of 
this  city,  especially  when  we  remember  that  in  many  obscure  streets  great  manuractones  are  in  operation,  turning  out 
valualil'e  and  curious  articles  of  which  even  our  own  citizens  are  entirely  ignorant.  The  manufacture  of  iron  axles  for 
buggies,  carriages  and  every  description  of  vehicles  is  extensively  carried  on  in  this  city  by  the  firm  of  Ahlborn  &. 
Neckerman  at  the  KeystoneAxle  Works  on  Thirty-third  St.  In  1864  the  members  of  the  firm  were  engaged  in  the 
manufacture  of  tools  lor  oil  wi-lls  and  in  the  following  year  founded  the  present  company  with  a  capital  invested  of 
824,000.  This  was  the  first  establishment  of  its  kind  started  in  I'ittsburgh,  and  ever  sinceits  inception,  its  business  has 
been  such  as  to  fully  realize  the  most  sanguine  expectations  of  the  tirm.  Their  factory  buildings  cover  an  area  of  78xr.;0 
feet  and  are  furnisiied  with  the  most  complete  and  perfect  machinery  of  every  description  required  in  this  line  of  busi- 
ness, including  a  patent  taper  lathe  for  turning  axles,  the  invention  of  Mr.  Neckerman,  and  used  by  no  other  establish- 
ment in  the  world.  Twenty  skilled  hands  are  constantly  employed  in  the  various  departments  of  the  business,  at  a 
monthly  expense  of  about  SI, 000,  and  one  tliirty  horse-power  engine  furnishes  the  motive  power  Their  trade  is 
throughout  the  West,  extending  to  the  Pacific  Coast  with  a  not  inconsiderable  demand  from  many  of  the  Eastern 
States.  The  articles  manufactured  are  of  a  superior  quality,  both  as  regards  material  used,  style  of  workmanship  and 
finish.  The  inenihcrs  of  the  firm  are  thorough  practical  mechanics,  fully  conversant  witli  all  the  details  and  require- 
ments of  the  business  in  which  they  are  engaged.  Mr.  A  H.  Ahlborn  and  Mr.  Neckerman  are  both  natives  of  Germany 
and  have  been  identified  with  Pittsburgh,  the  former  since  1832  and  Mr.  Neckerman  since  1840.  Mr.  Ahlborn  in  1842 
and  J84:i  assisted  in  the  construction  of  the  Vvon  Ship,  Michigan,  the  first  iron  vessel  ever  built  in  Pittsburgh.  This  was 
shipped  in  pieces  to  Lake  Erie  and  there  put  together.  Mr.  Neckerman  held  the  position  of  master  raeciianic  of  Alle- 
gheny Arsenal  until  the  formation  of  the  partnership  in  which  he  is  now  interested.  Both  members  of  the  firm  are 
gentlemen  of  unimpeachable  integrity,  and  stand  deservedly  high  in  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  the  community. 
They  have  both  held  positions  of  honor  and  trust  to  the  entire  satisfaction  of  their  constituency,  and  as  members  of  the 
city  government  have  always  been  conspicuous  in  their  efforts  to  develop  the  resources  and  increase  the  prosperity  and 
welfare  of  the  municipality.  They  are  both  justly  entitled  to  a  prominent  position  among  the  representative  self-made 
men  of  the  L'on  City. 

BALSLEY  &  IaJJTTOTH,- Notions,  Druggist  Sundries,  Field  &  Parlor  Games, 

(tad  Children's  Carriages,  No,   I'iS  Federal  tit.,  Alle<jlifiiy. 

Perhaps  no  firm  in  either  city  is  more  entitled  to  notice  in  the  particular  line  of  their  business  than  the  House  of 
Messrs.  Balsley  &  Lutton.  With  an  extensive  stock  embracing  all  the  varieties  of  Notions  and  Druggist  Sundries,  Field 
and  Parlor  Games,  Children's  Carriages,  besides  many  other  articles  in  the  way  of  Tiys,  Wooden  and  Wicker  ware,  and 
all  those  countless  articles  included  under  the  nameof  Fancy  Goods,  this  firm,  as  jobbers,  can  well  otter  to  the  tradesuch 
facilities  in  selection,  and  advantages  in  prices  as  can  not  be  duplicated  by  any  house  in  the  city.  The  premises 
occupied  by  the  firm  at  No.  128  Federal  St..  are  most  eligibly  located  and  of  sufficient  dimensions  to  accommodate  a 
stock  ranging  from  $15,000  to  $20,000,  and  att'urd  scope  for  a  rapidly  increasing  trade,  that  already  extends  over  a  large 
part  of  I  hree  States.  The  building  is  a  substantial  three  story  brick,  20x110  feet,  supplied  with  all  the  requisite  appoint- 
ments for  conducting  the  business,  10  assistants  being  engaged  in  the  various  branches  of  the  wholesale  and  retail  de- 
partments. Of  the  individual  members  of  the  firm,  Mr.  Chas.  C.  Balsley  is  the  senior  partner,  he  was  born  in  Pitta- 
burgh  in  1836,  and  has  not  only  been  closely  identified  with  the  industrial  interests  of  the  city,  but  has  acquired  an 
experiejice  of  the  most  comprehensive  character,  the  benefits  of  which  he  is  ever  ready  to  place  at  the  disposal  of  those 
with  whom  he  has  relations.  Mr.  Albert  l^utton  is  also  a  native  of  this  city,  and  though  13  years  younger  than  jMr. 
Balsley,  has  obtained  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  business,  having  been  engaged  in  the  same,  during  the  past  five 
years.  The  firm  was  established  in  1874,  and  has  achieved  an  unexpected  measure  of  success,  leading  to  many  improve- 
ments and  the  general  extension  of  its  resources,  and  added  capacities  for  the  transaction  of  a  flourishing  trade. 
Widely  known  and  respected  it  is  not  too  much  to  assert  that  the  house  of  Balsley  &  Lutton  is  not  only  able  to  conijieie 
in  its  line  with  any  cotemporaneous  concern  in  the  West,  but  has  a  repute  for  enterprise  and  probity  that  makes  it  a 
most  desirable  one,  with  which  to  establish  pleasant  and  permanent  relations. 

E.  W.  REIXECKE'S  EAGLE  PHARMACY,  1930  Carson  St..  S.S. 

This  very  competent  Druggist  has  but  recently  commenced  business,  but  in  a  way  that  plainly  indicates  his  in- 
tention of  remaining  in  it.  He  began  with  a  capital  of  S2,000  and  this  was  invested  in  the  very  best  drugs  and  such  as 
were  especially  adapted  to  the  demands  of  the  trade.  His  stock  at  present  amounts  to  $3,000,  and  this  is  in  constant 
process  of  prudent  enlargement.  The  building  occupied  is  a  three-story  brick  structure  18x70  feet  in  size.  It  is  com- 
plete in  all  details  of  arrangements,  and  evinces  in  every  part  the  taste  and  culture  of  the  proprietor.  The  increasing 
business  of  Mr.  Reinecke  has  rendered  necessary  an  assistant,  while  the  business  essential  to  a  Drug  Store  is  most 
carefully  attended  to.  Prescriptions  are  made  a  specialty  in  the  fullest  sense  of  that  term,  besides  a  great  variety  of 
articles  of  taste  and  luxury,  such  as  toilet  articles,  etc.,  are  found  on  the  shelves  and  in  the  handsome  cases  of  the  es- 
tablishment. The  business,  for  the  most  part,  is  local,  and  yet  extends  even  beyond  this  particular  locality.  Mr. 
Reinecke  was  born  in  this  city  and  has  received  an  education  which  fits  him  for  the  profession  he  has  chosen,  being  a 
gr.iduate  of  the  class  of  '77-'78  Philadelphia  College  of  Pharmacy.  He  possesses  that  thorough  knowledge  of  his  busi- 
ness which  is  .so  indispensable  to  an  accurate  and  reliable  druggist. 

SAMUEL  MAHOOD,— 7>a.j  and  Groceries,  Collins  Av.  &  Station  St.,  East  End. 

Mr.  Mahood  was  formerly  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Voigt  &  Mahood,  Wholesale  Com.  Merchants  on  Liberty  Street, 
Pittsburgh.  In  January,  1878,  he  established  the  "  Golden  Canister  Tea  Emporium  "  at  the  location  above  given,  where 
he  may  now  be  found  with  a  full  assortiuent  of  choice  family  Groceries,  Extra  Family  Flour,  Teas,  Sugars,  Coffees, 
Spices  and  in  fact  every  article  usually  found  in  a  first  class  metropolitan  grocery  store.  He  occupies  a  store  room 
3  '.X.60,  employing  two  assistants,  carrying  a  stock  of  about  S2,000to  $3,000  and  transacting  a  flourishing  business  ot  about 
$10,000  to  §12, 000  per  annum.  He  numbers  among  his  regular  customers  many  of  the  first  families  of  the  East  End. 
Mr.  Mahood  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1839,  but  has  for  many  years  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh. 

WM.  H.  STEWART,  M.  T}.,-Butler  St.,  opp.  CemeryGate. 

Dr.  Stewart  has  his  oflice  on  Butler  St ,  opposite  the  cemetery  gate,  where  he  has  been  in  successful  practice  for  a 
considerable  time,  having  removed  to  that  location  from  Allegheny  City,  where  he  had  previously  been  engaged  in 
practice.  He  was  born  in  Alleghany,  Co.  Md.,  in  1847  and  came  to  Pittsburgh  10  years  ago.  lie  studied  Medicine  with 
J)r.  O.  A.  Nicholson  of  .Mlegheny  City  and  graduated  at  the  Cincinnati  College  of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  after  which 
lie  began  practice  with  his  preceptor.  Dr.  Nicholson,  in  Allegheny  City,  removing  from  there  to  his  present  location 
after  the  death  of  the  latter.  The  Dr.  gained  his  education  and  qualified  himself  for  his  profession  by  his  own  unaided 
effort,  lie  is  a  gentleman  of  the  highest  standing  among  the  medical  fraternity,  enjoying  the  confidence  and  esteem  of 
the  public  and  is  building  up  a  prosperous  practice. 
{d)  


94 


I^"DJ8T^vIES    OF   PEXXSYLYAXIA. 


SOUTH  PITTSBURGH  PLANING  MILL  CO. 

Cor.   Third  &  Chrstnut  Sts.,  Sout?i  Sirle. 

An  establishment  so  extensive  and  promoting  to  such  a  considerable  degree  the  industrial  welfare  of  the  commu- 
nity, as  that  of  the  South  Pittsburs^h  Planing  Mill  Co.,  is  lu'operly  a  subject  for  more  than  passing  mention  in  tliis 
work.  Tlie  Company  was  organized  in  1S71  by  Joseph  Orr,  and  incoporated  under  the  laws  of  Penn'a  with  a  capital 
of  $50,000.  The  plant  is  located  at  the  coruor  of  Third  and  Chestnut  streets,  the  premises  consisting  of  more  than  one 
acre,  most  of  which  is  covered  by  the  buildings,  the  business  being  divided  into  three  departnients,"viz  :  Box  factory, 
sash  and  door  factory  and  lumber  yard.  The  capital  stock  of  the  Company  is  now  increased  to  SS6,000  and  the  trade 
last  year  was  $60,000  or  over.  Thirty  to  forty  men  are  employed  by  the  Company,  whose  earnings  average  weekly 
S2T5.  Tlie  machinery  is  the  best  for  the  purposes  and  is  operated  by  one  eiglity-horse  power  engine.  In  the  manu- 
facture of  flooring,  weather-boarding,  frames,  doors,  sash,  shutters,  mantles,  stairs,  mouldings  and  glass  boxes  this 
Company  excel,  and  also  deal  in  framing  lumber,  shingles  and  laths,  and  execute  to  order  scroll  sawing  and  turning, 
besides  dealing  generally  in  lumber  of  all  descriptions.  The  immediate  management  of  the  business  rests  with  A.  L. 
Sheatler,  President  and  Treasurer  ;  James  8haw,  Secretary  ;  a  board  of  six  directors  exercising  a  general  supervision 
at  stated  times.  Tliat  the  career  of  the  Comjiany  has  been  eminently  successful,  is  owing  in  no  small  degree  to  the 
ability  with  which  its  operative  and  linancial  atlairs  are  conducted,  and  the  reliable  and  enterprising  policy  that  char- 
acterizes its  ))usiness.     The  Company  is  oue  of  tlie  favorite  institutions  upon  the  south  side. 

BOYLE  &  CO -Granite  and  Marble  Works,  295  &  297  Penn  Av. 

Messrs.  Boyle  ife  Co.  are  importers  and  manufacturers  of  Granite  and  Marble  Work  of  every  description,  making 
a  specialty  of  tine  Cemetery  Work,  Monuments,  Grave  Stones,  Tablets,  Statuary,  &c.  The  house  was  founded  in  1S72 
by  Mr.  John  Wilkins,  Jr.,  who  was  succeeded  by  the  present  proprietors  Jan.  1,  1S78,  under  whose  judicious  manage- 
ment the  business  lias  considerably  increased.  They  occupy  the  spacious  and  centrally  located  premises,  45x90,  at 
Nos.  295  and  297  Penn  avenue,  with  suitable  buildings  for  manufacturing  purposes,  sales-room  and  office,  carrying  a 
large  and  judiciously  selected  stock  of  manufactured  articles  and  material  in  tlie  rough,  consisting  of  native  and  for- 
eign granites,  marbles,  etc.,  of  the  various  shades  and  qualities,  turning  out  some  elegant  specimens  of  artistic  work 
pertaining  to  this  line  of  business.  Seven  skilled  workmen  are  regularly  employed,  their  semi-monthly  pay-roll  ag- 
gregating about  S-loO.  Their  trade,  which  is  principally  located  in  the  city  and' suburbs,  amounts  to  not  less  than 
S9,000  per  annum,  and  is  steadily  increasing.  Fine  Gi^anite  and  Marble  work  is  the  specialty  for  which  this  house  is 
noted,  although  every  description  of  stone  work  is  promptly  and  carefully  supplied  for  building  and  other  purposes. 
This  establishment  is  fast  gaining  an  enviable  reputation  for  the  artistic  and  elegant  workmanship  of  their  various 
products,  and  for  their  reasonable  charges.  Some  beautiful  specimens  of  Mr.  Boyle's  skill  are  on  exhiliition  at  his 
ware-rooms.  Mr.  P.  Boyle  was  born  in  Ireland,  in  1835,  and  has  resided  in  Pittsburgh  for  the  past  thirteen  or  fourteen 
years.  He  is  a  practical"  stone  cutter,  and  learned  his  trade  in  Baltimore,  Md.  He  has  worked  at  it  continuously  for 
the  past  twenty  years,  and  is  thoroughly  conversant  with  every  detail  of  the  business. 

W.  G.  STAHJL.-Grain  and  Provision  Broker,  293  Liberty  St. 

Mr.  Stahl  commenced  business  in  this  city  more  than  two  years  ago  as  a  Grain  and  General  Provision  Broker,  con- 
ducting his  business  in  tlie  same  manner  as  similar  dealers  have  donesuccessfully  in  the  great  grain  centres  of  Cliicago 
Milwaukee  and  other  large  cities.  His  business  during  that  period  has  steadily  increased,  and  his  ventures  have  been 
universally  successful  and  uniformly  acceptal)le  to  his  numerous  customers.  Some  idea  of  the  extent  and  magnitude 
of  his  business  may  be  gained  from  the  fact  that  during  the  mouth  of  April,  1879,  his  books  show  that  in  grain  alone 
his  transactions  amounted  to  the  purchase  and  sale  of  over  one  million  one  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  tmshels.  He 
also  does  a  large  brokerage  business  in  the  staudaidand  staple  articles  of  provisions  of  every  description.  His  rela- 
tions and  facilities  are  such  that  he  can  purchase  or  sell  any  given  quantity  of  grain  or  provisions  at  short  noiice  and 
on  the  most  satisfactory  margins.  His  office  is  located  on  the  same  floor  with  that  of  the  Western  Union  Telegraph 
Company,  and  he  is  all  times  in  direct  communication  with  the  Board  of  Trade,  Chambers  of  Commerce  and  heaviest 
operators  in  Milwaukee,  Chicago  and  the  great  grain  centres  of  the  country.  His  business  is  principally  derived  from 
local  demands  and  from  parties  desirous  of  speculating  in  grain  and  provisions,  and  exceeds  by  far  that  of  any  other 
similar  establishment  in  the  city.  Mr.  Stahl  is  an  enterprising  wide  awake  and  energetic  young  man,  a  native  of 
Pennsylvania  and  born  in  1850.  In  the  line  of  business  in  which  he  is  engaged  he  stands  preeniinently  at  the  headand 
his  prospects  for  the  future  are  most  encouraging. 


CENTRAL  BANK,-yi^o.  47  Fifth  Av. 


Among  the  many  cotempovaneous  financial  institutions  in  this  city  the  Central  Bank  has,  since  its  establishment 
in  ISijo,  maintained  a  position  of  undoubted  consideration.  Incorporated  under  the  State  laws,  with  a  capital  of  $100,- 
OOO,  from  its  organization  Thomas  Fawcett,  Esq.,  has  filled  the  position  of  chief  executive  officer.  This  gentleman  is 
largely  engaged  in  the  coal  trade,  in  connection  with  the  firm  of  Thos.  Fawcett  &  Sons,  and  is  associated  with  other 
important  enterprises.  Mr.  Madison  Bailey,  Vice  President,  is  also  extensively  interested  in  the  coal  business,  and  is 
of  the  firm  of  Whigham,  Bailey  A  Co.  March  Hunnings,  Esq.,  Cashier,  has  been  connected  with  the  bank  from  the 
date  of  its  organization,  with  a  prior  experience  in  banking  of  many  years.  Messrs.  A.  Kramer,  Teller,  and  M.  Y. 
Robertson,  Bookkeeper,  are  also  adepts  in  their  respective  departments.  The  operations  of  the  Bank  are  mainly  in  the 
line  of  general  loans,  discounts,  deposits,  exehatige,  Ac,  and  are  of  consideiable  magnitude.  The  management  is 
marked  by  a  safe  and  conservative  policy,  which  has  greatly  aided  the  strength  and  standing  of  the  institution.  Alto- 
gether the  Central  Bank  is  conceded  to  be  one  of  the  most  desirable  monetary  concerns  in  Pittsburgh  with  which  to 
estaldish  relations. 


J.  SCHNEIDER,-Z?/7  Goods,  Gents'  Furnishing  Goods,  &c.,  1785 Carson  St.,  S.  S. 

Mr.  Schneider  commenced  business  with  a  small  capital,  but  has  been  so  succes.'ful  in  the  pursuit  of  legitimate 
gain  that  his  stock  on  hand  m^yr  amounts  to  S15,000,  and  his  annual  sales  range  from  S25,000  to  S35,000.  His  store  con- 
sists of  a  three-story  brick  building  20x60  feet,  besides  a  rear  building  connected  with  the  store,  filled  with  Dry 
Goods,  Trimmings,  Gents'  Furnishing  Goods,  Ac.,  in  which  he  enjoys  a  flourishing  trade  and  general  popularity.  He 
was  born  in  Germany  in  1830,  and  came  to  this  city  in  1864. 


JOHN  W.  'K.'EM.JJER.-Watches,  Clocks,  etc.,  1823  Carson  St. 

Mr.  Kemler,  who  is  located  at  No.  1823  Carson  st.,  near  19th  st.,  commenced  business  in  1861,  without  capital.  He 
has  succeeded  in  building  up  a  trade  which  now  reaches  about  85,000  per  annum,  and  carries  a  stock  of  Watches, 
Clocks,  Spectacles,  Jewelry  and  especially  Opera  Glasses  in  large  variety.  His  store  occupies  a  building  20x55  feet, 
filled  with  neat  and  desirable  goods.  He  was  born  in  Germany,  in  1837,  and  came  to  this  city  in  1844.  He  has  long 
represented  his  ward  in  the  citv  council,  and  has  a  large  influence  in  that  part  of  the  city. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  95 


WASHINGTON  BILCK -Mfr.  of  Glass  Moulds,  Machinery 

for  Pressing  and  Working  Glass,  56,  58  <fc  60  Sixteenth  St.,  South  Side. 
Among  tlie  many  ingenious  and  expert  mechanicians  that  liave  foiiiul  ample  scope  for  their  abilities  in  tliis  city, 
Mr.  Wasliington  Beck,  especially  in  that  particular  branch  of  bis  trade  which  relates  to  the  manufacture  of  glass  moulds 
and  presses,  luacbinery  for  pressing  and  working  glass,  is  said  to  have  no  compeer.  This  reputation  has  been  justly 
earned  by  twenty  years  of  constant  application,  labor  and  invention.  The  bu.siness  having  been  estaldishcd  in  18.59 
ufio"  a  linjited  scale,  has  increased  gradually  under  the  influence  of  more  prosperous  conditions  to  its  present  n)agni- 
tude.  Tlie  premises  occupied  by  Mr.  Beck  at  present  are  certainly  in  great  contrast  with  the  original  slioji,  and  con- 
sist of  one  large  two-story  building  60x80  feet,  thoroughly  equipi>ed  with  the  best  machinery  known  to  the  trade, 
much  of  it  being  entirely  new  in  device  and  invented  by  the  proprietor  to  accomplish  certain  given  objects.  Hero  are 
employed  twenty  skilled  mechanics  whose  weekly  earnings  average  from  $200  to  82.'50  ;  a  ten-hoise  power  engine  being 
retiuired  to  supply  the  motive  forc<^.  As  an  illustration  of  the  special  character  of  the  bulk  of  the  work  it  may  be 
stated  that  since  Jan.  1,  1879,  or  within  six  months,  Mr.  Beck  has  been  awarded  no  less  than  nine  patents  for  machi- 
nery appliances  and  devices  lelating  to  the  improved  manipulation  and  manufacture  of  glass,  and  the  main  part  of  the 
business  consists  in  a  constant  succession  of  new  designs  and  inventions  tending  to  the  more  perfect  and  rapid  handling 
of  this  material  in  all  its  various  forms.  Mr.  Beck  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh  and  was  born  on  the  south  side  in  18o!). 
The  reputation  be  has  established  is  not  confined  to  this  country,  but  leads  to  a  business  in  Europe,  Canada  and 
Japan,  wbicli  aggregaies  from  $20,000  to  S2."), 000  annually.  With  the  largest  establishment  of  the  kind  in  the  Unitivl 
States  and  facilities  that  are  unapproached  anywhere,  Mr.  Beck's  enterprise  is  universally  appreciated  by  the  glass 
trade. 

DELAWARE  MUTUAL  SAFETY  INS.  CO.  of  Philadelphia, 

p.  A.  Mndcira,  Agent,  Uranch  Office,  08  Fourth  Av. 

Tlie  Delaware  commenced  business  in  183.5  with  a  guarantee  cai)ital  of  $100,000,  subscription  notes,  twenty-five  per 
cent,  paid  in  in  cash.  In  1848  the  assets  of  tlie  Comjiany  amounted  to  $223,0.5:5.00  ;  in  1858  by  resolution  of  the  board  of 
directors  the  guarantee  capital  was  discontinued  and  a  cash  capital  of  $300,000  substituted,  made  up  of  seventy-five  per 
cent,  in  the  scrip  of  the  Company  and  twenty-five  per  cent,  in  cash.  In  18.58  the  assets  of  the  Company  amounted  to 
$698,801.70,  they  are  now  over  $2,000,000.  The  Delaware  is  the  oldest  and  most  successful  Company  in  America,  com- 
bining a  cash  capital  with  the  mutual  jjrinciple  whereby  the  assured  participates  in  the  profits,  without  incurring  any 
liability  whatever  Ijeyond  the  premium  paid.  As  to  the  conditions  on  which  scrip  is  issued  refer  to  published  stalc- 
inents  of  the  Coiniiany.  In  1844  an  agency  for  the  Company  was  established  fn  this  city,  and  five  years  later  Mr.  P.  A. 
i^ladeira  became  its  representative,  and  for  thirty  years  the  relations  he  then  bore  to  the  concern  have  remained  in 
every  material  jioint  unchanged,  a  circumstance  as  unusual  as  it  is  satisfactory.  Tbn  Delaware  is  no  fair  weather  craft, 
calculated  to  navigate  only  in  calm  and  placid  waters,  but  has  bulfetted  the  fiery  billows  for  nearly  forty-lour  years, 
with  what  success  a  reference  to  the  present  condition  of  the  Company  will  show. 

J,  C.  BUFFUM  &  CO. -Manufacturers  and  Bottlers,  89  d  41  Market  St. 

For  more  than  thirty  years  the  name  of  Mr.  BufTum  has  been  identified  in  this  city  with  the  manufacture  of  Soda 
Water,  Syrups,  Root  Beer  and  Ginger  Ale,  and  with  the  bottling  business  which  has  become  one  of  considerable  mag- 
nitude and  importance.  Starting  in  1845  witii  moderate  means  the  bu.siness  of  this  house  has  steadily  increased  until 
at  the  present  time  thirty-five  to  forty  hands  are  employed  with  a  weekly  pay-roll  aggregating  more  than  $300,  and 
nine  wagons  are  engaged  in  delivering  goods  to  customers  in  the  two  cities  and  to  the  various  railroad  dejiots,  to  supply 
their  country  customers.  An  average  stock  of  not  less  than  $30,000  to  $40,000  is  carried  by  this  firm,  and  their  annual 
s  lies  will  reach  $50,000.  Messrs.  Butfuin  &  Co.  manufacture  a  superior  article  of  Soda  Water  and  choice  fruit  syrups 
of  every  flavor,  Weiss  Beer,  Ginger  Ale  and  Root  Beer,  and  bottle  immense  quantities  of  Ale,  Cider,  Lager  Beer,  Por- 
ter, &.C.,  making  a  specialty  of  the  best  grades  of  Cincinnati  and  Milwaukee  Lager  Beer  for  table  and  family  use.  They 
import  direct  large  invoices  of  the  stamlard  articles  of  English  and  Scotch  Ales,  Brown  Stout  and  London  Porter  in 
the  wooil  and  bottle  for  the  trade,  hotels  and  families.  Their  Weiss  Beer  has  attained  a  very  high  reputation  and  is 
liighly  recommended  for  its  superior  quality  and  general  excellence.  They  have  one  engine  and  all  the  necessary 
machinery  recjuisite  in  their  extensive  estahlisliment,  which  is  located  in  the  spacious  double  three-story  warehouse 
40x100  feet  with  cellars,  at  Nos.  39  to  41  Market  street.  This  is  one  of  the  oldest,  most  extensive  and  best  known  es- 
tablishments of  the  kind  in  the  West,  and  the  high  estimation  in  which  the  house  is  held  has  been  secured  by  the 
energy,  enterprise  and  reliability  of  the  firm  and  the  superior  quality  of  all  goods  manufactured  and  sold  by  them. 

SPEER  Sc  MORGAN,— r/w,  d  Copperware,  etc.,  75  Frankstown  near  Station. 

These  gentlemen  commenced  business  on  a  moderate  capital,  which  their  increasing  trade  has  enabled  them  to 
augment  considerably.  They  carry  a  full  stock  of  Stoves,  Ranges,  (irate  Fronts  and  House  Furnishing  Goods,  and 
manufacture  Tin,  Cojiper  and  Sheet  Iron  ware,  giving  special  attention  to  roofing  and  spouting ;  their  annual  sales  are 
from  $3,0tK)  to  $t,000.  The  store  occupied  by  them,  and  well  filled  with  attractive  and  substantial  wares,  is  18x.50  feet 
in  size.  The  firm  consists  of  Jolin  Spoer  and  Oliver  Morgan,  young  and  energetic  merchants.  Their  business  prom- 
ises to  take  a  front  rank  in  tlie  East  Eml.  Both  gentlemen  are  natives  of  this  city,  Mr.  Speer  having  been  born  in  1848 
and  Mr.  Morgan  in  1847.  Mr.  Speer  served  with  honor  throughout  the  rebellion  in  the  5th  Fenn'a  heavy  artillery; 
both  genlleuien  stand  deservedly  high  in  the  community. 

CRUIKSHANK  ^HOS.-Grocers,  Cor.  Monterey  St.  and  Taylor  Av.,  Allegheny. 

These  two  young  and  enterprising  merchants  opened  this  establishment  early  in  the  present  year  with  from  $2,000 
to  $2, .500  worth  of  well  selected  stock,  eml)racing  every  variety  of  Groceries,  Canned  Fruits  and  Vegetables,  and  an 
excellent  assortment  of  all  articles  found  in  a  first-class  grocery  and  produce  house.  They  occupy  a  well  located 
brick  building,  and  employ  one  hand  in  addition  to  their  own  services,  which  they  give  exclusively  to  the  business. 
George  L.  CruikshanI;  was"  born  in  Allegheny,  in  1856,  and  his  brother,  John  F.,  in  1869.  They  are  both  thoroughly 
acquainted  with  all  the  details  and  requirements  of  the  grocery  trade,  and  are  both  persevering  and  progressive  busi- 
ness men,  and  do  a  trade  of  about  $25,000  per  annum.  They  are  courteous  and  polite  to  everyone,  and  popular  with 
all  who  have  dealings  with  them. 

MRS.  J.  A.'R^OTJ}, -Books,  Stationery  &  Fancy  Goods,  98  Federal  St.,  Allegheny. 

TMrs.  Arnold  commenced  business,  at  her  present  location,  in  March,  I860.  She  occupies  a  throe-story  brick 
building,  20x60,  with  a  finely  selected  assortment  of  Books  in  great  variety.  Stationery,  Toys  and  Fancy  Articles. 
,  Here  may  be  found  the  most  elegant  and  recherche  styles,  and  large  variety  for  children  and  grown  people.  Mrs. 
J  Arnold  was  born  in  Ireland,  Jan.  6,  1827,  and  has  resided  in  Allegheny  City  since  1834. 


96  LNDUSTRLES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

CITY  INSURANCX:  CO.  of  the  City  of  Pittsburgh -Office.  64  Fourth  Av. 

Incorporated  April  1870,  as  a  Fire,  Mariue  and  Inland  Insurance  Company,  this  institution  comitienced  business 
December  15,  1870,  and  through  nil  tlie  commercially  disastrous  periods  since,  has  continued  yearly  to  augment  and 
increase  its  operations  and  its  usefulness,  until  it  is  now  regarded  as  one  of  the  substantial  associations  of  the  Iron  city. 
Robert  J.  Anderson,  Esij.,  President,  is  well  known  throughout  the  country  as  a  steel  manufacturer  of  unsurpassed 
energy  and  public  enterprise,  whose  works  in  extent  and  capacity  will  rank  with  tlie  most  extensive  in  the  world. 
Capt.  R.  J.  Grace,  the  Vice  President  and  General  Agent,  is  known'as  an  able  underwriter ;  the  Treasurer,  Mr.  Wilson 
Cunningham,  is  one  of  tlie  solid  men  of  our  city,  having  been  at  the  head  of  the  glass  manufacturing  business  for  a 
number  of  years,  and  adds  strength  and  stability  to  the  organization  ;  and  Jolin  R.  Gloninger,  Esq.,  Secretary  ;  all 
being  well  and  favorably  known  to  the  public.  It  is  in  no  small  degree  owing  to  tlieir  exertions  that  the  City  Insur- 
ance Company  has  made  so  admirable  a  reputation  as  a  reliable  and  healthy  institution;  With  a  paid  up  cash  capital 
of  $100,000  and  assets  that  reach  nearly  double  that  sum,  the  business  of  the  Company  has  been  uniformly  prosper- 
ous, doing  a  moderate  agency  business  with  conservatism  and  prudence,  and  lias  been  equally  successful  in  this  branch; 
one  of  the  most  active  and  successful  agencies  being  conducted  by  Messrs.  Wm.  L.  Tete  &  Co.,  whose  office  is  located 
at  129  Soutb  4th  street,  Philadolpliia.  Managed  by  so  proficient  a  corps,  to  whose  prpbity  and  discernment  is  added 
the  advice  of  a  board  of  directors,  who  are  eliosen  from  among  the  leading  citizens  in  various  pursuits,  who  have  made 
its  career  so  brilliant  in  the  past;  a  more  favorable  condition  of  general  finance  and  trade  must  redound  to  its  benefit 
to  a  marked  degree,  and  insure  a  growth  and  importance  commensurate  with  the  ability  of  its  management  and  liberal 
policy. 

McCORD  &  CO.~Wholesale  &  Retail  Hats,  Gaps,  Furs,  &c..  131  Wood  St. 

The  origin  of  this  house  dates  back  to  1798,  when  the  business  was  established  by  Mr.  Robert  Peeples  and  con- 
ducted by  hiin  for  about  eighteen  years,  when  he  withdrew,  after  a  career  of  20  years,  in  favor  of  McKee  &  Graham, 
who  in  turn  were  succceeded  by  McLain,  King&  McCord  in  1833.  This  firm  continued  for  some  time,  changing  finally 
to  McCord  &  King,  and  at  last  to  the  present  style  and  status  which  lias  remained  practically  unaltered  for  many 
ye:irs  ;  the  several  members  of  the  house  being  Jolin  D.,  James  S.,  James  E.  and  Andrew  McCord.  The  premises  oc- 
cupied are  situated  as  above  and  consist  of  one  extensive  five-story  building  stocked  to  the  value  of  $50,000,  with  every 
variety  of  Hats,  Caps,  Furs  and  Straw  Goods,  pertaining  to  a  thoroughly  managed  concern  in  this  line.  It  is  not  the 
province  of  this  work  to  deal  in  fulsome  laudation,  but  in  this  case  it  is  sate  to  assert  that  while  no  concern  in  the 
city  occupies  a  more  respectable  position,  none  has  been  conducted  upon  a  more  conservative,  safe  and  honorable  pol- 
icy, and  this  statement  is  due  as  much  to  its  predecessors  as  the  present  firm.  With  such  characteristics  and  a  career 
extending  over  four-fifths  of  a  century,  it  is  a  natural  sequence  that  the  business  of  the  house  should  be  as  extensive 
as  it  is  in  this  respect  reaching  for  its  trade  not  only  throughout  Penn'a,  but  the  adjacent  States,  and  in  every  way 
standing  at  the  head  of  its  cotemporaries,  both  in  the  advantages  offered  to  buyers  and  the  general  range  and  quality 
of  goods. 

DIAMOND  NATIONAL  BANK -^or.  5th  Av.  &  Liberty  St. 

Originally  organized  as  the  Diamond  Savings  Bank  in  1870 — the  scope  and  Increasing  prosperity  of  its  first  years 
led  to  its  re-construction  in  1875  as  a  National  Bank,  since  which  time  the  success  of  the  insf-itution  has  been  so  pro- 
liouiieed  as  to  rank  it  among  the  first  financial  concerns  in  the  Iron  City.  The  management  is  placed  in  the  hands  of 
Mr.  A.  Garrison,  of  the  firm  of  A.  Garrison  &  Co.,  as  PresidciS*;  Wm.  M.  Hersh,  Esq.,  Vice  President,  and  Mr.  John 
H.  SouUy,  Cashier;  with  a  board  of  directors  composed  of  men  prominent  and  esteemed  in  their  respective  vocations. 
With  a  capital  stock  of  1200,000  and  deposits  to  the  amount  of  $327,224.44,  loans  and  discounts  $332,470.69,  surplus  and 
undivided  profits  $7,310.23,  it  may  readily  be  seen  that  the  Diamond  National  Bank  is  governed  by  a  rigid  conserva- 
tive policy — so  much  so  that  no  customer  is  allowed  to  borrow  more  than  $5,000  upon  the  same  endorsements.  Under 
tiiese  circumstances  the  bank  is  regarded  upon  a  par  with  many  of  its  cotemporaries  who  perhaps  seek  to  occupy  a 
more  conspicuous  position. 

HENRY  jyAVB-Fashiomble  Merchant  Tailor,  Cor.  38th  &  Butler  Sts. 

Mr.  Daub  began  business  in  1861  in  partnership  with  Henry  Cappel,  under  the  firm  name  of  Daub  &.  Cappel ;  at 
that  time  they  were  located  at  No.  185  Smithfield  street.  In  1805  Mr.  Cappel  retired  from  the  firm  and  the  business 
was  continued  by  Mr.  Daub  until  1871,  when  he  removed  to  the  large  three-story  brick  building  on  the  corner  of  38th 
and  Butler  streets  ;  he  carries  $4,500  worth  of  stock  and  does  a  local  business  of  about  $12,000,  in  good  times  more.  Mr. 
D.iub  was  born  in  Germany  in  the  year  1830,  came  to  the  United  States  in  1849.  He  has  figured  considerably  in  the 
local  politics  of  the  city — lie  was  a  member  of  the  City  Council  in  18G8-9,  was  also  a  member  of  the  School  Board  at  the 
same  time  and  still  is,  from  the  loth  ward.  Mr.  Daub  is  and  has  been  for  several  years  a  Director  of  the  Metropolitan 
National  Bank  of  the  17th  Ward  ;  is  President  of  the  Enterprise  Insurance  Company  of  this  city. 

JOHN  H.  "DJlhlX -Groceries  &  Flour,  91  Rebecca  St.,  Allegheny. 

Desirably  located  in  a  populous  section  of  the  beautiful  city  of  Allegheny,  the  Grocery,  Flour  and  Produce  House 
of  Mr.  .Tohii  H.  Dean  is  worthy  of  notice  in  a  work  devoted  to  the  business  interests  of  the  two  cities.  This  house  was 
established  in  1874  by  the  present  proprietor  with  moderate  means  and  in  a  comparatively  small  way,  but  during  the 
p  ist  five  years  liis  trade  has  steadily  increased  and  he  now  transacts  an  annual  business  "of  not  less  than  $30,000.  He 
occupies  the  two-story  brick  building  18x45  at  No.  91  Rebecca  street,  carrying  a  stock  of  about  $3,500  comprising  a  full 
line  <)f  choice  family  groceries,  fruits,  sugars,  coffees,  teas,  spices  and  extra  brands  of  fiour.  Mr.  Dean  gives  hispersonal 
attention  to  the  business  and  employs  two  assistants.  His  trade  is  of  the  better  class  and  is  steadily  increasing  from 
year  to  year.  Mr.  Dean  is  a  nativi  of  Pittsburgh,  and  was  born  in  1853.  He  is  an  energetic  and  reliable  business  man 
thoroughly  conversant  wit.li  the  business  in  which  he  is  engaged. 

ELWOOD  &  McCRACKEN,-^ra>?  Merchants,  365  Liberty  St. 

The  firm  of  El  wood  &  McCracken  have  a  standing  in  the  grain  and  feed  trade  and  extensive  business  that  gives  them 
a  prominence  entitled  to  due  consideration.  Established  with  a  fair  capital  by  R.  D.  Elwoodaud  B.  McCracken  under 
the  above  style,  in  1873,  the  firm  with  a  comprehensive  knowledge  and  experience  in  the  business,  devoted  itself  par- 
ticularly to  handling  Hour,  feed,  grain,  seeds  and  wool,  making  a  specialty  of  rye.  Their  excellent  business  capacity 
has  enabled  them  to  reach  the  sum  of  $150,000  annually.  The  business  premises  are  capacious  and  consist  of  one  large 
three-story  brick  edifice  25x110  feet.  Mr.  Elwood  is  a  Pennsylvanian,  and  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1872;  Mr.  McCracken 
has  been  a  resident  of  this  city  for  20  years,  and  l)Oth  liave  had  art  active  and  successful  career.  Referring  to  the  Second 
National  Bank,  and  Allen,  Kirkpatrick  &  Co.,  this  city,  and  James  Steel  &  Co.,  Philadelphia,  the  firm  is  esteemed  for 
its  thorough  reliability. 

(a) 


CITY   OP   PITTSBUEGH.  97 


A.  &  T.  M.'K.H'N'NA-Brass  Founders,  No.  122  Third  Ave. 

Every  description  of  fine  Brass-work  is  manufactured  by  this  well  known  house,  which  was  established  in  1856,  by  A. 
&  J.  M'Kenna,  who  were  succeeded  in  1875  by  the  present  proprietors.  The  capital  invested  in  the  business  is  818,000  and 
their  annual  sales  reach  about  835,000.  They  occupy  three  floors,  each  30x85,  at  122  Third  Ave.,  and  their  business  is 
confined  exclusively  to  brass  work,  of  which  they  manufacture  and  carry  in  stock  a  large  assortment,  consisting  in  part 
of  Ale  and  Beer  Cocks,  Foot  Rails,  Counter  Rails,  Back  Rails,  Window  Guards,  Door  Pulls,  &c.  They  are  also  exclusive 
manufacturers  of  M'Kenua's  Patent  Combination  Pump  and  Ventilating  Faucet  for  drawing  and  preserving  Ale  and 
Beer.  These  articles  are  made  with  great  care  and  specially  adapted  for  the  Saloon  and  Liquor  trade.  This  Faucet 
was  patented  by  Mr.  M'Kenna,  and  is  no  longer  an  experiment,  as  over  seven  thousand  are  now  in  use  all  over  the 
United  States,  and  in  every  instance  they  give  perfect  satisfaction.  This  firm  also  make  a  specialty  of  fitting  up  Show 
Windows  with  movable  and  stationary  Rails,  Brackets,  &c.,  such  as  are  used  by  Tailors,  Furnishing  stores.  Millineries, 
Hatters  and  Variety  stores.  They  employ  fifteen  skilled  workmen  in  their  manufacturing  department,  with  a  weekly 
pay  roll  amounting  to  about  $200.  One  eight  horse-power  Engine  furnishes  the  motive  power  for  their  machinery, 
which  is  of  the  best  and  most  approved  pattern.  The  trade  of  this  house  is  in  more  than  thirty  states,  and  the  superior 
quality  of  their  goods  have  given  them  a  national  reputation.  They  sell  more  goods  at  present  in  St.  Louis  than  in 
any  other  city.  Mr.  A.  M'Kenna  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1832,  but  he  has  resided  iu  Pittsburgh  since  he  was  two  years 
of  age.    Mr.  1".  M'Kenna  is  a  native  and  lifelong  resident  of  Pittsburgh,  where  he  was  born  in  1836. 

C.  p.  CAMB'BELL—lf^surance  Agent,  No.  46  Wood  St. 

Mr.  Campbell  has  been  engaged  in  the  Insurance  business  in  Pittsburgh  since  1875,  and  now  represents  some  of  the 
leading  Companies  of  Europe  and  America,  among  which  we  may  mention  The  North  German  of  Hamburgh,  Germany, 
with  a  capital  of  $1,125,000.  The  New  York  City  of  New  York,  cash  capital  1300,000.  The  Clinton  of  New  York,  cash 
capital  $250,000.  The  Trade  of  New  Jersey,  capital  $200,000.  The  Merchants,  and  Mechanics  of  Virginia,  capital 
$250,000,  and  others  equally  reliable.  His  business,  which  is  principally  in  Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny,  amounts  to 
about  $22,000  per  annum  in  premiums.  Mr.  Campbell  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  1852,  and  is  a  lifelong  resident  of  the 
city.    His  business  will  compare  favorably  with  that  of  any  other  agent  in  the  city. 

H.  HOLTZMAX,  (formerly  Holtzman  &  Wiederhold,)  Practical  Decorotive  upholsterer,  74  Wood  St. 

The  reputation  of  Mr.  Holtzman,  as  a  practical  Upholsterer,  during  twenty  years  experience  in  Pittsburgh,  has  be- 
come so  well  established,  that  it  would  be  a  work  of  supererogation  to  comment  upon  it,  in  a  work  of  this  description. 
The  house  of  Holtzman  and  Wiederhold  was  established  in  1859,  and  for  twenty  years  it  has  sustained  the  reputation  of 
being  the  leading  Upholstery  Establishment  of  Pittsburgh.  In  January  1879,  Mr.  Wiederhold  retired  from  the  firm, 
and  the  business  is  now  conducted  by  Mr.  Holtzman,  who  occupies  four  floors  of  the  building.  No.  74  Wood  St.,  each 
14x55,  carrying  a  stock  of  about  $8,000,  comprising  every  description  of  Window  Decorations,  Lace  Curtains  and  Lam- 
brequins, Cornices  and  Cornice  Poles  of  the  Queen  Anne  and  Eastlake  Styles,  and  new  and  elegant  designs  in  Walnut, 
Ebony,  Ash,  Gilt  and  Brass,  Spring  Beds  and  Mattresses  of  all  kinds.  Comforts,  Pillows,  &c.  He  pays  special  attention 
to  fitting  and  putting  down  carpets,  cleansing  lace  curtains,  &c.  His  yearly  trade  amounts  to  about  $30,000  to  $50,000, 
and  he  gives  employment  to  fourteen  hands  in  his  two  departments  of  Upholstery,  Cornice  and  Drapery  rooms,  which 
latter  department  is  the  specialty  of  this  house.  Mr.  Holtzman  was  born  in  Alsace,  then  a  portion  of  France,  in  1835. 
He  came  to  this  country  in  1855,  and  to  Pittsburgh  the  same  year,  where  he  has  since  resided. 

JOHN*  THOMA -Leather  and  Shoe  Findings,  74  Smithfield  St. 

The  trade  in  Leather  and  Shoe  Findings,  and  the  manufacture  of  Boot,  Shoe  and  Gaiter  Uppers  is  carried  on  to  a 
considerable  extent  in  Pittsburgh,  and  forms  no  inconsiderable  item  of  her  annual  trade  and  commerce.  One  of  the 
principal  merchants  engaged  in  this  line  of  business,  is  Mr.  John  Thoma,  who  occupies  three  floors  of  the  building, 
20x55  feet,  situated  at  74  Smithfield  St.,  giving  steady  employment  to  two  experienced  hands,  and  carrying  an  average 
stock  amounting  in  value  to  about  $10,000,  Mr.  Thoma  was  born  in  Germany  in  1825.  He  arrived  in  America  in  the 
year  1852  and  located  in  Pittsburgh  in  1855.  In  1865  he  commenced  business  for  himself  and  now  transacts  an  annual 
business  of  $18,000  to  $20,000,  which  compares  favorably  with  that  of  any  similar  establishment  in  the  Iron  City.  His 
trade  is  principally  local,  and  the  manufacture  of  Uppers  is  one  of  the  specialties  of  this  House. 

SNIVELY  &  RA'DCUTT'E.-Wall  Paper,  173  Smithfield  Street. 

One  of  the  leading  houses  engaged  in  the  Wall  Paper  business  in  Pittsburgh  is  that  of  Snively  and  Radcliffe,  whole- 
sale and  retail  dealers  in  Wall  Paper,  Window  Shades,  Shade  Cloth,  Oil  Cloths,  Ac,  at  No.  173  Smithfield  street.  This 
house  was  established  in  1876,  by  the  present  proprietors,  Mr.  John  S.  Snively  and  Mr.  Wm.  Radcliffe,  both  natives  of 
Allegheny  county  and  residents  of  Pittsburgh  since  childhood.  They  carry  a  stock  of  goods  pertaining  to  their  line 
valued  at  about  $6,000,  and  transact  a  yearly  business,  principally  of  a  local  nature,  amounting  to  about  $15,000.  The 
size  of  their  salesroom  Is  19x60  feet,  and  the  specialty  of  this  house  is  Wall  Paper,  of  which  they  keep  aiull  line  of  all 
the  latest  styles  and  most  desirable  patterns. 

A.  A.  HUTCHINSON  &  BRO.-^oj/  and  Coke,  No.  94  Fifth  Avenue. 

The  superiority  of  the  celebrated  Connellsville  Coke,  for  foundries,  blast  furnaces,  breweries  and  other  large  manu- 
facturing establishments,  is  well  known  in  almost  every  section  of  the  United  States,  and  the  manufacture  and  ship- 
ment of  the  same  constitutes  a  very  important  item  of  the  business  interests  of  the  Smoky  City.  One  of  the  largest 
concerns  engaged  in  this  branch  of  business  is  that  of  A.  A.  Hutchinson  &  Bro.,  the  members  of  the  firm  being  Messrs. 
A.  A.  &  T.  B.  Hutchinson.  The  firm  was  established  by  its  present  members  in  1872,  and  their  office  is  now  located  at 
No.  94  Fifth  Av.  They  are  very  extensively  engaged  in  the  mining  of  the  well  known  Connellsville  Coal  and  the  manu- 
facture of  a  superior  article  of  Coke  therefrom,  for  which  they  were  awarded  a  diploma  and  medal  at  the  late  Centennial 
Exposition  in  Philadelphia.  Their  mines,  which  are  known  as  the  "Globe"  and  "Standard"  Mines,  are  located  in  the 
line  of  theMt.  Pleasant  R.  R.,  near  Broadford,  Fayette  co.,  Pennsylvania,  one  tract  measuring  one  hundred  and  seventy- 
five  acres,  and  another  one  hundred  and  fifty  acres,  from  which  a  very  superior  article  of  coal  is  obtained,  capacity 
350  tons  Coke  per  day.  They  employ  at  their  mines  two  hundred  hands  and  their  monthly  pay-roll  aggregates  about 
$8,000.  The  demand  for  their  Coke  is  principally  west  and  in  the  various  manufacturing  towns  and  cities  on  the  Ohio 
River,  although  they  ship  to  all  parts  of  the  United  States,  both  East  and  West,  from  the  cities  of  the  Seaboard  to  Salt 
Lake  City.  The  amount  of  capital  invested  by  this^irm  is  over  $150,000  and  their  annual  trade  varies  from  $150,000  to 
$200,000.  Mr.  A.  A.  Hutchinson  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1844,  and  Mr.  T.  B.  Hutchinson  two  years  later.  They 
arrived  in  this  country  in  1850  and  came  to  Pittsburgh  the  same  year  and  have  resided  in  the  city  ever  since. 

1  (7) 


98  ENDUSTRIES    OP   PENNSYLVANIA. 

JAMES  MILLIKEN  &  CO -Furniture,  No.  89  Smith  field  St. 

So  much  pride  is  now  taken  in  the  ornamentation  of  our  homes,  that  Fine  Furniture  has  become  an  indispensable 
article  to  all  who  desire  to  keep  up  with  the  progressive  spirit  of  the  ago. 

Prominent  among  the  business  houses  of  the  Iron  City  engaged  in  this  line  of  trade  is  that  of  James  Millikcn  &  Co., 
at  No.  89  Sniithfield  Street,  (Howard  Block).  This  firm  was  established  in  1875  by  the  present  proprietors,  Messrs.  James 
and  A.  Millikin.  Both  gentlemen  are  natives  of  Ireland.  The  senior  partner  came  to  the  United  States  in  1856  and  set- 
tled in  Pittsburgh,  and  the  junior  member  of  the  firm  ten  years  later.  They  occupy  four  stories  and  the  basement  18  by 
60,  and  their  large  and  elegant  stock  is  selected  with  great  care, — beauty  of  design,  durability  and  general  excellence 
being  the  desideratum  always  in  view.  The  members  of  the  firm  give  their  personal  attention  to  the  business,  and 
three  assistants  are  required  in  their  sales  department.  This  business,  which  is  that  of  general  Furniture  dealers,  is 
largely  local,  although  they  have  quite  an  extensive  trade  in  Western  Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio  and  West  Virginia. 
Notwithstanding  the  general  depression  in  business  and  the  unprecedented  competition  in  their  particular  line,  their 
sales  during  the  past  year  have  been  large,  and  all  the  indications  for  the  future  are  very  flattering. 

M.  W.  'RK'N'KTN— Wholesale  Grocer  &  Commission  Merchant,  No.  10  Smifhfield  St. 

Mr.  Rankin,  who  occupies  the  four-story  warehouse  21x76,  at  No.  10  Smithfield  street,  (opposite  the  Monongahela 
House,)  is  a  native  of  Ohio,  having  been  born  in  the  "Buckeye  State"  in  1826.  He  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1845,  and  ten 
years  later  founded  the  business  in  which  he  is  now  engaged.  He  carries  a  stock  ranging  from  $12,000  to  $15,000,  and 
transacts  a  yearlj'  business  of  from  $75,000  to  $100,000,  employing  four  hands.  His  trade  is  principally  in  Ohio  and  Penn- 
sylvania, and  in  addition  to  the  line  of  goods  directly  pertaining  to  the  Grocery  business,  he  deals  extensively  in  Provi- 
sions, Cheese,  Carbon  and  Lard  Oils,  etc.,  etc. 


W.  J.  CASHHir, -Groceries,  Provisions,  &c.,  No.  25  Smithfield  St. 

There  are  in  Pittsburgh  a  large  number  of  business  houses,  whose  principal  trade  is  connected  with  tne  River  in- 
terests, furnishing  supplies  to  the  vast  fleet  of  steamboats,  which  make  Pittsburgh  their  headquarters.  Prominent 
among  the  establishments  making  this  branch  of  trade  a  specialty,  is  the  house  of  Mr.  W.  J.  Caskey,  located  at  No.  25 
Smithfield  street,  in  convenient  proximity  to  the  Monongahela  Wharf,  which  is  the  general  rendezvous  of  steamboat 
and  river  men. 

Mr.  Caskey  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  1843,  and  having  always  resided  here,  has  a  very  large  acquaintance  among 
the  business  men  of  his  native  city.  In  1874  he  commenced  business  for  himself,  and  his  career  since  that  time  has  been 
marked  by  a  degree  of  success  which  has  been  truly  encouraging.  He  occupies  three  entire  floors  of  the  spacious  ware- 
house, 20x85  feet,  at  the  number  above  mentioned,  where  with  a  stock  averaging  from  $8,000  to  $10,000,  his  annual  sales 
reach  from  $40,000  to  $50,000.  Mr.  Caskey  employs  four  assistants,  and  his  local  trade,  in  addition  to  that  derived  from 
the  River,  is  large  and  steadily  increasing. 

MELLOR  &  HENRICKS,-A'^«05  and  Organs,  No.  79  Fifth  Avenue. 

For  nearly  half  a  century  the  name  of  "Mellor"  has  been  familiar  to  the  musical  portion  of  the  community  of  this 
section  of  the  country,  for  in  1831  Mr.  John  H.  Mellor  established  himself  in  the  Smoky  City  as  a  dealer  in  Pianos  and 
Musical  ISIerchandise,  since  which  time  the  business  has  continued  in  tlie  family  name  with  but  few  variations  in  the 
style  of  the  firm.  In  1878  Mr.  Charles  C.  Mellor,  at  that  time  sole  proprietor  of  the  establishment,  disposed  ot  his  inter- 
est in  the  sheet  music  and  smaller  instrument  department  to  Mr.  Geo.  Kappel,  and  associated  with  himself  Mr.  J.  R. 
Henricks  for  the  purpose  of  dealing  exclusively  in  Pianos  and  Organs. 

These  gentlemen  occupy  four  floors  of  the  elegant  warehouse  60x240  feet,  at  No.  79  Fifth  Avenue,  carrying  a  stock 
of  from  one  hundred  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  Pianos  and  Organs,  employing  seven  assistants  at  this  point  and  having 
agencies  all  through  the  country.  Their  annual  business  amounts  to  more  than  $100,000,  which  is  not  confined  to  any 
particular  section,  although  largely  distributed  through  Pennsylvania  and  Eastern  Ohio.  The  line  of  instruments  prin- 
cipally represented  by  this  firm  are  the  celebrated  Weber  and  Hazelton  Pianos  and  the  Mason  &  Hamlin,  and  Palace 
Organs,  although  in  their  extensive  stock  may  be  found  instruments  of  almost  every  manufacture  known.  Mr.  C.  C. 
Mellor  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  1836  and  has  since  his  youthful  days  been  identified  with  the  music  trade  of  his  native 
city.  Both  members  of  the  firm  are  gentlemen  thoroughly  conversant  with  the  business  in  which  they" are  engaged,  and 
all  "representations  made  by  either  may  be  implicitly  relied  upon. 

LANGENHEIM  &;  SHEP ARD -f /^wr  &  Groceries,  52  &  54  Seventh  Ave. 

This  house  was  established  fifteen  years  ago  by  Schomaker  &  Langenheim,  who  were  succeeded  by  the  present  firm 
in  1877.  Mr.  G  Langenheim  was  born  in  Germany  in  1834  and  has  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  for  the  past  twenty- 
four  years.  Mr.  Otis  Sbepard,  his  partner,  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  where  he  was  born  in  1835.  He  is  a  lifelong  resi- 
dent of  the  Iron  City.  They  occupy  the  large  double  warehouse  at  Nos.  52  &  54  Seventh  ave.,  caiTying  a  stock  of  $40,000 
to  $65,000.  Their  trade,  which  is  principally  in  the  states  of  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio,  amounts  from  about  half  a  million 
to  a  million  dollars  annually  and  compares  favorably  with  that  of  any  other  house  engaged  in  the  same  line  of  business 
West  of  the  Mountains.  They  handle  immense  quantities  of  Flour  and  a  general  line  of  Groceries,  Provisions,  &c.  This 
is  one  of  the  representative  business  houses  of  Pittsburgh  in  point  of  size,  amount  of  business  transacted,  mercantile 
integrity  and  unquestioned  reliability. 

WOLFF,  LANE  &  CO -Hardware  and  Cutlery,  No.  50  Wood  St. 

Conspicuous  among  the  representative  business  houses  of  Pittsburgh,  that  of  Wolfi",  Lane  &  Co.,  importers  and  deal- 
ers in  every  description  of  Hardware  and  Cutlery,  may  be  mentioned.  This  house  was  founded  in  1836  as  Whitmore  & 
Wolflf.  It  subsequently  became  Whitmore,  Wolft',  Lane  &  Co.,  and  in  1877  the  present  firm  succeded,  the  individual 
members  of  which  are,  C.  H.  AVolfl",  Thos.  H.  Lane,  John  D.  Cherry,  G.  M.  T.  Taylor  and  Horace  G.  Darsie.  They 
occupy  the  spacious  ware-rooms  at  No.  50  Wood  St.,  20x120  feet,  the  entire  four  floors  and  basement,  being  filled  with 
every  variety  of  Goods  pertaining  to  this  line  of  business.  These  ware-rooms  are  undoubtedly  the  best  arranged  and 
most  completely  fitted  up  of  any  in  the  United  States,  for  conveniently  carrying  on  such  an  extensive  business.  Their 
trade,  which  extends  throughout  the  States  of  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  West  Virginia  and  Virginia,  amounts  in  round 
numbers  to  not  less  than  $200,000  per  annum.  In  addition  to  the  members  of  the  firm,  who  give  their  personal  atten- 
tion to  the  business,  twelve  salesmen  and  clerks  are  employed,  and  the  business  of  the  house  will  compare  favorably 
with  that  of  any  similar  establishment  in  the  West. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  99 


ALPH.  J.  POTZER,— //af5.  Caps  &  Furnishing  Goods,  884  Liberty  St. 

Mr.  Potzer  was  born  in  Salem,  Westmoreland  County,  Pennsylvania  in  1847,  but  has  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh 
since  1852.  The  present  establishment  was  started  by  him  in  1877.  He  occupies  the  store  No.  334  Liberty  Street,  20x60, 
with  a  stock  of  goods  valued  at  about  $6,000,  consisting  of  Hats,  Caps  and  Gent's  Furnishing  Goods  in  great  variety. 
His  sales,  which  amount  to  from  18,000  to  $10,000  per  year,  are  principally  to  residents  of  the  Smoky  City  and  customers 
living  along  the  line  of  the  Pennsylvania  Pailroad.  Mr.  Potzer  has  a  complete  and  well  selected  assortment  of  all  arti- 
cles pertaining  to  gentlemen's  head  wear,  and  furnishing  goods,  and  his  prices  are  uniformly  low. 

J.  FULLERTON  &  ^OlSl^-Tobacco  and  Cigars,  No.  882  Liberty  St. 

This  house,  which  was  established  in  1837  by  Mr.  Fullerton  senior,  is  the  oldest  in  the  city  with  but  a  single  exception, 
engaged  in  this  line  of  trade.  Mr.  John  Fullerton  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1810,  and  came  to  the  United  States  in  1823, 
settling  in  Pittsburgh  the  same  year.  In  1837  he  established  the  business  of  manufacturer  and  dealer  in  Cigars,  which 
was  continued  under  his  name  until  1870,  when  by  the  admission  of  his  son,  Mr.  W.  W.  Fullerton,  as  a  partner,  the 
firm  name  became  as  above.  Mr.  Fullerton  junior,  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  1845,  and  has  since  resided  in  the  city. 
They  occupy  the  large  and  spacious  ware  rooms,  20x65,  at  No.  332  Liberty  street,  where  they  carry  on  a  jobbing  trade 
in  all  varieties  of  manufactured  Tobacco  and  Cigars,  amounting  to  not  less  than  $100,000  to  $125,000  per  annum,  and 
carrying  a  stock  estimated  at  about  $14,000.  Their  trade  is  principally  in  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio,  although  they  fre- 
quently fill  large  orders  from  other  States.  They  sell  a  larger  quantity  of  Cigars  than  any  other  house  in  the  city,' their 
sales  last  year  exceeding  $3,000,000  of  the  various  grades  and  qualities.  Their  stock  embraces  all  lines  of  goods  pertain- 
ing to  the  trade,  but  the  specialty  of  this  house  is  Cigars,  of  which  they  have  forty-two  brands  of  their  own,  which 
have  a  widespread  and  well  deserved  popularity,  and  are  sold  in  almost  every  State  in  the  Union. 

THOMAS  McANDREW,-Z/i;^ry  and  Sale  Stable.  No.  117  Third  Ave. 

The  premises  occupied  by  Mr.  McAndrew  at  No.  117  Third  avenue,  opposite  St.  Charles  Hotel,  are  20x100  feet  in 
size  and  conveniently  arranged  for  the  business  in  which  he  is  engaged.  He  commenced  at  this  location  during  the 
present  year,  and  has  already  secured  a  satisfactory  business.  He  now  has  four  fine  horses  and  carriages  to  hire,  and 
will  undoubtedly  soon  largely  increase  his  facilities.  Mr.  McAndrew  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1834,  came  to  the  United 
States  in  1860  and  to  Pittsburgh  in  1865. 

C.  HOTING  &  SONS -Grain,  Hay, Straw  &  Mill  Feed,  119  Water  St,  d  156  First  Av. 

The  four  story  warehouse,  20x180  feet,  at  No  119  Water  street  and  extending  through  to  First  avenue,  is  occupied 
by  the  above  named  firm  as  a  Grain,  Hay  and  Feed  Store.  The  house  was  established  in  1875  as  Irven  and  Hoting.  In 
1876  the  present  firm  succeeded  to  the  business,  which  now  amounts  to  about  $22,000  per  annum.  The  amount  of  capi- 
tal invested  in  the  business  is  $8,000,  and  they  carry  a  stock  of  from  $1,000  to  $1,500,  giving  employment  to  three 
assistants.  This  trade  is  principally  local  and  along  the  lines  of  the  B.  A  O.,  and  the  P.  V.  &  C,  Railroads.  Mr.  C. 
Hoting  was  born  in  Germany  in  1825,  he  came  to  the  United  States  in  1850  and  settled  in  Pittsburgh  the  same  year. 
Mr.  G.  C.  Hoting  was  born  in  Allegheny  City  in  1859,  and  Mr.  R.  C.  Hoting  in  the  same  place  in  1853.  They  are  active 
and  energetic  business  men  and  stand  well  in  the  mercantile  community. 

CUNNINGHAMS  &  CO, -Pittsburgh  City  Glass  Works,  No.  109  Water  St. 

With  Pittsburgh  as  the  acknowledged  Headquarters  of  the  Glass  trade  of  the  United  States,  it  is  eminently  fitting 
that  she  should  also  contain  within  her  corporate  limits  the  largest  glass  manufactory  in  this  country.  The  Pitts- 
burgh City  Glass  Works  were  founded  In  1849  by  Mr.  Cunningham,  two  other  brothers  and  Mr.  George  Duncan.  In 
1865  the  firm  became  Cunninghams  &  Ihmsen,  and  continued  under  that  style  until  1878,  when  it  was  dissolved  by  the 
pui'chase  of  the  interest  of  Dominick  Ihmsen  by  the  remaining  partners,  and  the  firm  name  became  Cunninghams  &  Co. 
The  business  was  started  in  a  comparatively  small  way  with  but  one  factory.  They  now  have  three  extensive  factor- 
ies, making  these  works  the  largest  in  the  United  States.  The  capital  invested  by  this  firm  is  $2.50,000,  and  the  average 
stock  carried  by  them  is  from  $60,000  to  $80,000.  Their  annual  business  is  correspondingly  large.  Their  w^rks  are  lo- 
cated on  26th  Street,  south  side,  and  with  all  the  buildings  cover  two  entire  blocks.  They  have  one  oflice  at  the  works 
and  another  at  their  ware  rooms,  No.  109  Water  street,  at  their  factories  they  employ  from  250  to  300  workmen  at  a 
weekly  expense  of  about  $2,000.  Their  trade  extends  all  over  the  United  States  and'  from  Canada  to  Mexico.  They 
manufacture  all  kinds  of  Glass  ware.  Window  Glass  and  Bottles.  Mr.  Wilson  Cunningham  was  born  in  1812.  Mr. 
Eol>ert  Cunningham  in  1817  and  Mr.  D.  O.  Cunningham,  son  of  the  senior  member  of  the  firm,  in  1834.  They  are  all 
natives  of  Allegheny  county  and  highly  respected  as  public  spirited  citizens  and  reliable  energetic  business  men. 

KAUFMAN,  OPPENHEIMER  &  CO, -Wholesale  Clothiers,288  Liberty  St. 

As  Jobbers  and  Dealers  in  Clothing,  Piece  Goods  and  Tailors'  Trimmings  of  all  descriptions,  and  Manufacturers,  the 
above  house  is  not  to  be  omitted  in  any  just  record  of  the  history  of  the  industries  of  Pittsburgh,  and  has  had  no  small 
bearing  upon  the  general  welfare  of  the  community. 

Established  as  a  retail  concern  in  1851,  under  the  titleof  Klee  &  Kaufman,  in  Allegheny,  the  business  was  removed  to 
Pittsburgh  in  1860,  and  from  that  period  has  been  devoted  exclusively  to  the  wholesale  trade.  In  1865  Mr.  Klee  with- 
drew, and  Mr.  M.  Oppenheimer  and  his  brother  became  partners  in  this  house  under  the  above  style,  which  has  not 
been  changed,  though  the  junior  partner  retired  some  time  ago,  leaving  the  "Co."  merely  nominal. 

From  the  commencement  to  the  present  time  success  has  attended  the  operations  of  this  concern.  Started  with  a  capi- 
tal of  the  most  limited  character,  the  business  has  constantly  increa.sed  and  the  resources  augmented  proportionately. 

From  a  comparatively  unimportant  foundation  the  business  has  grown  to  the  dimensions  of  not  less  than  $250,000  per 
annum  and  still  enlarges. 

The  premises  occupied  by  the  firm  at  the  present  time  are  of  the  most  ample  and  complete  dimensions,  consisting  of 
one  large  foui-story  stone  front  brick  building  20x240  feet,  running  from  Liberty  through  to  Penn  avenue.  This  firm 
manufacture  all  the  clothing  sold  by  them.  They  employ  constantly  150  men  and  women  in  the  manufacturing  of 
Men's,  Youths'  and  Boys'  Clothing,  besides  their  hands  in  the  store,  counting-house  and  salesrooms.  The  present  part- 
nership has  existed  14  years,  and  prior  to  that  time  Mr.  Kaufman  was  connected  with  Mr.  Klee  for  a  like  period. 

In  all,  for  28  years,  the  senior  partner  of  this  house  has  been  identified  with  the  industries,  progress  and  develop- 
ment of  this  city,  adding  no  little  to  its  reputation  as^a  cimuneicial  centre. 

Not  only  in  Pennsylvania,  but  in  the  contiguous  States,  this  house  has  prosecuted  a  successful  trade,  to  such  a  de- 
gree that  the  establishment  is  now  justly  regarded  as  taking  rank  among  the  first  of  its  kind  in  the  community,  and  is 
well  entitled  to  the  consideration  in  which  it  is  universally  held. 


100  INDUSTEIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

J.  S.  DILWORTH  &  CQ -Wholesale  Grocers,  Nos.  130  &  132  Second  Ave. 

Among  the  representative  business  houses  of  Pittsburgh  the  name  of  Dilworth  has  for  mnny  years  occupied  high 
and  honorable  positions,  and  in  the  wholesale  grocery  trade  the  firm  of  J.  S.  Dilworth  &  Co.,  has  for  nearly  forty  years 
been  recognized  as  the  leading  one  of  the  Iron  City.  This  house  was  established  in  1840  by  John  S.  and  Joseph  Dil- 
worth, and  became  as  at  present  in  1847,  since  which  time  the  business  has  been  conducted  under  the  same  name  and 
style,  although  Mr.  J.  S.  Dilworth  the  founder  of  tlie  house  is  no  longer  living.  The  present  partners  are  VV .  P.  Dilworth 
(who  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  1844),  De  Witt  Dilworth  (born  in  Pittsburgh  in  185.S),  and  James  W.  Houston  (born  in 
Ireland  in  1852,  but  for  many  years  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh).  The  capital  invested  in  the  business  is  $60,000.  The 
amount  of  stock  carried  by  the  firm  ranges  from  $35,000  to  $40,000  and  their  annual  sales  exceed  $550,000.  They  occupy 
the  spacious  warehouse,  40x85  feet,  three  stories  and  basement,  at  Nos.  130  &  132  Second  avenue,  and  employ  ten  sales- 
men and  assistants.  Their  trade,  which  will  compare  favorably  with  any  house  in  the  city,  is  principally  within  a 
radius  of  150  miles  of  Pittsburgh,  in  Western  Pennsylvania  and  Eastern  Ohio.  While  they  keep  a  full  line  of  all  arti- 
cles pertaining  to  the  Grocery  trade,  the  specialty  of  this  house  is  in  New  Orleans  Sugars,  Syrups  and  Molasses. 

VOIGT,  MAHOOD  &  CO,,— Commission  and  Produce,  Merchants,  257  Liberty  St. 

As  a  very  important  branch  of  the  commercial  industries  of  Pittsburg,  the  Commission  Produce  busincsss  is  enti- 
tled to  a  large  share  of  consideration,  in  which  connection  it  would  be  impossible  to  overlook  the  house  of  "Voigt, 
Mahood  &  Co.,  occupying,  as  it  does,  perhaps  the  most  conspicuous  position  of  any  concern  in  that  line  of  mercantile 
enterprise. 

Established  in  18G1,  by  L.  H.  Voigt,  Esq.,  with  a  capital  of  but  $500,  the  concern  seemed  at  once  to  achieve  a  signal 
success,  the  business  of  the  first  year  being  over  jf40,000,  increasing  during  the  latter  part  of  the  war  to  the  enormous 
sum  of  half  a  million  dollars  per  annum;  and,  even  now,  at  the  reduction  in  the  price  of  all  produce  and  commodities, 
the  business  runs  up  into  many  thousands  annually. 

With  so  little  capital  to  start  upon,  the  inference  is  that  there  must  have  been  some  compensating  balance  for  this 
lack  in  the  energy  and  natural  aptitude  and  capacity  of  its  founder  to  have  produced  with  such  limited  means  such 
considerable  results.  Such  au  assumption  does  but  simple  justice  to  the  firm  whose  relations  extend,  not  alone  over  the 
entire  United  States,  but  include  every  conceivable  line  of  produce  merchandise  and  Pittsburgh  manufactured  goods. 

The  firm  is  composed,  under  the  above  title,  of  L.  H.  Voigt  and  A.  M.  Voigt.  They  occupy  as  business  premises 
No.  257  Liberty  street — an  ample  three-story  brick  house,  22x110,  with  basement — employ  10  hands,  and  one  five-horse 
power  engine  for  hoisting.  It  is  regarded  as  the  largest  commission  house  in  the  city,  and  has  a  standing  and  repute 
commensurate  with  the  extent  and  solidity  of  its  business. 

PRENTICE  &  'H.KC'K.'BTT -Cement,  Lime,  etc.,  Nos.  46.  48  &  50  Ninth  St. 

The  house  of  Prentice  &  Hackett  was  established  in  1877  and  is  the  only  one  in  the  city  importing  the  genuine 
Portland  Cement  direct  from  foreign  countries.  They  are  also  sole  agents  for  the  celebrated  Buckeye  Cement,  and  deal 
largely  in  Rosendale,  Louisville  and  other  American  Cements,  White  Lime,  Calcined  and  Land  Plaster,  White  Sand, 
Marble  Dust,  Whiting,  Kalsomine,  Sewer  Pipe,  Stove  Pipes,  Chimney  Tops,  Flue  Linings,  Tena  Cotta  Ware,  Fire 
Brick,  Grate  Tile,  Fire  Clay  and  Fertilizers.  They  occupy  the  extensive  premises  at  the  number  named,  employing 
five  hands,  and  transacting  a  large  and  flourishing  trade  in  the  articles  named,  extending  over  Western  Pennsylvania, 
Eastern  Ohio  and  Western  Virginia.  This  House,  with  its  large  facilities,  is  always  prepared  to  take  large  contracts  in 
their  line.  The  Lake  Erie  and  Pittsburgh  railroad  line  was  furnished  by  this  firm  with  the  hydraulic  cement  in  the  ma- 
sonry work  of  that  road.  The  Government  also  selected  this  well-known  firm  to  furnish  it  with  supplies  on  their  work 
in  Western  Virginia,  as  did  also  the  Navigation  Company.  The  Westmoreland  and  Indiana  County  Works  received 
their  supplies  from  this  energetic  firm.  Both  members  of  the  firm  are  natives  of  the  State  and  have  had  many  years 
practical  experience  in  their  business. 

J.  P,  HTJG'EL'ES— Cigar  Manufacturer,  No.  27  Fourth  Avenue. 

There  is  a  large  number  of  cigar  manufacturies  in  the  Smoky  City,  and  the  annual  production  of  this  class  of  goods 
constitutes  no  insignificant  item  in  the  general  aggregate  of  her  commercial  importance.  Mr.  J.  P.  Hughes,  whose  place 
of  business  is  now  located  at  No.  27  Fourth  Avenue,  is  one  of  the  prominent  cigar  manufacturers  and  dealers  of  Pitts- 
burgh, turning  out  annually  about  700,000  of  the  various  brands  and  grades.  Mr.  Hughes  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in 
1837,  is  a  practical  cigar  "maker  himself,  and  employs  in  his  establishment  six  experienced  hands  regularly,  at  a 
■weekly  expense  of  about  $50.  He  has  been  engaged  in  business  in  his  own  name  for  about  six  years,  and  many  of  the 
brands  manufactured  by  him  have  acquired  a  national  reputation  and  well  deserved  popularity.  He  occupies  as  sales- 
room and  manufactory  the  four-story  brick  building,  25x60,  at  No.  27  Fourth  Avenue,  where  he  carries  an  average  stock 
of  from  80,000  to  100,000  cigars  of  various  grades,  valued  at  about  $2,000,  and  transacts  an  annual  business  of  over  $10,000. 
His  retail  trade  is  principally  local  and  his  wholesale  business  extends  throughout  many  of  the  towns  of  Western  Penn- 
sylvania. Among  the  leading  brands  mauufactured  by  Mr.  Hughes  we  may  mention  "High  Life,"  "Excelsior," 
"  Jewel,"  and  "  Prefacto. "  He  is  also  exclusive  proprietor  of  ten  or  a  dozen  other  favorite  brands,  ranging  in  price  from 
$10  to  $60  per  thousand.  The  tobaccos  used  by  Mr.  Hughes  are  Kentucky  and  Ohio  for  stogies,  and  for  the  other  brands, 
Havana,  Pennsylvania,  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut.  He  also  keeps  constantly  on  hand  a  fuU  line  of  manufactured 
Tobacco,  SnufFand  Smokers'  Articles. 

JAMES  BO WN  &  SON -Enterprise  Gun  Works,  136  and  138  Wood  Street. 

For  more  than  thirty  years  the  name  of  Mr.  Bown  has  been  identified  with  the  gun  business  in  the  Iron  City,  the 
Enterprise  Gun  Works  having  been  established  in  1848  by  Bown  &  Tetley.  In  1862,  Mr.  James  Bown  became  sole  pro- 
prietor, and  in  1871,  Mr.  Wm.  H.  Bown,  his  son,  was  admitted  and  the  firm  name  became  James  Bown  &  Son,  under 
which  style  it  has  continued  to  the  present  day.  They  occupy  three  floors  of  the  large  double  store,  30x60,  at  Nos.  136 
and  138  Wood  street,  employing  twenty-six  skilled  workmen,  and  their  weekly  pay-roll  amounts  to  about  $275.  Their 
stock,  which  is  full  and  complete  in  every  variety  of  Guns,  Rifles,  Revolvers,  Fishing  Tackle,  Sportsmen's  Articles  in 
General,  Razors,  Scissors,  Pocket  and  Table  Cutlery,  is  estimated  at  from  $20,000  to  $25,000,  and  their  annual  trade  is  now 
about  $70,000,  extending  over  the  greater  portion  of  the  United  States  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific  Ocean.  While  they 
are  large  manufacturer.?  of  Rifles,  Rifle-barrels,  Shot  Guns,  etc. ,  they  also  deal  extensively  in  the  best  articles  of  foreign  and 
American  make,  doing  a  large  wholesale  as  well  as  retail  business.  They  carry  the  finest  lines  of  Cutlery  to  be  found  in 
the  West,  and  the  motto  of  the  firm  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century  has  been  "Quick  Sales  and  Small  Profits." 

Mr.  James  Bown  was  born  in  England  in  1828,  and  at  the  age  of  ten  years  came  to  this  country  with  his  parents,  and 
in  1843  became  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh.  Mr.  Wm.  H.  Bown  was  born  in  the  Iron  City  in  1847  and  has  never  lived  in  any 
other  place. 

Both  these  gentlemen  are  thoroughly  conversant  with  every  detail  of  the  business  in  which  they  are  engaged  and  the 
requirements  of  the  trade  in  this  locality. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  101 


THOS*  A.  CKTN,— Fine  Boots  and  Shoes,  Fifth  Avenue  and  Market  Street 

Prominent  among  the  retail  houses  of  the  Smoky  City,  in  the  Boot  and  Shoe  Line,  is  that  of  Thos.  A.  Cain.  It  was  at 
first  founded  forty  years  ago  by  H.  P.  Cain,  and  continued  by  him  twenty-two  years.  At  the  expiration  of  that  time  he 
was  succeeded  by  T.  A.  Cain,  the  present  proprietor.  The  house  was  originally  started  in  a  small  way,  but  through  the 
tact  and  high  business  qualifications  of  the  founder,  as  well  as  his  son,  the  present  proprietor,  his  trade  has  largely  in- 
creased, and  he  enjoys  to-day  the  patronage  of  most  of  the  leading  families  and  merchant  princes  of  Pittsburgh,  trans- 
acting the  largest  retail  business  of  any  house  in  this  line.  Mr.  Cain  occupies  the  entire  three-story  brick  building,  18x 
40,  at  the  corner  of  Fifth  Avenue  and  Market  street,  employing  nine  assistants,  and  carrying  the  most  complete  and 
varied  stock  of  fine  goods  to  be  found  in  the  city.  His  trade  is  largely  in  the  cities  of  Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny,  but  he 
numbers  among  his  regular  customers  many  of  the  leading  citizens  of  the  principal  towns  within  a  radius  of  two  hun- 
dred miles.  ]\[r.  Cain  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  October,  1839,  and  has  been  a  life-long  resident  of  the  city,  and  for 
many  years  identified  with  the  boot  and  shoe  trade  of  his  native  place. 


J.  D.  SS.A.W— Taxidermist,  285  Penn  Avenue. 


The  Art  of  Taxidermy  is  one  that  must  commend  itself  to  all  persons  of  refinement  and  culture.  As  we  observe  the 
bright-winged  inhabitants  of  the  air  flitting  joyously  by,  we  cannot  fail  to  admire,  and  admiring,  we  wish  for  some 
means  to  preserve  and  perpetuate  their  beauties  when  Death  shall  have  claimed  them  for  his  own  and  they  otherwise 
would  have  mouldered  away  into  nothingness.  Those  of  our  citizens  who  have  visited  our  Expositions  must  have  been 
attracted  by  the  magnificent  collection  of  birds  and  animals  exhibited  by  that  artist  in  his  profession,  Mr.  J.  D.  Shaw. 
Mr.  Shaw  has  been  engaged  jn  business  for  thirteen  years,  and  at  his  present  location  for  the  past  five  years.  Mr.  Shaw 
can  stuff  anything  on  sea  or  land,  from  the  tiny  jeweled  humming-bird  that  glances  by  like  a  thing  of  "light,  to  the  pon- 
derous elephant  from  his  native  jungles  in  the  East.  All  are  alike  to  him,  and  so  perfect  and  life-like  are  his  specimens 
that  we  almost  expect  to  hear  the  birds  warble  their  sweetest  songs.  Mr.  Shaw  was  born  in  England  in  1S27,  and  came 
to  this  country  in  1852.  His  trade  is  scattered  all  over  this  section  of  country.  He  is  the  only  person  exclusively  en- 
gaged in  this  business  in  the  city.  Mr.  Shaw's  work  is  all  done  to  order.  He  preserves  specimens  of  the  feathered  and 
animal  tribes  in  a  thoroughly  satisfactory  manner.  He  received  a  silver  medal  for  stuffed  birds  and  animals  at  the  first 
Pittsburgh  Industrial  Exposition,  at  present  located  at  25  8th  Street. 

JACOB  B.  HUBLEY  &  CO -No.  195  Penn  Ave. 

This  House  is  undoubtedly  the  "Delamonico"  of  Pittsburgh  and  was  established  in  the  year  1824  by  Mr.  Rob't.  Knox, 
with  one  barrel  of  flour  given  to  him  by  a  well-known  steamboat  man,  on  condition  that  said  Knox  ^lould  build  an  oven 
and  furnish  for  each  barrel  of  flour  one  barrel  of  crackers  for  the  use  of  said  steamboat  man.  The  oSer  was  accepted,  and 
from  that  small  beginning  has  the  present  well-known  house  grown.  This  house  was  first  established  on  what  is  now 
known  as  First  Avenue,  near  Wood  Street.  In  1831  the  store  was  removed  to  more  spacious  rooms  on  account  of  increas- 
ing business.  The  present  senior  member  of  the  house,  Jacob  B.  Huhley,  entered  the  old  house  at  the  age  of  nine  years, 
and  was  a  faithful  assistant  from  1834  until  the  death  of  Rob't.  Knox,  at  which  time  he  took  charge  of  the  business  in  his 
own  interest.  Alex.  F.  Hay,  a  prominent  young  business  man,  is  the  Co.  In  Dec.  1870,  the  business  still  growing  and 
a  more  central  location  desired,  the  store  was  moved  to  its  present  place,  the  Library  Hall  Building,  on  Penn  Avenue. 
This  house  is  liberally  patronized  by  the  elite  of  the  city,  on  account  of  its  unsurpassed  cusine  department.  This 
spacious  establishment  is  arranged  in  the  most  convenient  manner,  affording  ample  facilities  for  conducting  business 
in  a  style  and  elegance  equal  to  the  most  refined  and  modern  to  be  found  in  this  country,  and  also  giving  more  satisfac- 
tion to  the  customers  of  the  house.  No  expense  has  been  spared  in  fitting  up  the  rooms  with  rich  and  costly  furniture 
and  other  appointments,  to  make  the  place  both  elegant  and  attractive.  Their  stock  has  been  selected  with  much  care, 
embracing  every  variety  of  confectionary  and  dainties. 

We  have  also  noticed  that  this  house  is  always  prepared  to  furnish  promptly,  on  short  notice,  everything  necessary 
for  Weddings,  Parties,  Banciuets,  etc.  Ice  Creams  and  Ices,  in  exquisitely  designed  moulds,  Jellies  and  Fancy  Cakes,  and 
ornamented  Pyramids,  of  different  kinds,  of  the  most  artistic  finish  known  to  the  trade.  They  have  superior  provision 
made  for  supplying  Breakfast,  Dinner  and  Supper  to  Ladies,  Gentlemen  and  Families,  to  order,  of  everything  the  mar- 
ket afibrds,  in  season.      Their  spacious  Dining  Parlor  has  a  capacity  for  seating  as  high  as  150  persons  at  once. 

This  popular  establishment  employs  20  hands,  to  assist  in  transacting  the  business.  The  furniture  of  the  rooms  i.-^ 
composed  of  black  walnut,  ground  glass  and  marble,  and  the  floor  is  laid  in  handsome  mosaic. 

Mr.  Hubly  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh  and  has  followed  his  business  for  upwards  of  forty  years. 

WALTER  E.  la.A.OVE.-Gold,  Stiver  and  Nickel  Plater,  188  Wood  St. 

Mr.  Hague  was  bom  in  Sheffield,  England,  in  1841.  He  came  to  this  country  in  1864  and  located  in  Pittsburgh  in 
1870,  where  he  succeeded  Mr.  A.  R.  Nininger,  who  had  then  been  engaged  in  the  business  for  about  one  year,  under  the 
name  and  style  of  the  "Pittsburgh  Gold,  Silver  and  Nickel  Plating  Works." 

This  line  of  business  was  at  that  time  comparatively  in  its  infancy,  but,  during  the  past  nine  years,  Mr.  Hague,  by 
close  attention  to  business,  has  succeeded  in  building  up  a  trade  which  is  second  to  none  in  the  West.  His  factory, 
which  is  located  on  Virgin  Alley,  above  Wood  Street,  is  30x120  feet  in  dimensions,  and  he  gives  employment  to  ten 
workmen,  with  an  average  pay  roll  of  about  $100  per  week.  His  office  is  at  No.  138  Wood  Street,  and  he  does  the  largest 
jobbing  business  of  any  similar  establishment  outside  of  New  York  or  Philadelphia.  His  trade  is  principally  in  Penn- 
sylvania, Ohio  and  West  Virginia.  Mr.  Hague  is  the  inventor  and  originator  of  a  peculiar  process  of  electro-bronzing, 
which  is  understood  by  no  other  parties  in  the  United  States.  He  makes  a  specialty  of  Fire  Iron  Stands  of  elegant  de- 
signs and  superior  workmanship,  besides  doing  every  description  of  work  pertaining  to  his  line.  The  quality  of  work 
turned  out  by  Mr.  Hague  is  fullly  equal,  if  not  superior  to  that  of  any  similar  concern  in  this  country  or  Europe. 

FRANK  ARMSTRONG,-(?0(7/  Dealer,  Cor.  Fourth  Avenue  and  Try  Street. 

Energy  and  enterprise  characterize  the  business  ot  Mr.  Frank  Armstrong,  successor  to  the  Pittsburgh  National  Coal 
and  Coke  Co.,  situated  at  cor.  Fourth  Avenue  and  Try  Street.  It  was  commenced  by  the  said  comiiany  in  1864,  and 
passed  into  the  skillful  management  of  Mr.  Armstrong  in  1876. 

Fifteen  men  are  employed  at  office  and  yard  and  another  yard  in  the  Sixteenth  Ward  requires  eighteen  to  twenty 
men,  with  a  weekly  pay  roll  of  51,500. 

Mr.  Armstrong  deals  in  Pan  Handle  Coal,  mined  by  the  Consolidated  Coal  Mining  Company,  of  Cincinnati,  O.  He 
also  deals  in  Pittsburgh  Coke,  and  keeps  always  on^and  an  abundant  supply  of  Nut  Coal  and  Slack.  His  yearly  sales 
aggregate  fully  $80,000. 

Mr.  Armstrong  was  born  in  the  County  of  Tyrone,  Ireland,  in  1845,  and  came  from  thence  direct  to  Pittsburgh  in 
1864.    As  a  business  man,  he  is  considered  among  the  foremost  in  our  city.     In  social  circles  he  is  universally  esteemed. 


102  INDUSTRIES    OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 


W.  H.  MIDG'LEY'— Groceries  and  Confectionery,  No.  227  PennAve. 

The  building  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Midgley  is  one  of  the  old  familiar  landmarks  of  the  Smoky  City,  having  been 
known  as  ii  Grocery  corner  for  more  than  tiiirty  years.  It  is  located  on  what  has  been  called  the  Connolly  property  for 
nearly  half  a  century,  and  is  familiar  to  every  native  Pittsburgher  of  the  last  generation.  The  first  grocery  store  upon 
this  site  was  established  about  1840  by  Mr.  Connolly,  who  was  succeeded  by  Paul  and  Gibson,  they  in  turn  by  Sir. 
Strouse,  followed  by  Midgley  and  Lesche,  the  immediate  predecessors  of  the  present  proprietor.  The  building  now 
standing  upon  this  corner  is  a  four  story  brick  structure,  22x.30,  and  is  occupied  by  Mr.  Mrdgley  as  a  manufactory  of 
Confectionery  as  well  as  dealer  in  every  variety  of  fine  Groceries,  Choice  Teas,  Sugars,  Coffees,  &c.  Mr.  Midgley  makes 
a  specialty  of  Elaine,  of  which  he  sells  large  quantities.  He  employs  two  assistants  and  transacts  a  flourishing  business. 
He  has  also  been  prominently  identified  with  the  oil  interests  in  the  oil  regions  for  the  past  fifteen  years. 


E.  H.  MYERS  &  CO.-Pork  &  Beef  Packers,  Nos.  217  &  21 9  Liberty  St,  cor.  7th  St. 

It  is  well  in  recording  the  various  industries  of  any  community  to  give  more  than  mere  passing  mention  to  those 
firms  or  men  in  any  particular  branch  of  trade  who  have  achieved  high  positions  through  the  force  of  native  ability, 
unaided  either  by  the  capital  of  others  or  any  influences,  save  those  evoked  by  their  own  capacity.  Such  a  firm  is  that 
of  E.  H.  Myers  &  Co.,  the  senior  partner  being  a  striking  exemplification  of  what  ma)'  justly  be  called  a  self-made 
man.  A  German  by  birth  and  an  agriculturalist  by  occupation  in  that  country,  he  came  to  this  city  without  resources, 
at  the  age  of  22,  and  after  working  some  time  at  the  very  modest  compensation  even  in  those  days,  of  §10  per  month, 
started  a  small  grocerj'  store  on  Wylie  St.,  making  this  his  first  mercantile  venture,  34  years  ago.  From  its  very  incep- 
tion succuss  seemed  to  attend  his  eftbrts,  and  for  nine  years  he  remained  in  the  same  location,  at  the  end  of  that  time 
removing  to  No.  201  Liberty  St.,  where  as  a  wholesale  grocer  and  jobber  in  Provisions,  &c.,  he  continued  for  five  years 
more,  annually  increasing  his  capital  and  enlarging  his  connections  and  resources.  At  the  close  of  this  period  he  pur- 
chased the  property  at  Nos.  217  and  219  Liberty  street,  and  demolishing  the  old  buildings  with  which  it  was  encum- 
bered, erected  the  structure  now  occupied  by  the  House,  being  a  four  story  edifice  40xS8  feet,  thoroughly  adapted  for 
the  business  in  every  way,  and  one  of  the  most  substantial  and  handsome  buildings  on  this  thoroughfare.  As  a  pioneer 
in  the  meat  and  provision  trade  and  as  one  of  the  first  packers  in  this  section  of  country,  Mr.  Myers  discovered  at  an 
early  date  the  profit  of  bringing  meats  from  Chicago  ;  but  not  content  with  this,  and  perceiving  the  advantages  of  tbut 
city  as  a  base  of  operations  in  curing,  packing  and  obtaining  supplies,  he  bought  three  acres  contiguous  to  the  Union 
Stock  Yards,  and  at  an  expense  of  $103,000  built  thereupon  one  of  the  most  complete  packing  in  houses  the  United 
States,  144x170  feet,  with  an  L  reaching  back  194  feet  and  having  a  capacity  of  such  extent,  as  to  make  the  slaughter  cf 
2,500  hogs  per  day  of  no  uncommon  occurrence.  Besides  the  building  on  Liberty  street  heretofore  mentioned,  which  is 
the  center  from  which  all  he  business  is  conducted — four  other  large  store  houses,  situated  in  convenient  parts  of  the 
city,  are  used  as  warehouses  for  the  storage  of  stock,  and  are  during  most  seasons  of  the  year  taxed  to  their  fullest  ca- 
pacity. As  Pork  and  Beef  packers  and  ciirers  of  choice  Sugar  Cured  Hams,  Shoulders,  Dried  Beef,  Breakfast  Bacon,  as 
well  as  general  dealers  in  Provisions,  Lard,  Cheese,  Carbon  and  Lard  Oils,  etc.,  E.  H.  Myers  &  Co.  stand  at  the  head  of 
the  trade,  not  only  in  the  magnitude  of  their  transactions,  but  the  excellence  of  all  their  products.  Twenty  men  are 
employed  by  the  house  in  this  city;  and  six  spechil  agents  resident  in  various  trade  centers  of  the  country,  assist  in 
carrying  on  a  business  which  has  reached  an  average  of  $700,000  per  annum  and  steadily  increasing.  Mr.  J.  Stevenson, 
the  Co  ,  has  no  interest  in  the  business,  but  retains  one-third  interest  in  the  real  estate  situate  at  217  &  219  Liberty 
street.  This  firm  is  indissolubly  connected  with  the  advancement  of  Pittsburgh  and  the  development  of  its  commer- 
cial and  industrial  resources. 

A.  "W.  C  ADM  AN  &  CO.— Brass  Works  d  Foundry,  Duquesne  Way  and  Sixth  St. 

This  house  was  founded  in  1860  by  Cadman  &  Crawford,  who  carried  on  the  business  until  1869,  when  the  firm  be- 
came S.  Cadman  &  Son,  under  which  style  it  was  continued  until  1877,  when  Mr.  A.  W.  Cadman  became  sole  proprietor. 
The  business  conducted  by  this  house  is  that  of  brass  manufactures.  Pipe  Fitters  and  dealers  in  Brass  and  Iron  Fittings 
for  Steam,  AVater,  Gas  and  Oil,  manufacturing  and  repairing  light  machinery  in  brass  or  iron,  and  making  to  order 
castings  in  Ii-on,  Brass,  Bronze  or  Soft  Metals.  They  occupy  the  large  two  story  brick  structure,  corner  of  Duquesne 
Way  and  Sixth  street,  38x125,  employing  ten  hands  and  using  one  ten-horse  power  engine.  Their  business,  which 
extends  throughout  the  country  within  a  circuit  of  two  hundred  miles,  now  amounts  to  about  $20,000  per  annum,  and 
will  compare  favorably  with  any  similar  establishment  in  the  Smoky  city.  Mr.  Cadman  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  a 
thorough  practical  mechanic  and  workman,  having  followed  the  business  for  the  past  fifteen  years. 

KRAMER  &  SEIFERT,-Cj/5fm,  Yeast,  Dried  Beef,  dc,  cor.  PennAv.  &  8th  St. 

This  well  known  house  was  established  in  1870,  and  at  that  time  was  devoted  exclusively  to  the  introduction  of 
Fleishman's  Compressed  Yeast,  at  various  times  since  other  branches  have  been  added  to  the  trade  which  now  embraces 
Fresh  Cut  Dried  Beef,  Oysters  (arrow  brand),  Jellies  and  canned  goods  genei'ally.  Beginning  with  limited  resources 
and  but  one  horse  and  wagon,  the  firm  now  employ  numerous  assistants,  besides  five  wagons,  which  barely  suffice  to 
supply  the  680  retail  grocers  of  the  city  and  environs,  who  require  constant  supplies.  As  a  branch  of  industry  the  trade 
in  fresh  cut  dried  beef  has  assumed  proportions  that  are  increasing  daily  under  the  management  of  this  firm,  who  care- 
fully cure,  and  prepare  it  by  rejecting  all  fat,  bone  or  superfluous  matter,  pack  in  half  pound  packages,  which,  if  not 
disposed  of  by  the  retailer  while  fresh  are  returned,  and  exchanged  for  that  which  is. 

In  oysters,  canned  goods  and  sardines  the  business  is  constantly  enlarging,  and  to  those  at  home  or  within  the  range 
of  our  commerce,  who  deal  in  these  commodities,  this  house  is  cordially  recommended. 

AIKEN  &.  WAUjACH,— Produce  Commission  Merchants,  185  Liberty  St. 

Liberty  Street  seems  to  be,  at  the  present  time,  the  general  headquarters  for  the  produce  business  in  Pittsburgh, 
and  the  amount  of  trade  in  this  line  annually  transacted  upon  this  thoroughfare,  forms  a  lai'ge  and  important  item  of 
the  commerce  of  the  Smoky  City.  Prominent  among  the  business  houses  engaged  in  this  line  of  bu.siness,  we  may  men- 
tion that  of  Messrs.  Aiken  &  Wallace,  at  No.  185  Liberty  Street.  The  members  of  this  firm  are  Mr.  John  Aiken  and 
Mr.  John  Wallace,  who  have  been  a.ssociated  in  business  since  1871,  under  the  firm  name  and  style  above  given.  Mr. 
Aiken  had,  however,  been  engaged  in  business  for  himself  for  eight  years  previous  to  that  time.  They  occupy  the  large 
three-story  brick  warehouse,  22x110,  at  the  number  named,  with  basement,  and  transact  a  business  averaging  $75,000 
per  annum,  giving  employment  to  four  assistants,  and  dealing  in  every  description  of  Country  Produce,  making  a 
specialty  of  Potatoes,  Sweet  Potatoes,  Foreign  Fruits,  etc.  These  gentlemen  pay  particular  attention  to  consignments 
from  abroad,  and  guarantee  prompt  and  satisfactory  returns.  Mr.  Thomas  E.  Renton  is  book-keeper  for  the  firm,  and 
is  a  gentleman  thoroughly  qualified  for  the  position  which  he  occupies.  We  can  vouch  for  the  high  reputation  and 
unquestionable  integrity  of  this  House. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBUEGH.  103 


WCILER  BIL0TII:E'RS -Wholesale  Liquors,  No.  759  First  Ave. 

The  wholesale  Liquor  house  of  Weiler  Brothers  was  established  in  1871  by  the  present  proprietors,  with  a  capital  of 
S5,000.  They  are  distillers'  agents  for  Manongahela  Rye  Whiskies  aud  importers  and  dealers  in  Wines,  Gins  and  Bran- 
dies. They  carry  a  stock  of  fine  goods,  valued  at  from  ¥9,000  to  $10,000,  and  tlieir  trade,  which  is  distributed  through 
Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  West  Virginia,  amounts  to  about  $40,000  per  annum.  They  have  no  particular  .specialty, 
except  the  general  excellence  and  purity  of  all  liquors  handled  by  them.  The  members  of  the  firm  are  Mr.  E.  Weiler, 
who  was  born  in  Germany  In  1842  and  came  to  the  United  States  in  1855,  and  Mr.  A.  Weiler,  born  in  the  same  place  in 
1845  and  a  resident  of  the" United  States  since  1858.  The  trade  of  this  house  is  steadily  increasing  throughout  the  United 
States. 

W.  p.  TOWNSEND  &  CO,-f?ivets  and  Wire,  W  and  21  Market  St 

The  above  House  was  founded  in  the  year  1816  by  Eob't.  Townsend,  father  of  the  present  head  of  the  firm.  The 
present  firm,  however,  consists  of  W.  P.  Townsend  and  his  two  sons,  Chas.  C.  and  Edward  P.  Townsend.  The  business 
was  commenced  in  a  very  small  way  and  has  always  been  conducted  within  the  family  since  its  foundation,  some  sixty- 
three  years  ago.  The  firm  employ  thirty  hands,  with  a  pay-roll  amounting  to  $2,000  per  month.  The  building  consists 
of  a  wareroom  and  otflce,  being  a  brick  structure  three  stories  high,  40x70  feet.  The  factory  of  the  firm  is  located  at  Falles- 
ton,  on  Beaver  River,  and  is  50x300  feet,  substantially  built  of  brick  and  stone.  The  jiiotive  power  is  supplied  by  tur- 
bine water  wheels,  with  ample  steam  power  that  can  be  substituted  in  time  of  low  water.  The  capacity  of  these  works 
is  one  thousand  tons  of  finished  work  per  annum.  The  Rivet  Department  is  not  suriiassed,  nor  perhaps  equalled,  in 
this  country.  The  productions  of  the  House  find  a  ready  sale  all  over  the  United  States.  The  members  of  the  firm  are 
all  natives  of  Pennsylvania. 

PITTSBURGH  SHOW  CASE  CO,-54  Ninth  St. 

The  office  and  warerooms  of  this  company  are  located  at  No.  54  Ninth  Street,  and  their  factory,  which  is  34x75  feet 
in  size,  on  Grant  Street.  Their  salesroom  is"20x.30,  and  they  have  a  fine  stock  of  elesant  German  Silver  and  Walnut 
Show  Cases  of  French  Plate  and  American  Glass,  at  prices  ranging  from  $8  to  $50.  The  members  of  the  companv  are 
Mr.  T.  McNulty  and  Mr.  Wm.  Friebertshauser,  with  a  capital  invested  of  about  $9,000.  Their  trade,  which  is  princi- 
pally in  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  West  Virginia,  amounts  to  about  $14,000  per  annuTii.  The  company  was  founded  bv 
Mr.  "McNulty  in  January,  1878.  He  had  lor  eight  years  previously  been  in  charge  of  one  of  the  largest  show  case  estab- 
lishments in' the  city  and  is  a  thorough,  practical  workman  in  that  line  of  business.  Mr.  Friebertshauser,  who  is  also  a 
practical  workman,  purchased  an  interest  in  the  concern  in  March,  1878,  since  which  time  it  has  been  conducted  suc- 
cessfully by  these  two  gentlemen,  who  do  a  safe,  cash  business  and  stand  well  financially. 

A.  LYONS  Sl  co-Citizens'  Oil  Works,  Cor.  Seventh  St.  and  Duquesne  Way. 

The  "Citizens'  Oil  Works"  was  originally  established  as  an  incorporated  company,  but  are  now  owned  exclusively  by 
the  above-mentioned  firm,  and,  under  their  management,  the  business  has  largely  increased.  The  works,  which  are 
located  at  the  corner  of  Butler  and  Bridge  Streets,  on  the  line  of  the  Allegheny  Valley  Railroad,  cover  an  area  of  more 
than  seven  acres  and  furnish  employment  to  about  two  hundred  hands.  They  are  divided  into  three  departments,  as 
follows:  Parathne  Wax  Works,  Barrel  Manufactory  and  Carbon  Oil  Refinery.  The  machinery  employed  are  eight  en- 
gines, twelve  force-pumps  and  two  batteries  of  boilers,  in  addition  to  the  smaller  machinery  required.  Tlie  capacity  of 
the  works  is  350  barrels  of  paraffine  wax  per  month,  the  largest  production  of  any  works  in  the  country,  with 
a  single  exception.  Ten  thousand  barrels  of  refined  oil  per  month,  while  the  barrel  manufactory  turns  out  from 
twenty-five  to  thirty  thousand  packages  every  month.  The  packages  or  barrels  manufactured  by  this  firm  are  noted  for 
their  tightness,  the  percentage  of  leakage  being  much  less  than  that  in  packages  of  other  manufacturers.  This  fact  is 
corroborated  by  official  statistics  and  is  an  important  item  to  be  considered  by  dealers  and  shippers.  The  various  pro- 
ductions of  this  house  are  all  exported  to  Europe,  England  being  the  principal  depot.  The  annual  business  trans- 
acted by  this  House  reaches  an  enormous  amount,  as  will  he  seen  from  the  extent  of  their  productions.  Both  members 
of  the  firm,  Mr.  A.  Lyons  and  R.  Hemmick,  have  been  residents  of  Pittsburgh  for  many  years. 

P.  S.  WEISENBERGER  &;  CO. -Key stone  Varnish  and  Japan  Works, 

Office,  No.  2  Duquesne  "Way,  Pittsburgh ;   Factory,  Main  St.,  Allegheny. 

As  a  comparatively  new  branch  of  industry  in  this  community,  the  enterprise  of  the  above  firm  deserves  more  than 
passing  mention.  Established  but  three  years  ago,  the  business  has  already  grown  from  the  limited  amount  of  $.3,000 
sales  per  annum  to  $10,000,  and  is  rapidly  increasing. 

For  the  following  grades  of  varnish  this  house  has  already  established  a  reputation  that  carries  with  it  a  guarantee 
of  the  excellence  of  their  manufactures:  Black  Baking  Japan,  No.  1,  for  Japanners,  Stamping  Companies,  etc.;  No.  2, 
for  Iron  Founders  and  Manufacturers  of  Hardware;  Asphaltum  Self-drying  Varnish,  for  CaiTiage  ^Makers,  etc;  Cotton 
Tie  Varnish  ;  Turpentine  Jajjan  Dryer  ;  Benzine  Japan  Dryer ;  with  Special  Varnishes,  expressly  for  Trunks,  Wagons, 
Furniture,  etc.,  etc.  Already  these  goods  find  a  ready  market,  not  only  in  our  own  State,  but  in  West  Alrginia,  Ohio, 
Western  New  York,  Illinois,  Indiana,  Mis.souri  and  other  States. 

A  thorough  knowledge  of  the  business  on  the  part  of  Mr.  Weisenberger  and  his  partner,  Mr.  H.  Paddock,  insures  a 
product  that  will  compare  favorably,  if  not  surpass  in  quality  that  of  the  largest  Eastern  houses,  while  tlie  liberal  and 
prompt  way  in  which  the  concern  is  conducted,  speaks  in  tlie  highest  terms  of  the  estimation  in  which  the  firm  is  held 
by  its  customers  and  the  public  at  large. 

WM.  GRABO  WSKY -<S/7y^  Hat  Manufacturer,  No.  233  Penn  Av. 

This  House  was  established  in  its  present  location  four  years  ago  by  Mr.  Grabowsky,  who  is  a  practical  Hatter  and 
Manufacturer  of  many  years  experience.  He  occupies  the  three-story  brick  edifice  at  No.  233  Penn  Avenue  and  em- 
ploys three  skilled  and  experienced  workmen,  transacting  a  business  of  about  $3,000  per  annum,  and  carrying  an  aver- 
age stock  of  $2,000.  He  manufactures  silk  and  felt  hats  extensively  for  the  trade,  sui)plying  many  of  "the  principal 
dealers  in  the  city,  besides  carrying  on  a  large  retail  business,  selling  Fine  Hats,  of  every  description,  at  wliolesale 
prices.     His  specialty  is  in  Cleaning,  Repairing  and  Renovating  Hats,  and  Relining  and  Making-over  Ladies'  Furs. 

Mr.  Grabowsky  was  born  in  Hamburg,  Germany,  in  18.53,  and  came  to  the  United  States  in  1873.  By  his  thorough 
knowledge  of  the  trade,  strict  attention  to  business,  and  unimpeachable  integrity,  he  has  built  up  a  business  which  is 
eminently  gratifying  and  satisfactory  and  is  steadily  increasing.  This  House  does  not  solicit  work  outside  of  its  oflSce 
— all  parties,  therefore,  soliciting  work  for  this  House,  are  imposing  on  the  public. 


104  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

J.  M.  HOFFMANN  &  CO.- Pianos  and  Organs,  No.  141  SmithfieldSt 

Although  this  firm  was  established,  as  recently  as  1878  in  its  present  location,  Mr.  Hoffman  has  been  for  many  years 
identified  with  the  musical  instrument  business  of  Pittsburgh  and  is  widely  and  favorably  known  in  the  musical  com- 
munity. They  are  sole  agents  in  Pittsburgh  for  the  celebrated  Lohmer  &  Co.  Pianos,  Jubilee  Organs  and  other  reliable 
makes,  besides  keeping  a  line  of  Musical  Instruments,  ^  uch  as  Guitars,  VioUns,  Flutes,  Accordeons,  Strings,  etc.,  of  every 
description.  They  occupy  three  floors,  25x90,  at  No.  141  Smithfield  Street,  between  Fifth  and  Sixth  Avenues,  and  carry 
a  stock  of  about  $10,000  to  $12,000.  Owing  to  their  extensive  acquaintance  and  well-known  reliability,  they  do  a  large 
and  floui-ishiug  business  in  the  two  cities  and  sui-rounding  districts. 

VOWINKEL  &  'BYVJnUOVR.-Wholesale  Liquor  Merchants,  27  Wood  St. 

This  firm  was  established  in  August,  1878,  and  already  ranks  as  one  of  the  representative  business  houses  of  the  Smoky 
City.  Mr.  Vowinkel,  the  senior  member  of  the  firm,  has  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  for  the  past  five  years,  and  his 
partner  for  nearly  double  that  time,  during  which  period  both  gentlemen  have  established  an  enviable  reputation  for 
industry,  proliity  and  fair  dealing. 

They  occupy  three  entire  floors  of  the  large  and  commodious  warehouse  No.  27  Wood  Street,  with  a  full  and  com- 
plete assortment  of  the  purest  and  choicest  Brandies,  Whiskies  and  Wines  to  be  found  in  the  West.  At  present  they 
carry  a  stock  of  about  110,000  worth,  and  their  trade  is  constantly  increasing.  While  the  principal  portion  of  their  business 
is  in  Pittsburgh  and  its  immediate  vicinity,  they  employ  traveling  salesman  through  the  Western  portions  of  Pennsyl- 
vania and  Eastern  Ohio,  where  their  particular  specialties  of  Pure  Eye  Whiskies  and  California  Wines  have  already 
become  famous.  This  firm  employs  three  men  in  their  warehouse;  in' addition  to  the  force  upon  the  road,  and  as  they 
deal  exclusively  in  the  best  and  purest  of  Foreign  and  Domestic  Wines  and  Liquors,  dealers  throughout  this  section  may 
at  all  Limes  be  assured  of  procuring  the  very  best  articles  in  the  market  and  at  reasonable  prices. 

JOHN  CRAWFORD,-5/^wc/75,  Steel  Stamps,  Rubber  Stamps,  &c. ,  184  Liberty  St. 

It  is  rare  to  find  one  engaged  in  a  business  of  this  kind  so  thoroughly  adapted  to  its  requirements  in  every  particular 
as  is  Mr.  John  Crawford.  He  has  not  only  become  familiar  with  every  feature  by  close  study  and  application,  but  is 
gifted  with  a  natural  talent  of  ingenuity  which  is  higher  and  more  essential  than  all  the  rudimentary  iiistructions  of  tlie 
work  shop.  Possessing  these  native  qualifications  and  skill,  with  careful  study  and  experience  he  is  capable  of  a  greater 
variety  and  more  perfect  workmanship  than  could  possibly  be  executed  without  them.  His  facilities  for  the  manufac- 
ture of  Stencils,  Steel  Stamps,  Rubber  Stamps,  Burning  Brands,  Seiils,  etc.,  are  unsurpassed,  and  come  directly  in  the  line 
of  the  requu-ements  of  every  manufacturing  establishment  aud  business  man.  No  establishment  in  this  or  any  other 
city  can  produce  better  work  nor  at  more  reasonable  rates.  He  also  does  Engraving,  and  manufactures  Steel  Dies, 
Notary  Public  and  other  Seals  for  Lodges  and  Societies,  Hotel  and  Railroad  Checks,  Key  Tags,  Flour  Brands,  and  deals 
in  Stencil  Inks  and  Brushes.  His  establishment,  though  second  in  size  in  the  city,  is  not  second  in  point  of  excellence 
of  workmanship  and  promptness  of  execution.  His  place  of  business  can  be  found  at  No.  184  Liberty  Street,  where  he 
carries  a  stock  of  about  $1,000,  keeps  two  assistants,  and  is  favored  with  a  good  and  gradually  increasing  trade.  The 
business  was  first  started  in  April,  1878,  and  while  his  trade  is  chiefly  confined  to  Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny  City,  it  is 
gradually  extending  through  Western  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio.  Mr.  Crawford  is  a  native  of  this  city,  having  been  born 
here  in  1833,  aud  has,  since  coming  to  the  age  of  manhood,  always  done  business  in  this  city.  We  cheerfully  commend 
him  to  the  favorable  consideration  of  those  desiring  anything  in  his  line. 

A.  HAMILTON, -fM,  Oysters  and  Game,  184  Liberty  St. 

This  excellent  and  popular  depot  for  Fish,  Oysters  and  Game,  is  ably  and  efiiciently  conducted  by  Mr.  A.  Hamilton 
at  184  Liberty  street,  where  he  keeps  a  stock  constantly  on  hand  in  their  season,  which  will  tempt  the  epicure  and  at- 
tract the  notice  of  dealers  in  the  city  and  surrounding  country.  In  1878,  Mr,  Hamilton  took  possession  of  this  store  as 
successor  to  R.  J.  Edie  &  Co.,  and  by  his  industry  and  excellent  business  qualifications  has  built  up  and  increased  the 
business  very  materially.  He  does  both  a  wholesale  and  retail  business,  extending  over  the  city  and  surrounding  country, 
and  will  alwaj^s  be  found  prompt  in  filling  orders  for  anytliing  in  his  line.  In  0}'sters  he  makes  a  specialty  of  the 
"Signal"  brand,  the  choicest  Baltimore  Oysters.  He  also  deals  in  Fish  and  Game,  in  its  season,  Canned  Goods,  Pickles, 
etc.  He  employs  three  hands,  and  keeps  one  wagon  running  lor  delivering  goods  and  shipping.  Under  his  energetic 
management  his  trade  will  continue  to  widen  and  increase,  from  year  to  year,  both  at  home  and  abroad. 

LOUIS  MOESER,-/l^o/arj/  Public,  Ship  Agent,  etc.,  142  SmithfieldSt. 

Mr.  Moeser  was  born  in  Germany  in  1846.  He  came  to  this  country  in  1869  and  to  Pittsburgh  the  same  year.  In 
1872  he  opened  an  o.Sice  as  General  Steam  Ship  Agent  and  is  the  oldest  resident  agent  in  the  city  for  the  "American" 
and  "Red  Star"  lines.  He  also  represents  the  North  German  Lloyd,  Hamburg- American  Packet  Co,  and  nearly  all  the 
European  Steamship  Lines,  and  transacts  a  large  European  Bunking,  Exchange  and  Collection  business,  furnishing 
Drafts  of  any  required  amount  on  the  principal  and  most  reliable  bankers  in  the  old  world.  His  office  is  12x29  feet  in 
size,  and  Mr.  Moeser  has  every  facility  for  transacting  business  and  imparting  information  relative  to  the  sailing  of 
steamships,  price  of  passage  and  exchange  of  foreign  money.  He  also  transacts  every  description  of  Notarial  business, 
being  duly  commissioned  by  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania  as  Notary  Public.  His  business  is  principally  in  Pittsburgh 
and  Allegheny  County,  and  is  as  large  as  that  of  any  other  agent  in  the  city. 

O'BYRNE  "BROS-Publishers  and  Book  Binders,  143  Wood  St. 

This  House,  though  established  as  late  as  1874,  has  given  marked  evidences  of  vitality  in  the  rapid  increase  and 
general  character  of  its  business.  Founded  by  M.  A.  and  J.  J.  O'Byrne,  the  firm  have  made  specialties  of  certain 
standard  and  invaluable  works,  among  which  may  be  mentioned  the  Encyclopedia  Brittannica,  the  Encyclopedia  of 
Chemistry,  Picturesque  Ireland,  and  other  standard  publications,  such  as  Family  Bibles,  various  elegant  editions  of  the 
Poets,  Histories,  etc. 

Already  the  business  of  the  firm,  through  the  employment  of  twenty  to  twenty-five  salesmen  and  canvassers,  ex- 
tends not  only  throughout  Western  Pennsylvania,  but  several  adjacent  States,  and  gives  ample  evidence  that  its  opera- 
tions are  conducted  upon  strict  business  principles  and  with  a  view  to  the  establishment  of  a  large  and  permanent 
concern.  The  Messrs.  O'Byrne  have  been  residents  of  this  city  for  about  five  years,  and  have,  in  that  comparatively 
short  period,  not  only  built  up  a  large  and  growing  industry,  affording  employment  for  a  numerous  corps  of  assistants, 
but  have  acquired  a  reputation  for  thrift  and  integrity  upon  which  any  firm  might  be  justly  congratulated. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  105 


li.  H.  SMITH  &  CO.-Sfoves,  Grates,  dc,  No.  49  Sixih  St 

The  beauty  of  style  and  finish  of  the  celebrated  Wellman's  Reflector  Stoves  aud  Grates,  manufactured  by  Messrs. 
L.  H.  Smith  &  Co.,  at  No.  49  Sixth  street,  has  added  another  laurel  to  Pittsburgh's  reputation  as  headquarters  for  novel- 
ties in  the  iron  and  glass  line.  The  marbleized  Slate  Mantels  on  exhibition  at  this  establishment  are  also  models  in 
their  way,  and  most  beautiful  specimens  of  that  description  of  work.  This  House  also  deals  in  Chilson's  New  Cone  P^ur- 
naces,  Hot  air  Registers,  Ventilators,  Common  Grates,  Fronts,  &c.  This  house  was  established  in  1SG9  in  a  compaia- 
tively  small  way,  but  to-day  they  stand  prominent  among  the  leading  establishments  of  this  kind  in  the  city  for  fine 
work,  and  their  sales  now  reach  a  large  and  very  satisfactory  sum.  They  occupy  the  three  story  warehouse,"  22  by  87, 
at  the  location  above  named,  employing  fifteen  assistants,  and  carrying  a  large  "and  elegant  assortment  of  the  above 
mentioned  goods  and  all  articles  pertaining  to  this  line.  Their  marbleized  mantels  range  in  price  from  $1.5,00  to  $150,00. 
Their  trade  is  principally  located  in  the  two  cities,  although  they  ship  many  articles  to  the  various  towns  of  Western 
Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio  and  West  Virginia.  Mr.  L.  H.  Smith  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh.  He  is  a  business  mau  of 
high  standing  and  undoubtable  integrity. 

GROG  AN  &  MEHZ— Jewelers,  Cor.  Fifth  Avenue  and  Market  street. 

This  house  was  established  in  a  comparatively  small  way,  .35  years  ago,  by  Alex.  Richardson,  and  from  him  it  was 
passed  to  his  brother,  H.  Richardson  &  Co.,  who  were  afterward  succeeded  by  L.  Mcintosh  &  Co  ,  who  were  in  turn  suc- 
ceeded by  the  firm  who  occupy  the  building  at  present.  The  increasing  demand  for  artistic  and  strictly  choice  goods  in 
their  line  has  prompted  them  to  keep  on  hand  an  unusually  large  stock  of  the  same.  They  strive  to  keep  a  choice  as- 
sortment of  goods,  from  which  may  be  chosen,  at  any  time,  beautiful  and  appropriate  wedding  aud  holiday  gifts  ;  at 
this  house  at  all  times  may  be  found  carefully  selected  Diamonds  of  first  quality,  handsomely  mounted,  a  rich  assort- 
ment of  Cameos  and  Intaglios,  Lockets,  Watches,  Chains,  &c.  Their  business  will  amount  to  S^jO.OOO  per  annum. 
Their  building  IS  a  spacious  three  story  brick,  22x60  feet.  In  order  that  their  business  may  be  attended  to  promptly, 
they  employ  five  hands,  and  their  pay  roll  amounts  to  about  $250  per  month.  The  trade  of  the  house  is  principally  iii 
and  near  the  city.  Mr.  J.  C.  Grogan  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  and  is  a  practical  and  punctual  business  man.  Mr. 
Merz,  a  German  by  birth,  is  a  competent  and  practical  Watchmaker  and  Jeweler.  This  house  in  every  respect,  is  cer- 
tainly one  of  the  leading  houses  in  its  line  of  goods  in  our  city. 

F.  G.  I^AVL.SON.-Fashionable  Hatter,  173  Wood  St. 

It  is  an  incontrovertible  fact  that  there  is  no  article  of  personal  attire  which  so  directly  affects  the  appearance  as 
that  of  hats  or  caps,  and  in  the  connection  we  desire  to  call  attention  to  the  Fashionable  Hat,  Cap,  and  Fur  House  of 
Mr.  Frank  G.  Paulson,  situated  at  No.  113  Wood  street.  This  is  one  of  the  oldest  business  houses  in  the  city,  having 
been  started  by  the  Hon.  C.  H.  Paulson  in  1836,  and  conducted  by  him  with  uniform  success  up  to  1875,  when  it  came  in- 
to the  hands  of  the  present  proprietor.  This  House  has  long  been  Headquakters  for  the  best  styles  and  qualities  of  goods 
in  this  line,  as  the  former  proprietor,  Hon.  C.  H.  Paulson,  has  long  been  associated  with  the  business  interests  of  tlie 
city  and  identified  prominently  with  politics,  state  and  national  atTairs,  giving  him  an  extended  acquaintance  and  gen- 
eral popularity.  He  was  elected  State  Senator  for  the  44th  District  of  Pennsylvania  in  1878,  which  position  he  still  oc- 
cupies. Under  the  present  management,  this  store  will  lose  none  of  its  attractive  features  in  point  of  stock,  style  or 
qualities  of  goods,  nor  in  the  ability  of  its  management.  It  still  continues  to  be  the  leader  in  Hats  and  Caps,  and  for 
the  Fall  and  Winter  trade  a  fine  display  of  elegant  Furs  is  always  to  be  found  at  113  Wood  street.  Mr.  Frank  G  .  Paul- 
son is  a  son  of  Hon.  C.  H.  Paulson,  and  has  been  long  enough  associated  with  the  business  and  with  the  people  of  Pitts- 
burgh to  establish  for  himself  an  enviable  reputation  as  a  gentleman  aud  enterprising  business  man.  He  carries  a  stock 
always  complete  in  point  of  variety  and  styles,  at  prices  always  lowest  for  the  quality.  Occupying  three  floors  of  an 
ample  building,  the  first  floor  being  used  as  a  sales  room. 

WEBSTER  GRAY  &  CO.-lmporting  Tailors,  No.  191  Penn  Ave. 

As  a  firm  of  the  oldest  standing  in  this  community,  and  one  closely  connected  in  its  history  with  the  progress  and 
development  of  trade  in  Pittsburgh,  the  house  of  Messrs.  Webster,  Gray  &  Co.,  is  entitled  to  more  than  passing  mention 
in  this  publication.  Founded  nearly  half  a  century  ago  by  Samuel  Gray,  Esq.,  the  firm  has  always  been  rec(jgnized  as 
occupying  the  very  highest  position,  and  maintaining  it  by  the  superior  character  of  its  work  and  the  signal  intelligence 
of  its  management.  In  1866  Mr.  Webster  Gray  was  admitted  to  an  interest  in  the  concern  under  tlie  above  style,  and 
by  the  demise  of  Saml.  Gray,  Esq.,  his  father,  has  in  turn  become  the  senior  representative  of  the  house.  Dealiuf;  with 
the  highest  class  of  custom,  this  trade  has  been  strictly  maintained  by  the  direct  importation  of  the  fiiH  st  grades  ol  for- 
eign goods,  and  the  employment  only  of  those  who  are  most  thoroughly  skilled  as  workmen  and  cutters.  As  contribu- 
ting in  no  small  degree  to  the  industries  of  the  city,  this  concern  employ  not  less  than  25  hands  and  at  times  consider- 
ably more.  The  estatilishment  is  perhaps  the  most  i"c/(('rc//e' in  Pittsburgh,  and  is  the  resort  of  those  whose  taste  de- 
mands the  very  best  that  can  be  procured,  at  prices  that  are  now  considered  almost  fabulously  low.  In  style,  make, 
quality,  and  all  those  points  that  are  absolutely  essential  in  a  perfect  suit,  this  house  is  unsurpassed,  jvhile  its  experi- 
ence and  general  character  is  the  highest  guarantee  of  satisfaction  in  every  respect. 

JOHN  WANAMAKER  &  CO. -Clothiers,  29  Fifth  Avenue. 

For  a  long  series  of  years  the  House  of  Jno.  Wanamaker  &  Co.,  Philadelphia,  discovered  that  they  had  acquired  a 
very  considerable  trade  in  this  city  of  such  a  class  as  to  warrant  them  in  sending  two  or  three  men  here  several  times 
annually  for  the  purpose  of  taking  orders.  Gradually,  however,  as  the  character  of  this  House  and  its  work  became 
better  known,  the  demand  for  its  goods  became  too  large  to  manage  in  this  way,  and  in  April,  1878,  therefore,  the  present 
splendid  establishment  was  opened  at  No.  29  Fifth  Avenue,  as  a  branch  of  the  Philadelphia  House,  and  has  since  done  a 
business  commensurate  with  the  standing  of  the  firm  and  the  enormous  stock  of  goods  carried. 

In  the  various  departments  of  Custom  Work,  Merchant  Tailoring,  Men's,  Youths'  and  Boys'  Ready-made  Clothing, 
Rubber  and  Furnishing  Goods,  etc.,  this  House  has  acquired  a  reputation  perhaps  unequalled  in  the  United  States,  for 
cheapness,  variety,  excellence,  and  perfectly-fitting,  well-made  garments. 

Occupying  a  building  four  stories  in  height,  23x100  feet,  and  employing  nine  salesmen,  the  establishment  in  every 
appointment  and  facility  is  regarded  as  being  the  finest  and  most  extensive  in  the  city. 

Mr.  Nicholas  Baggs,  who  manages  the  bu.siness  of  this  branch,  has  been  for  many  years  connected  with  the  firm  and 
thoroughly  understands  the  liberal  and  enterprising  spirit  that  characterizes  all  the  operations  of  this  House.  Having 
vested  so  large  an  interest  here,  the  Messrs.  Wanamaker  regard  themselves  so  much  citizens  as  to  be  vitally  concerned  in 
every  movement  that  affects  the  prosperity  of  thi.s'community  and  arc  justly  entitled  to  the  high  position  they  have 
achieved  for  themselves  by  the  exercise  of  integrity  and  the  extraordinary  commercial  sagacity  with  which  they  are 
endowed. 


106  ESTDUSTRIES   OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 

B£RKSHIR£  LIFE  INS.  CO.,  of  Pittsfield,  Mass. 

Geo.  W.  English,  General  Agent,  No.  67  Fourth  Are. 

The  Berkshire  Life  Ins.  Co.,  is  known  as  one  of  the  oldest  in  the  United  States,  being  chartered  in  1851.  It  lias  ac- 
cumulated assets  to  the  amount  of  $3,400,000  and  attbrds  all  the  security  and  advantages  to  the  insured  that  can  be 
obtained  from  any  similar  first  class  institution.  An  agency  for  this  company  was  established  in  this  city  nine  years 
ago,  and  in  January  1878,  Mr.  Geo.  W.  English  took  the  general  management  of  this  district,  and  the  various  sub-agen- 
cies throughout  Western  Pennsylvania  and  bordering  States.  Mr.  English  was  born  in  the  central  part  of  this  State, 
coming  to  Pittsburgh  in  1870,  where  he  was  identified  with  the  press  for  many  years.  He  employs  three  solicitors,  and 
brings  to  his  work  an  adaptability  and  energy  that  already  have  a  decidedly  beneficial  eflect  upon  the  business  of  the 
company  in  this  section,  and  must  produce  rerults  of  reciprocal  advantage  to  all  concerned. 

BUYMER,  BAUMAN  &  CO -Prop'rs  Standard  White  Lead  Works, 

Office  No.  42  Fifth  Ave.,  "Works,  Pennsylvania  Ave.,  Allegheny  City. 

Messrs.  Beymer,  Bauman  &  Co.,  have  done  much  in  giving  creditable  character  to  this  class  of  Pittsburgh  manufac- 
turers, their  products  being  sold  in  every  State  of  the  Union,  East  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and  are  universally  recog- 
nized for  chemical  purity  and  other  points  of  excellence.  Established  in  1807  with  a  capital  of  $250,000,  the  business  of 
the  firm  has  reached  $400,000  annually.  The  works  in  Allegheny  City  covfer  an  area  of  I7-2  acres,  and  being  supplied 
with  the  finest  macliinery  and  every  late  approved  appliance,  produce  from  about  6  to  7  tons  of  Lead  daily  with  a  capac- 
ity of  3,000  tons  per  annum,  employ  40  hands,  requiring  a  weekly  disbursement  of  over  1400,  besides,  which  six  assis- 
tants are  required  in  the  clerical  departments  and  on  the  road.  The  members  of  the  firm  S.  Beymer,  R.  F.  Bauman 
and  C.  F.  Wells,  are  all  residents  of  this  city,  having  been  closely  identified  with  its  interests  for  over  25  years  and  are 
at  present  influentially  connected  with  many  of  our  largest  and  most  important  commercial  and  financial  institutions. 
With  the  determination  of  manufacturing  a  faultless  article  of  white  lead,  this  house  has  achieved  its  object.  From  all 
sources  endorsements  are  received,  touching  its  perfect  freedom  from  all  foreign  ingredients.  The  highest  oflicial  au- 
thorities of  the  United  States  Navy  made  a  special  report  June  7,  1878,  announcing  that  after  the  most  thorough  tests, 
it  was  ascertained  that  the  White  Lead  of  Messrs.  Beymer,  Bauman  &  Co.,  "was  strictly  pure  without  trace  of  silver, 
antimony  or  other  alloy,  of  perfect  whiteness,  and  under  the  same  conditions  covering  834  P^r  cent,  more  surface  than 
the  best  lead  heretofore  known  to  the  department."  As  manufacturers  of  Red  Lead,  Orange  Mineral  and  Potters'  Lead, 
the  firm  are  equally  successful. 

C.  F.  WELLS  &  CO.— Pennsylvania  White  Lead  Works, 

Works,  River  Ave.,  Allegheny  City.  Office,  No.  42  Fifth  Ave. 

One  of  the  oldest  in  the  State.  These  works  were  established  35  years  ago  by  B.  A.  Falmestock,  succeeded  subse- 
quently by  Falmestock,  Hazlett  &  Schwardtz,  and  acquired  finally  by  the  present  proprietors  in  1875.  The  works  are 
situated  in  Allegheny  City  and  rank  only  second  in  size  and  importance  to  any  in  the  country.  They  cover  %  of  an 
acre,  with  a  producing  capacity  of  1,500  to  2,000  tons  annually  and  are  furnished  with  steam  engines,  boilers  and  all  the 
latest  and  best  machinery  used  in  the  manufacture  of  White  Lead.  Thirty  hands  are  employed  at  tiie  factory  and  four 
clerks  and  salesmen  in  other  departments,  entailing  an  outlay  of  not  less  than  $350  per  week.  The  vested  capital  is 
$125,000  and  the  business  amounts  to  $250,000  annually. 

.  The  members  of  the  firm  are  Messrs.  C.  F.  Wells,  S.  Beymer,  R.  F.  Bauman  and  Wm.  Steinmeyer,  men  of  public 
enterprise  and  spirit.  The  trade  of  the  House  extends  to  all  parts  of  the  country,  and  its  product  is  highly  esteemed 
for  its  unvarying  purity  and  long  established  reputation  for  general  excellence.  This  House  stands  second  to  none,  and 
enjoys,  in  a  marked  degree,  the  confidence  and  respect  of  those  with  whom  they  establish  business  relations. 

ROBISON  BROTHERS,-^og/  Merchants, 

Foot  of  Seventh  Street,  Pittsburgh,  and  Anderson  St,  &  River'^Ave.,  Allegheny. 

The  history  of  the  four  young  men  composing  the  above  named  firm  furnishes  an  admirable  illustration  and  lesson, 
of  what  may  be  accomplished  by  indomitable  energy  and  perseverance  In  1872  the  four  brothers,  Robison,  embarked 
in  the  coal  business  with  almost  boundless  means  and  unlimited  credit.  Their  father,  during  a  busy  and  most  success- 
ful career,  had  accumulated  a  fortune,  but  died  during  the  year,  leaving  to  his  sous  six  hundred  acres  of  coal  lands  with 
a  mine  in  successful  operation,  over  sixteen  hundred  acres  of  valuable  land  in  the  oil  regions,  and  cash  and  bank  stock 
to  the  amount  of  a  million  dollars  or  more.  He  had  handled  in  one  year  1,800,000  bushels  of  coal,  in  addition  to  au 
extensive  pork  packing  and  grocery  establishment,  and  been  considered  one  of  the  solid  men  in  Pittsbuigh.  But  the 
panic  came,  and  in  a  single  season  they  saw  the  wealth,  accumulated  by  so  much  labor  and  ditbculty  by  their  honored 
parent,  swept  away,  and  for  a  time  it  seemed  a  complete  financial  annihilation.  Possessed  of  stout  hearts  and  iron 
wills,  they  struggled  on  to  recover  their  lost  prestige  and  to  achieve  for  themselves  the  same  success  which  liad  signal- 
ized their  father's  business  career.  To  their  credit  be  it  said,  that  to  a  certain  extent  they  have  succeeded,  and  give 
evidence  that  they  are  made  of  the  metal  which  is  purified  and  strengthened  by  trial  They  have  now  several  oil  wells 
in  successful  operation,  and  an  extensive  coal  mine  on  the  Manongahela,  from  whence  they  receive  their  supplies. 
They  are  prepared  with  ample  facilities  to  deliver  to  any  part  of  Pittsburgh  or  Allegheny.  In'l876  they  met  with  a  loss 
of  sixteen  coal  boats  and  other  coal  property,  amounting  in  value  to  over  $15,000,  but  in'spite  of  all  these  reverses  they 
are  undaunted,  hai-d  working,  energetic  business  men,  in  whose  "lexicon  there  is  no  such  word  as  fail." 

JOSEPH  R.  H'U'NTB'R -Merchandise  Broker,  265  Liberty  St. 

Not  only  is  Mr.  Hunter  widely  esteemed  and  respected  as  a  business  man  of  energy  and  integrity,  but  as  a  promi- 
nent worker  and  leader  in  the  temperance  cause  he  stands  preeminently  conspicuous.  As  president  of  the  "Old  Home" 
branch  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Temperance  Union  for  the  past  two  years,  and  a  prominent  advocate  of  temper- 
ance since  the  conmieneement  of  the  "Murphy  movement"  in  the  Winterof  1876,  Mr.  Hunter  has  done  most  ertective 
service  and  won  for  himself  the  gratitude  and  esteem  of  thousands.  He  was  born  in  Mercer  county,  Pennsylvania,  in 
1825,  but  has  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  for  twenty-eight  years,  during  which  period  he  has  been  actively  engaged  in 
mercantile  pursuits  and  identified  with  the  grocery  trade  of  this  city.  ^Nine  years  since  he  established  his  present  bus- 
iness, in  which  he  has  built  up  a  large  and  flourishing  trade  among  the  wholesale  grocers  of  Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny 
Cities,  with  whom  his  business  is  exclusively  conducted.  The  lines  of  goods  principally  handled  by  Mr.  Hunter  are 
Coffee'  Sugar,  Rice,  Lard,  Oil,  Soaps,  &c.  Over  25,000  bags  of  Cofl'ee  are  represented  at  his  oflice  by  sample,  and  other 
goods  in  proportionate  quantities.  The  aggregate  amount  of  sales  transacted  through  Mr.  Hunter  is  not  less  than 
$1  000,000.    He  represents  all  the  leading  sugar  refineries  and  heavy  importing  houses  of  the  East. 

10 


CITY   OF  PITTSBURGH.  107 


PITTSBURGH  &  CONNELLSVILLE  COKE  CO. 

Office,  JTo.  83  Wood  St.,   Works  at   Conuellsville,  at  which  point  all  sales  are  made. 

So  extensive  is  the  coal  interest  and  so  thoroughly  identified  with  Pittsburgh,  that  a  notice  of  the  prominent  dealers 
is  liighly  essential.  Among  such  organizations  none  is  deserving  of  more  prominent  and  copious  mention  than  the 
Pittsburgh  &  Connellsville  Coke  Co.  Incorporated  under  the  mining  and  manufacturing  laws  of  Pennsylvania  in  1864, 
with  a  capital  stock  of  $150,000,  the  concern  at  once  took  rank  among  the  largest  and  most  energetic  producers  in  the 
country.  The  present  officers,  who  have  been  connected  with  it  trom  its  inception,  are  Messrs.  J.  M.  Bailey,  Prest., 
John  Wilhelm,  Jr.  Sect'y.,  and  John  F.  Dravo,  Treasurer  and  General  Manager,  to  whose  ability  and  thorough  knowl- 
edge is  due  its  signal  success.  The  possessions  of  the  company  are  mainly  located  near  Connellsville  in  Fayette 
county,  and  consist  of  300  acres  of  the  finest  coal  property  in  Pennsylvania,  in  which  numerous  shafts  are  sunk  and 
mines  operated,  four  powerful  engines  and  seven  boilers,  extensive  hoisting  and  pumping  apparatus,  and  machinery 
for  elevating  coal  through  the  shafts,  besides  ovens,  for  converting  it  into  coke,  the  greater  part  of  the  production  being 
thus  used.  Five  hundred  and  twenty  men  are  employed  m  these  various  operations,  requiring  an  avei'age  monthlj-  dis- 
bursement of  about  $7,500.  The  excellence  of  the  production  is  recognized  by  iron  manufacturers  all  over  the  United 
States,  and  the  State  Secretary  of  Internal  Affairs,  in  his  report  on  Industrial  Statistics,  Vol  3,  1874-5,  says  that  "the 
Pittsburgh  Coal  Seam,"  in  which  the  mines  of  the  company  are  located,  "is  from  six  to  ten  feet  thick,  containing  an 
excess  of  bituminous  matter,  and  yielding  a  large  percentage  of  excellent  coke."  For  the  manufacture  of  illuminating 
gas,  this  coal  is  considered  unequalled,  and  the  coke  of  this  company  manufactured  from  the  Connellsville  Vein  finds  a 
ready  market,  not  only  at  home,  but  is  consumed  in  large  quantities  both  in  Eastern  and  Western  States,  the  annual 
sales  which  are  all  made  at  the  mines,  amounting  to  $105,600,  and  increasing  even  under  the  present  reduced  price  of 
the  product.  Few  men  in  this  community  are  more  widely  known  than  Mr.  Jno.  F.  Dravo,  a  native  of  Westmoreland 
Co.,  Pa.,  where  he  was  born  in  1819,  he  came  to  Pittsburgh  at  an  early  age,  and  for  nearly  half  a  century  has  been  con- 
spicuous in  promoting  the  commercial  and  industrial  welfare  of  this  city.  Active  in  every  public  untertakiug,  Vice 
President  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Vice  Pres't  and  Director  of  the  Morganza  Reform  School  and  intimately  con- 
nected by  preference  and  princiijle  with  other  organizations,  tending  to  enhance  the  general  good,  a  fluent  writer  and 
forceable  speaker,  Mr.  Dravo  has  justly  earned  the  respect  and  consideration  in  which  he  is  held.  The  organization 
with  which  he  is  most  identified,  has  arrived  under  his  management  at  a  productive  capacity  of  25,000  bushels  per  a&j, 
and  takes  rank  at  the  present  time  with  the  largest  enterprises  of  the  kind  la  Pennsylvania. " 

JOS.  R.  tLVCr^'BS -Wall  Paper,  &c.,  107  Market  St. 

Mr.  Hughes  has  been  actively  engaged  in  business  since  1848,  and  in  his  present  location  since  1860,  during 
which  time  his  trade  has  steadily  increased,  until  it  now  reaches  the  handsome  sum  of  §25,000  annually.  He  occupies 
three  stories  of  the  building,  No.  107  Market  street,  near  Fifth  avenue,  employing  five  assistants  and  carrying  an  aver- 
age stock  of  abotit  $20,000  in  value,  embracing  every  variety  of  fine  Wall  Paper,  Dados,  and  Window  i^hades,  and  all 
articles  pertaining  to  this  line  of  business.  His  trade  is  principally  in  the  two  cities  and  the  adjacent  couuties.  Mr. 
Hughes  is  a  native  of  the  Smoky  City,  and  well  and  favorably  known  as  a  citizen  and  as  a  business  man  of  undoubted 
integrity  and  reliability.  To  all  classes  of  customers,  this  House  can  always  offer  inducements  not  excelled  by  any 
other  House  in  Pittsburgh. 

J  AS.  liOUGHRIDGE -5rw5/?  Manufacturer,  dc,  No.  171  Smithfield  St. 

A  notice  of  all  important  branches  of  business  of  this  city  of  the  present  day,  is  of  interest  to  all,  and  essential  to  a 
complete  history  of  the  progress  and  growth  of  the  community  for  the  information  and  instruction  of  the  present  as  well  as 
coming  generations.  The  establishment  now  owned  and  carried  on  by  Mr.  James  Loughridge,  was  founded  in  1854  by 
Loughridge  and  Maxwell,  and  in  1861  the  present  proprietor  assumed  the  entire  management  and  control  of  the  busi- 
ness. He  carries  a  stock  at  the  present  time  valued  at  from  $8,000  to  $10,000,  consisting  chiefly  of  Brushes,  Children's 
Carriages,  Looking  Glass  &  Picture  Frames,  etc.,  and  transacts  a  business  of  not  less  than  $15,000  per  annum.  He  man- 
ufactures nearly  every  article  in  stock,  his  specialties  being  Brushes  of  every  description  and  Children's  Carriages.  He 
is  patentee  and  sole  proprietor  of  a  patent  oscillating  spring  front  for  children's  carriages,  which  is  a  great  improvement 
upon  anything  heretofore  in  use.  This  is  the  only  manufactory  of  children's  carriages  in  the  city,  and  in  that  line  Mr. 
Loughridge  enjoys  a  large  and  lucrative  business.  At  present  he  employs  but  four  hands,  but  at  times  the  force  is  large- 
ly increased.  Mr.  Loughridge  was  born  in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  Md.,  in  1829.  He  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1846  and 
learned  the  trade  of  brush  maker  in  this  city.  His  establishment  is  noted  for  the  excellent  quality  of  Brushes  manu- 
factured, and  his  trade  throughout  the  city  and  surrounding  country  is  correspondingly  large.  Machine  brushes  of 
every  kind  are  made  to  order  in  the  most  thorough  manner. 

H.  REINEKE  &  CO -Gas  &  Steam  Fitters,  No.  61  Wood  St. 

Some  ten  years  since,  the  firm  of  Wallace,  Caritt  &  Co.,  dealers  in  Chandeliers,  Gas  Fixtures,  &c.,  was  established 
in  Pittsburgh.  These  gentlemen  were  succeeded  by  Messrs.  Reineke  &  Wilson,  and  in  1878  the  firm  name  and  style  was 
again  changed  to  H.  Reineke  &  Co.,  F.  A.  Reineke  &  J.  P.  Reineke  being  admitted.  The  senior  member  of  the  present 
firm  is  a  native  of  (Jerraany,  but  has  resided  in  the  Iron  City  for  the  yiast  thirty-five  years.  The  junior  partners  are 
both  natives  and  life-long  residents  of  Pittsburgh.  They  occupy  the  first  floor  and  basement  of  No.  61  Wood  .street,  ex- 
tending back  some  one  hundred  feet,  which  is  divided  into  sales  and  mechanical  departments.  Their  business  is  botli 
wholesale  and  retail,  and  they  carry  a  stock  complete  in  variety  and  excellence,  consisting  principally  of  Chandeliers, 
Steam  and  Gas  Fixtures,  Lift  and  Force  Pumps,  Iron  and  Lead  Pipe,  Brackets,  &c.  Their  trade,  which  is  principally  in 
the  two  cities  and  immediate  vicinity,  amounts  to  about  $20,000  annually.  In  their  manufacturing  department  they 
employ  from  four  to  eight  workmen,  and  make  a  specialty  of  re-bronziug'and  gilding  Chandeliers,  <tc.  The  members  of 
the  firm  are  practical  plumbers  and  gas  fitters,  and  give  their  personal  attention  to  the  various  departments  of  their  ex- 
tensive business. 

JAMES  'SILcK'ER,— Watchmaker  and  Jeweler,  No.  13  Fifth  Ave. 

Mr.  McKee  is  a  thorough  practical  Watchmaker  and  Jeweler  of  more  than  fifteen  years  experience,  is  a  native  o 
Pittsburgh,  learned  his  trade  in  the  city  and  has  resided  here  all  his  life.  He  commenced  business  for  him.self  June  1st 
1877,  at  his  present  location.  No.  13  Fifth  Ave.,  his  annual  business  now  amounting  to  about  $5,000.  He  occupies  the 
three  story  brick  building,  15x15  feet  in  size,  employing  four  assistants,  carrying  a  small  selected  stock  of  Watches, 
Clocks  and  Jewelry,  making  a  specialty  of  fine  watch  and  clock  repairing,  in  which  he  does  a  very  large  and  flourishing 
business.  He  numbers  among  his  customers  many  of  the  leading  citizens  of  Pittsburgh,  Allegheny  and  the  country 
within  a  radius  of  fifty  miles  in  all  directions.  He  employs  only  careful  and  experienced  workmen  and  his  prices  for 
repairing  are  lower  than  any  other  establishment  in  the  city. 

11 


108  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

R.  G.  DUN  &  CO —The  Mercantile  Agency,  63. 65  d  67  Fourth  Av.  A.  B.  Wigley,  Man. 

It  would  be  almost  impossible  to  write  an  account  of  the  commercial  and  industrial  history  of  this  city  witliout 
making  frequent  reference  to  the  Mercantile  Agendy  of  R.  G.  Dun  &  Co.  Founded  by  Lewis  Tappan  &  Co.,  in  New 
York  in  1841,  a  branch  office  was  opened  in  Fittsburgli  in  1852,  and  through  all  the  financial  and  mercantile  mutations 
that  have  convulsed  the  whole  country  during  this  extended  period  the  Institution  to  which  illusion  is  made,  has  re- 
mained unshaken  and  practically  unchanged,  save  in  its  growing  range  of  usefulness  and  more  substantial  position. 

As  a  subtle,  permeating  moral  force  to  restrain  evils  and  correct  abuses  in  the  commercial  community,  it  would  be 
hard  to  overrate  the  utility  of  this  agency,  whose  operations  in  this  country  are  only  limited  by  the  bounds  of  civiliza- 
tion. The  territory  over  which  the  Pittsburg  office  has  special  jurisdiction  includes  a  large  portion  of  Western  Penn- 
sylvania, Eastern  Ohio  and  Western  Virginia,  but  is,  of  course,  connected  with  every  other  office  in  the  United  States 
and  Canadas  by  daily  communication  by  mail  and  telegraphic  cyphers. 

The  resident  manager,  Mr.  A.  B.  Wigley,  has  been  in  charge  of  this  office  for  three  years,  previously  occupying  the 
same  position  at  Toledo,  O.,  and  Louisville,  Ky.  His  efficiency  as  an  agency  man  has  never  been  questioned  and  his 
management  of  this  branch  has  been  productive  of  the  best  results,  both  in  the  increase  of  bu.siness  and  promptness  with 
which  information  is  obtained  and  transmitted,  as  well  as  a  general  systematic  thoroughness  that  redounds  greatly  to 
the  benefit  of  all  concerned. 

Tlie  premises  occupied  by  the  establishment  are  at  Nos.  63,  65  and  67  Fourth  Avenue,  Pittsburgh.  They  are  ample 
in  dimensions,  and  perfectly  fitted  and  furnished  throughout.  A  staff  of  fourteen  clerks  and  reporters  is  required  to 
conduct  the  business  in  its  various  departments,  special  attention  being  paid  to  the  accumulation  of  facts  from  all  parts 
of  the  United  States  with  regard  to  the  condition  and  financial  standing  of  those  engaged  in  the  Iron,  Glass  and  Crockery 
trades.  Messrs.  R.  G.  Dun  &  Co.  claim  to  be  the  oldest  and  largest  mercantile  agency  in  the  world,  and  it  is  generally 
understood  that  no  one  has  had  the  temerity  to  dispute  or  contradict  this  assertion  ;  in  any  event,  the  position  this 
institution  has  gained  in  the  esteem  of  the  intelligent  business  public,  is  a  sufficient  guarantee  of  its  necessity  and  un- 
doubted importance  for  the  protection  of  commerce  and  trade  and  manufactures. 

J.  M.  HARTFORD,  -Wholesale  Auctioneer  and  Commission  Merchant,  109  Wood  St. 

Kegular  trade  sales  of  Boots,  Shoes  and  other  Merchandise  have  long  been  in  vogue  in  the  Eastern  cities,  but  it  was 
reserved  for  Mr.  J.  M.  Hartford  to  inaugurate  and  popularize  such  a  movement  in  the  Smoky  City.  Mr.  Hartford  com- 
menced business  as  a  wholesale  dealer  in  Boots  and  Shoes  in  1872,  and  for  about  three  years  confined  himself  to  that  line 
of  business.  In  187.5,  he  entered  the  field  as  a  Wholesale  Auctioneer  and  General  Commission  Merchant,  since  which 
time,  notwithstanding  the  general  depression  in  other  branches  of  trade,  he  has  steadily  progressed,  until  his  regular 
weekly  sales  have  become  one  of  the  features  of  Pittsburgh,  increasing  trade  and  importance  in  a  commercial  point  of 
view.  Mr.  Hartford  occupies  four  floors  at  No.  109  Wood  Street,  with  a  branch  office  at  No.  102  Pearl  Street,  Boston.  At 
his  Pittsburgh  establishment  he  employs  twelve  assistants,  and  although  his  trade  is  principally  local,  large  numbers  of 
country  dealers  from  the  surrounding  towns  are  attracted  to  the  city  by  the  inducements  held  out  by  him.  His  regular 
trade  sales,  to  dealers  only,  are  held  on  Wednesday  of  each  week,  and  usually  attract  a  large  number  of  retailers  and 
general  merchants  from  tlie  two  cities  and  adjacent  territory.  Mr.  Hartford  solicits  consiguinpnts  from  all  parts  of  the 
country  and  makes  li))eral  advances  on  all  goods  entrusted  to  his  care,  and  looks  out  carefully  for  the  interests  ot  his  cus- 
tomers. He  is  a  gentleman  of  high  social  standing  in  the  community,  is  a  member  of  the  Common  Council  from  the 
Eleventh  Ward,  and,  in  the  Spring  of  1879,  was  elected  to  the  position  of  clerk  of  that  body. 

FLEMING  &  OGL,'EVI1B,-Wholesale  Dealers  in  Hats,  Caps  &  Furs,  139  Wood  St. 

This  business  was  originally  started  by  Mr.  Wm.  Fleming  in  1846.  During  the  intervening  years  some  changes  in 
the  management  occurred,  when  in  1875,  Mr.  Fleming  associated  with  him  in  the  business  Mr.  J.  W.  Oglevee.  They 
have  the  largest  and  most  complete  stock  of  Hats  and  Caps,  Straw  Goods,  Ladies'  Furs  and  Robes  of  all  kinds  to  be  founil 
in  this  city,  and  are  able  to  oft'er  inducements  to  the  trade  in  competition  with  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Cleveland  or 
Cincinnati.  They  keep  constantly  in  stock  the  best  and  latest  styles.  For  the  AVinter  trade  they  are  always  prepared 
with  a  choice  line  of  Ladies' Furs  and  Fur  Goods,  in  which  they  do  an  extensive  manufacturing  business.  They  are 
exclusive  agents  for  Dunlap  &  Co's.  Hats,  and  have  a  large  sale  of  superior  styles  of  their  own  designs,  prepared  specially 
for  each  season.  With  the  present  depreciated  prices  their  trade  will  average  about  $160,000  per  annum,  extending 
through  Western  Pennsylvania,  West  Virginia,  and  Eastern  and  Central  Ohio.  Their  book-keeper  is  S.  H.  Waddell ; 
traveling  salesmen  are  L.  N.  Fickeisen,  James  F.  McQuaid  and  J.  V.  Aurentz,  who  are  always  authorized  to  give  lowest 
quotations ;  besides  this,  seven  men  are  employed  inside  the  House.  Mr.  Fleming  is  a  native  of  this  city.  Mr.  Oglevee 
is  a  native  of  Fayette  County,  Pennsylvania.  As  a  firm  they  bear  an  excellent  reputation  in  every  respect  as  a  leading 
House  in  the  trade.  In  the  Retail  Department  this  firm  have  lately  instituted  the  One  Price,  Cash  System,  which  is  a 
new  feature  in  the   Hat  trade  and  gives  them  special  advantages. 

A.  M.  McNISH,— 5a«j/?,  Blind  and  Door  Machinery,  etc.,  No.  116  Liberty  St. 

Mr.  A.  M.  McNish  is  a  brother  of  the  late  Henry  L  McNish,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  firm  of  JNfcXish  &  Butler, 
dissolved  by  the  death  of  the  former  in  1871.  Mr.  Butler  is  carrying  on  business  under  the  old  firm  name,  althougli  ex- 
clusively engaged  in  manufacturing  specialties,  and  the  general  business  of  McNish  it  Butler  is  now  handled  by  A.  M 
McNish,  who  started  in  business  for  himself  in  1878,  after  having  thirteen  years'  experience  in  the  old  House,  which 
with  his  acquaintance  has  already  secured  for  him  a  thriving  and  prosperous  trade.  Mr.  McNish  deals  largely  in  all 
kinds  of  Sash,  Blind  and  Door  Machinery,  Woodworth  Planers  and  jSlachinists'  Tools,  Pulleys,  Hangers,  Shafting,  Belt- 
ing, Lace  Leather  and  Belt  Hooks,  Pattern  Letters,  Twist  Drills  and  Sujiplies  of  all  descriptions.  He  is  also  Agent  for 
Gardner's  Patent  Compensation  Governor,  one  of  the  most  important  inventions  of  the  age,  and  which  should  bo  used 
by  every  establishment  in  the  country  employing  steam  power.  The  trade  of  this  House  is  steadily  increasing  and 
reaches  every  section  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio  and  West  Virginia.  He  is  largely  patronized  by  builders 
of  the  two  cities.    Mr.  McNish  is  a  native  of  New  York  State,  but  has  resided  in  Pittsburgh  for  many  years. 

DAVID  GfRAlY —Practical  Watchmaker  and  Jeweler,  No.  11  Fifth  Ave. 

Mr.  Gray  was  born  in  Ireland  July  4,  1845,  and  learned  his  trade  in  that  country  many  years  ago.  He  has  for  more 
than  fifteen  years  betm  engaged  in  this  line  of  business  with  many  of  the  leading  houses  in  England  and  Ireland,  wliere 
he  acquired  a  thorough  practical  knowledge  of  all  its  details.  In  1878  he  established  the  business  now  conducted  by  him 
at  No.  11  Fifth  Avenue,  and  has  since  met  with  success.  He  occupies  two  stories  of  the  building,  employing  one  as- 
sistant, besides  giving  his  personal  attention  to  the  business.  His  trade  is  principally  local,  but  the  prompt  and  care- 
ful attention  given  to  all  work  entrusted  to  him  has  given  him  an  envialile  reputation  as  a  skillful  workman  and  his 
trade  is  steadily  increasing.  He  makes  a  specialty  of  fine  Watch  and  Clock  Repairing,  guaranteeing  all  his  work  and 
making  his  prices  moderate  and  satisfactory. 


W.  E.  SCHMERTZ  &  CO. -Boots,  Shoes  and  Rubbers,  43  Fifth  Ave. 

Among  the  manr  industries  that  have  tended  to  extend  and  enlarge  the  comiuercial  and  manufacturing  importance 
of  Pittsburgh,  perhaps  no  one  has  had  a  more  favorable  influence  ujion  the  mercantile  relations  of  this  community  than 
the  shoe  trade,  and  certainly  no  house  in  that  trade  exhibits  more  energy  and  enterprise  than  the  subject  of  this 
brief  sketch.  Established  in  1848  by  W.  E.  Schmertz,  with  but  limited  capital  and  meagre  resources,  under  his  manage- 
ment the  business  gradually  merged  out  of  comparative  obscurity,  until  it  became  and  has  remained  for  years,  aeon- 
trolling  influence  to  the  entire  trade.  In  1860,  the  style  of  the  House  became  as  above,  Mr.  T.  A.  Kammerer  became  a 
partner  of  the  concern,  other  partners  came  in  in  1869,  composing  the  firm  at  the  present  time. 

The  business  premises  occupied  and  owned  by  W.  E.  Schmertz  &  Co.,  are,  for  many  reasons,  worthy  of  particular 
attention.  Situated  on  the  principal  thoroughfare  of  the  city,  they  consist  of  a  handsome  iron-front  building,  25x240 
feet,  four  stories  in  height,  with  finished  basement  under  the  wliole  edifice.  Here  are  ware  and  salesrooms  of  ample 
magnitude,  counting  njoms  and  offices  with  all  modern  appliances,  such  as  steam  elevators  and  heating  apparatus,  every 
arrangement  being  perfectly  adapted  for  convenience  and  comfort  in  the  transaction  of  the  business.  Here  also  are 
accommodations  for  a  stock  that  ranges  in  value  from  $150,000  to  $175,000,  and  a  trade  that  reaches  $600,000  per  annum. 
Ten  traveling  salesmen  are  kept  continually  upon  the  road,  .330  hands,  the  majority  of  whom  are  convicts  at  the 
Western  Penitentiary,  are  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  Boots  and  shoes,  40  skilled  workmen  being  engaged  upon  the 
finest  grades  of  Ladies',  Misses'  and  Children's  wear  known  to  the  trade.  This  battalion  of  operatives  require  a  dis- 
bursement of  about  $60,000  a  year  and  turn  out  about  30,000  pairs  of  Boots,  Shoes,  Gaiters,  etc.,  per  month,  establishing 
the  fact  of  this  House  being  the  largest  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania. 

Through  Western  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  West  Virginia,  Indiana  and  over  the  far  W(.st  to  Colorado,  Dakolo  and  Cali- 
fornia, through  the  South  and  North-west,  the  products  of  this  House  find  a  perpeliial  market  and  an  increasing 
reputation.  In  view  of  the  standing  resources  and  public  benefits  conferred  by  this  firm,  some  brief  mention  of  its 
members  may  not  be  inappropriate  in  a  commemorative  publication  of  this  kind,  and  will  inspire  with  every  di'cade  an 
increasing  interest.  The  senior  partner,  W.  E.  Schmertz,  Esq.,  was  born  in  Prussia  in  1826  ;  coming  with  his  fatlier  to 
this  city  in  1832  he  became  identified  with  his  present  business  at  the  age  of  twenty-two  years,  and  from  that  period  his 
cai-eer  has  been  among  those  most  worthy  of  imitation.  As  President  of  tlie  ThirdNational  Bank,  "Vice  President  of  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce,  Trustee  of  the  Dollar  Savings  Bank,  Director  of  the  Exposition  Society,  andconnected  with  other 
corporations  and  public  trusts,  Mr.  Schmertz  has  established  a  reputation  for  fidelity  and  remarkable  business  acumen, 
of  which  any  citizen  of  this  commonwealth  might  be  proud. 

Mr.  Kammerer,  born  in  1834  and  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  has  always  been  prominent  in  fostering  every  public  move- 
ment that  seemed  likely  to  conduce  to  the  general  good.  Mr.  Dunning  and  Mr.  Murray  are  respectively  natives  of  Ohio 
and  Pennsylvania,  but  have  been  residents  of  this  city  for  some  years.  Asa  firm,  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  of  them  that 
in  all  those  attributes  that  lead  to  success  and  universal  consideration  W.  E.  Schmertz  &  Co.  have  been  endowed  to  a  re- 
markable degree. 

DUNCAN  &  THOMPSONS -5rw.j//  Manufactory,  No.  37  Fifth  Ave. 

The  reputation  of  Pittsburgh  Brushes  extends  throughout  the  United  States  and  even  to  the  islands  of  the  Atlantic 
and  Pacific  Ocean.  Among  the  leading  manufacturers  in  this  city,  we  may  mention  the  reliable  and  enterprising  House 
of  Duncan  &  Thompson,  who,  although  comparatively  young  in  the  business,  are  gentlemen  thoroughly  conversant  with 
every  detail  of  the  trade  as  manufacturers  and  energetic  business  men.  The  House  was  established  in  1875  by  Duncan 
&  Dilks,  who  conducted  the  business  until  October,  1877,  when  Mr.  Dilks  retired  and  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  John  W. 
Thompson.  In  January,  1879,  the  firm  became  Duncan  &  Thompsons.  Mr.  John  D.  Thompson,  the  founder  of  the  firm 
of  J.  D.  Thompson  &  Co.,  became  a  partner.  His  long  experience  in  the  manufacture  of  brushes  justifies  the  claim  of  the 
leading  Brush  House  in  Pittsburgh.  While  they  manufacture  and  keep  in  stock  a  full  assortment  of  all  kinds  of  Brushes, 
their  specialty  is  their  celebrated  brand  of  Paint,  Varnish,  White  Wash  and  Kalsomine  Brushes,  of  which  they  are  sole 
manufacturers,  and  which  are  considered  by  the  trade  superior  to  any  in  the  market. 

They  occupy  the  large  two-story  building  at  No.  37  Fifth  Avenue,  120  feet  deep,  and  employ  a  large  number  of  ex- 
perienced workmen.  Their  trade  at  present  is  among  the  jobbers,  retailers  and  artizans  of  Western  Pennsylvania  and 
adjacent  territory,  but  the  reputation  of  their  goods  is  rapidly  spreading  throughout  the  West  and  South.  They  carry 
an  average  stock  of  from  $15,000  to  $18,000,  with  a  yearly  business  exceeding  $60,000.  Mr.  Duncan  was  bom  in  Butler 
County,  Pennsylvania,  in  1844,  and  has  resided  in  Pittsburgh  since  1865.  Mr.  J.  D.  Thompson  is  a  native  of  Scotland, 
and  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1836.  Mr.  John  W.  Thompson  is  a  son  of  the  last-named  gentleman  and  was  born  in 
Allegheny  in  18.54. 

MONONGAHELA  INSURANCE  CO -Office,  No.  89  Fourth  Ave. 

The  Monongahela  Insurance  Co.,  of  Pittsburgh,  has  been  in  existence  for  the  past  quarter  of  a  century,  having  been 
incorporated  in  1854.  Their  actual  cash  capital  is  $175,000,  and  their  business,  which  amounts  to  aljout  $30,000  per  an- 
num, is  conducted  in  a  manner  eminently  worthy  of  the  business  reputation  of  the  well-known  gentlemen  composing 
its  Board  of  Directors  and  General  Managers.  Their  business  is  Marine,  Inland  and  General  Fire  Insurance,  and  is 
principally  local,  being  confined  almost  exclusively  within  the  limits  of  Alleglieny  County.  The  officers  of  the  Company 
are  Wm.  A.  Caldwell,  President,  Geo.  A.  Berry,  Vice  President,  John  H.  Claney,  Secretary,  and  F.  A.  Dohrman,  Sur- 
veyor, with  the  following  Board  of  Directors:  Wm.  A.  Caldwell,  President,  Geo.  A.  Berry,  Vice  President,  William  Ren, 
Robert  Dalzell,  William  Means,  James  Woodburn,  R.  H.  Palmer,  James  McCandlcss,  David  M.  Smith,  Geo.  VV.  Dil- 
worth,  Charles  Atwell,  Henry  Hays,  James  A.  McDevitt,  William  Cooper. 

GILLIAM  MAN'F'G.  CO.Saddtery  Hardware,  etc.,  97  and  99  Third  Ave. 

Established  in  1867  by  the  present  proprietor,  A.  Gilliam,  Esq.,  this  concern  has  grown  from  very  limited  propor- 
tions to  a  prominent  position  among  the  industries  of  the  Iron  City.  The  premises  now  occupied  in  this  branch  of 
manufacture  consist  of  one  large  four-story  double-brick  edifice,  at  Nos.  97  and  99  Third  Avenue,  30x84  feet,  the  first 
floor  being  used  for  sales  and  exhibition  room,  offices,  counting  rooms,  etc.,  and  the  rest  of  the  building  for  manufac- 
turing all  kinds  of  Saddlery  Hardware,  Gig-saddles  and  Gilliam's  Patent  Coach  Pads,  etc.  In  comparison  with  other 
similar  establishments,  it  may  be  said  that  this  is  the  only  one  west  of  the  Alleghenies,  all  the  goods  manufactured  here 
being  original  in  design  with  Mr.  Gilliam  and  protected  by  letters  patent  from  infringement.  Owing  largely  to  this 
fact,  the  trade  of  the  House  has  extended  from  Canada  to  California,  and  it  is  claimed  that  in  quality^  design  and 
cheapness  no  house  in  the  United  States  can  produce  such  satisfactory  results.  Fifty  hands,  two  traveling  salesmen, 
clerks,  etc.,  are  required  to  conduct  the  business,  the  machinery  consisting  of  ten  sewing  machines  and  numerous  steam 
presses,  dies  and  other  appliances  for  cutting  out  stock  and  securing  rapid  and  perfect  work. 

Mr.  Gilliam  is  a  native  of  Central  Ohio  and  wasformerly  engaged  in  manufacturing  business  of  a  similarline  of 

■  goods  in  Cincinnati,  removing  to  this  city  in  1867,  since  which  time  he  has  done  no  little  to  promote  its  industries,  and 

has  become  thoroughly  identified  with  its  development  and  prosperity.     No  house  enjoys  a  higher  position  conmier- 

cially  than  the  Gilliam  Manufacturing  Company,  which,  considering  the  liberal  and  enterprising  spirit  that  actuates 

its  operations,  is  as  natural  as  it  is  justly  deserved. 


110  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

A.  M.  SP££R,  M.  a, -Oculist  and  Aurisf,  No.  212  PennAve. 

The  treatment  of  Diseases  of  the  Eye  and  Ear  is  one  of  the  most  difficult  and  delicate  departments  of  the  medical 
profession,  and  of  late  years  it  has  been  almost  entirely  given  over  by  the  most  reliable  practitioners  in  the  country  to 
those  who  malj;e  it  their  especial  study.  While  many  irresponsible  physicians,  anxious  only  to  secure  their  fees,  will 
attempt  treatment  of  those  delicate  organs,  without  knowing  or  understanding  their  peculiarities,  it  will  be  noticed  that 
the  best  and  most  reliable  doctors  of  medicine  will  recommend  their  patients  to  the  services  of  some  successful  and  re- 
sponsible oculist  and  aurist  for  treatment  and  cure. 

Dr.  Speer  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  and  has  resided  in  the  Iron  City  for  forty-five  years,  excepting  two  years  spent 
In  Europe  and  five  years  as  Surgeon  in  the  Army.  He  graduated  at  Jefterson  College,  Philadelphia,  and  afterwards 
studied  in  the  best  medical  schools  of  Europe.  He  now  devotes  his  special  attention  to  Diseases  of  the  Eye  and  Ear. 
His  father  is  one  of  the  oldest  and  best  known  pliysicians  of  Pittsburgh,  having  been  in  continual  practice  here  since 
1825.  Ten  years  since  he  retired,  after  a  successful  and  honorable  career  of  more  than  half  a  century.  Dr.  A.  M.  Speer, 
whose  oflice  is  located  at  No.  212  Penn  Avenue,  is  a  thorough  and  practical  physician  and  has  met  with  marked  success 
in  the  sijecialty  for  which  he  is  noted. 

FAIRBANK'S  STANDARD  SCALES.-//.  C.  Dickinson,  Agt, 48  Wood  St. 

The  well-known  and  deservedly  popular  Scales  manufactured  by  Fairbanks  &  Co.,  at  St.  Johnsbury,  Vermont,  are 
universally  acknowledged  to  be  the  Standard,  not  only  in  this  countr}^  but  iu  many  foreign  countries.  This  old-estab- 
lished and  reliable  House  is  represented  in  Pittsburgh  by  Mr.  H.  C.  Dickinson,  whose  headquarters  is  at  No.  48  Wood 
Street.  They  have  been  established  here  since  1866  and  occupy  three  stories  and  basement  of  the  spacious  warehouse 
above  indicated.  He  carries  in  stock  a  full  line  of  the  various  sizes  and  patterns  of  scales  manufactured  by  the  Messrs 
Fairbanks,  which  he  otters  at  factory  prices.  He  also  takes  orders  for  the  firm,  shipping  directly  from  the  works,  if 
desired.  Mr.  Dickinson  has  sole  control  of  the  "Type  Writer"  for  this  section  and  is  Agent  for  the  most  approved 
styles  of  Lawn  Mowers  and  Hancock's  Patent  Inspirator,  an  invention  which  has  received  the  highest  encomiums  from 
all  who  have  given  it  a  trial.  Grocer's  Fixtures  form  an  important  feature  of  his  business,  which  amounts  to  from 
$60,000  to  $75,000  per  annum.  They  make  a  specialty  of  Fairbanlc's  Scales  and  of  repairing  the  same.  His  trade  ex- 
tends through  Western  Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio  and  West  Virginia,  and  ten  assistants  are  required  in  his  extensive 
establishment.  Mr.  Dickinson  has  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  since  1866,  where  he  has  built  up  a  large  and  flourish- 
ing business,  and  and  a  name  which  is  unblemished  in  the  commercial  world. 

PORTER  &  "DO'S A'L'D^O'^ -Wholesale  Millinery,  Cor.  5th  Av.  &  Liberty  St. 

This  enterprising  House,  which  now  ranks  as  the  leading  Wholesale  Millinery  Establishment  of  Pittsburgh,  was 
founded  in  1867  by  succeeding  to  an  old  established  House  in  Steubeuville,  Ohio.  In  that  place  an  annual  business  of 
$100,000  was  done  under  the  firm  name  of  Porter,  Donaldson  &  Co.  In  1872  the  present  House  was  established  in  Pitts- 
burgh, but  the  above-named  members  of  the  firm  still  retained  their  interest  in  the  old  House  at  Steubenville. 

In  1878  the  firm  was  divided,  Messrs.  Porter  &  Donaldson  assuming  the  entire  ownership  and  control  of  the  Pitts- 
burgh branch  and  the  other  members  of  the  firm  continuing  the  Steubenville  House.  They  occupy  here  the  second  and 
third  floors  of  the  new  and  elegant  edifice  corner  of  Liberty  Street  and  Fifth  Avenue,  35x100  feet,  which  is  filled  with  an 
extensive  and  well-selected  assortment  of  seasonable  millinery  goods,  consisting  of  Ribbons,  Laces,  Flowers,  Feathers, 
Hats,  Bonnets,  Silks,  Velvets,  etc.  Tliey  carry  an  average  stock  of  about  130,000,  although  at  certain  seasons  the  valua- 
tion will  reach  double  that  amount,  and  transact  an  annual  business  exceeding  .$200,000,  which  is  principally  located  in 
Western  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  West  Virginia  and  adjoining  States.  They  employ  thirteen  clerks  and  salesmen,  and 
their  trade  is  exclusively  wholesale.  They  import  direct  a  large  portion  of  their  foreip;n  goods  and  are  recognized  as 
gentlemen  of  enterprise,  ability  and  strict  integrity.  To  the  Jobber  or  Retail  Dealer,  this  House  presents  advantages 
not  equalled  by  any  other  House  in  Pittsburgh. 

H.  D.  Mcknight  &  CO -EcHpse  steam  Pump  Works,  First  Ave.  d  Ferry  St. 

The  articles  manufactured  at  these  extensive  works  are  principally  Steam  Pumping  Machinery  and  Pumps  of  every 
description,  and  the  celebrated  Eclipse  Steam  Boiler.  This  House  has  long  been  noted  for  their  excellent  quality  of 
work,  for  their  complete  and  unrivalled  machinery  and  facilities  for  manufacturing,  and  under  the  new  managers  they 
will  in  no  wise  deteriorate  or  fall  short  of  the  reputation  of  previous  years.  These  works  were  established  iu  1853  by 
Mr.  Davison  Phillips,  who  conducted  the  business  for  five  years,  when  Mr.  Wm.  H.  Cluley  was  admitted  as  a  partner 
under  the  firm  name  of  Phillips  &  Cluley.  In  1873  this  firm  was  succeeded  by  S.  D.  Hubbard  &  Co.,  who  carried  on 
the  business  for  five  years,  wlien,  in  1878,  the  present  proprietors  assumed  the  sole  control.  The  business  now  amounts 
in  round  numbers  to  not  less  than  $100,000  per  annum.  The  "Eclipse"  Works  occupy  the  large  four-story  structure, 
36x100  feet,  at  the  corner  of  First  Avenue  ad  Ferry  Street,  employing  twenty  hands,  with  a  monthly  pay-roll  averaging 
$1,500.    Tlie  motive  power  for  their  extensive  machinery  is  supplied  >y  one  powerful  sixty-horse  power  engine. 

They  manufacture  the  celebrated  Eclipse  Balance-Wheel  Steam  Pump,  which  has  been  pronounced  by  mechanical 
experts  tlie  best  and  most  reliable  steam  pump  now  in  use,  having  excellent  qualities  wliich  will  commend  it  to  all 
who  will  investigate.  They  are  made  for  both  hot  and  cold  water.  At  tlie  Centennial  Exposition  in  Philadelphia,  in 
1876,  these  pumps  were  awarded  the  highest  Medal  of  Honor  and  a  Diploma  of  Merit.  Every  pump  furnished  by  tliis 
establishment  is  fully  guaranteed.  In  addition  to  the  various  pumps  for  feeding  boilers,  Messrs.  McKiiigiit  &  Co.  make 
a  specialty  of  Pumps  for  the  following  purposes:  Water  Works,  Mining,  Oil  Refinery,  Oil  Tanks,         Soap,  Lye, 

Lard,  Vinegar,  Tar,  Tallow,  Benzine,  Bleacheries,  Gas  Works,  etc.,  etc.,  and,  in  fact,  every  deseriiJtidu  or  style  of  Pump 
which  by  any  possibility  may  be  required.  They  also  pay  special  attention  to  Repairing  of  all  kinds  in  conaectiou. 
The  trade  of  these  works  extends  all  over  the  United  States. 

NIEMAN  &  AUI^HIiS^-Merchant  Tailors,  d  Furnishing  Goods,  101  Smithfield  St. 

The  elegant  establishment  of  Nieman  &  Ahlers,  located  at  No.  101  Smithfield  Street,  three  doors  from  Fifth 
Avenue,  has  long  been  famous  as  the  headquarters  for  fine  Clothing  and  Gentlemen's  Furnishing  Goods.  This  House 
was  established  in  1854  by  H.  H.  Nieman.  In  1861  Mr.  H.  Ahlers  became  associated  with  him  under  the  present  firm 
name  and  style,  and  their  business  has  largely  increased  under  the  judicious  management  of  these  enterprising  gen- 
tlemen. They  occupy  the  entire  four  floors,  each  20x60,  in  Howard  Block,  at  the  number  indicated,  and  carry  a  full 
line  of  desirable  fabrics  for  gentlemen's  wear,  together  with  a  large  and  judiciously  selected  assortment  of  Gents' 
Furnishing  Goods.  They  make  a  specialty  of  manufacturing  Fine  Suits  to  order,  in  the  most  thorough,  fashionable 
and  workmanlike  manner.  The  value  of  their  stock  is  about  $9,000  and  the  annual  business  amounts  from  $30,000  to 
$40,000.  They  employ  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  hands  in  their  manufacturing  department  and  their  business  is  one 
of  the  largest  in  the  city.  Mr.  H.  H.  Nieman  was  born  in  Germany  in  1832  ;  he  came  to  the  United  States  in  1846  and 
to  Pittsburgh  the  same  year.  Mr.  H.  Ahlers  is  also  a  native  of  Germany,  where  he  was  born  in  1832.  He  has  been  a 
resident  of  Pittsburgh  since  1852. 

14 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  Ill 


J.  B.  BERND  &,  CO,— Importer s&  Wholesale  Millinery  Goods.Cor.SfhAv.d  Market  St. 

Mr.  J.  D.  Bernd,  the  founder  of  this  House,  now  in  the  seventeenth  year  of  its  existence,  was  born  in  the  pictur- 
esque little  village  called  Hohen-Solnis,  near  Giesen,  on  the  line  of  railway  between  Frankfort-on-Main  and  Cassel,  in 
Germany.  He  came  to  this  country  at  four  years  of  age  and  received  an  elementary  education  in  Philadelphia.  His 
parents  were  in  comfortable  circumstances  and  held  in  high  esteem  in  their  old  home  in  Germany.  His  father,  a  man 
of  considerable  culture  and  sterling  integrity,  meeting  with  reverses  after  coming  here,  made  it  incumbent  on  the 
children  to  earn  a  living,  and  thus  the  subject  of  this  sketch,  at  the  age  of  thirteen,  commenced  his  career,  and  rose 
from  humble  errand  boy,  at  a  salary  of  fifty  cents  a  week,  through  the  various  gradations  of  salesman,  in  various  lines 
of  business,  traveling  for  his  respective  firms,  which  occasionally  brought  him  to  Pittsburgh.  This  is  down  to  1857, 
when  his  firm  in  Philadelphia  (Mr.  B.  having  a  mere  nominal  interest  in  the  business)  succumbed  to  the  panic,  when 
he  went  to  New  York  City.  Still  pursuing  his  vocation  as  traveling  salesman  until  the  Spring  of  1861,  he  was  sent 
out  here  to  open  a  branch  Millinery  House,  and  the  following  Spring  (1862)  commenced  here  on  his  own  account. 

He  first  occupied  the  second-story  front  room  over  (then)  Reed's  Jewelry  Store,  at  94  Fifth  Avenue.  The  next 
season  (Fall  1862)  he  occupied  the  second  story  over  what  is  now  Jno.  Wanamaker  &  Go's.  In  the  Spring  of  1863  he 
moved  to  his  present  location,  occupying  at  that  time  only  the  second  story  of  this  building.  Here  the  business 
gradually  increased,  until  the  year  1870,  when  the  building  was  enlarged,  making  a  frontage  on  Market  Street  of  forty 
feet  and  "seventy-five  feet  on  Fifth  Avenue.  The  firm  then  became  J.  D.  Bernd  &  Co.  by  the  admission  of  Mr.  E.  B. 
Eckstein  as  partner  and  occupying  the  entire  three  stox'ies  of  the  premises.  The  three  stories  were  built  to  accommo- 
date the  increasing  business  of  the  firm,  putting  in  elevator  and  all  modern  improvements,  J.  D.  Bernd  &  Co.  making 
all  the  interior  embellishments  and  conveniences,  making  them  the  best  adapted  lofts  for  their  business  in  this  city, 
and,  for  that  matter,  any  city  in  this  country. 

In  187.3  Mr.  S.  L.  Fleishman  became  a  partner,  with  the  view  of  adding  notions  and  otherwise  extending  the  busi- 
ness, but  the  panic  followed,  and  it  became  necessary  to  contract  instead  of  expanding.  Mr.  Fleishman  retired  from 
the  business  January  1,  187.5.  In  1877,  Messrs.  C.  B.  Elben  and  S.  M.  Eose,  two  of  the  head  salesmen,  were  admitted 
to  a  silent  interest  in  the  House.  In  1878,  Mr.  E.  B.  Eckstein  opened  a  Retail  Branch  House  in  St.  Louis,  as  Bernd  & 
Eckstein.  This  business  at  the  end  of  the  first  year  became  such  an  assured  success  that  Mr.  Eckstein  assumed  the 
St.  Louis  business  on  his  account,  leaving  Mr.  J.  D.  Bernd  to  continue  the  Pittsburgh  House.  Mr.  Bernd  has  been 
twice  to  Europe  since  his  advent  in  Pittsburgh,  each  time  importing  goods  and  forming  permanent  connections  with 
that  view.  They  have  a  nominal  office  in  Paris  and  an  active  one  in  New  York  City  represented  by  a  buyer ;  besides, 
Mr.  Bernd  and  Messrs.  Eose  and  Elben  are  also  frequently  in  the  market.  They  use  a  fifty-lrip  firm  book  over  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad  to  New  York.  These  books  are  good  only  for  a  year,  which  gives  evidence  of  the  enterprise 
and  energy  displaj'ed  by  this  firm.  '  Their  sales  range  fi-om  ?22.5, 000  to  :$250,000  per  annum,  and  being  almost  entirely 
Millinery  Goods,  gives  it  a  commercial  rank  and  standing  among  the  largest  of  its  class.  Their  business  is  largely  in 
the  two  cities  and  through  Eastern  Ohio,  Western  Pennsylvania  and  West  Virginia.  Their  stores  for  neatness  and 
cleanliness  are  considered  the  model  ones  in  this  city,  and  are  constantly  commented  on  as  to  how  a  nlace  can  be  kept 
so  clean  and  fresh  in  Pittsburgh. 

The  business  in  all  its  various  details  of  management  is  conducted  upon  principles  of  pure  mer- 
cantile integi'ity,  and  it  is  to  these  merits  that  the  credit,  reputation  and  confidence  of  the  House  owes  its  success. 

WM  PICKERSGILL,  Jr -Man' fr,  &  Jobber  of  Boots  &  Shoes,  149  Wood  St. 

As  pursuing  a  very  important  branch  of  industry  bearing  upon  the  general  commercial  prosperity  and  mercantile 
thrift  of  this  city,  the  House  of  Wm.  Pickersgill,  Jr.,  may  not  be  overlooked  in  a  publication  whose  special  object  will 
be  attained  in  the  proper  display  of  the  natural  resources  and  acquired  advantages  of  Pittsburgh  as  a  great  center  of 
manufacturers  and  productive  trade. 

This  House  was  established  in  1859,  and  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  has  continued  a  career  whose  success  has 
been  uninterrupted  by  the  various  convulsions,  political  and  financial,  that  have  taken  place  during  that  eventful 
period.  Very  early  in  its  history  Mr.  Pickersgill  perceived  the  advantages  likelj'  to  accrue  to  his  customers  and  him- 
self from  the  establishment  of  a  manufactory,  where  not  only  every  grade  of  goods  might  be  produced,  but  where 
special  orders  could  be  filled  with  promptness  and  economy,  enabling  him  to  compete  on  equal  grounds  with  the 
Eastern  manufacturers.  From  this  idea  originated  his  present  extensive  factory  (in  the  rear  of  tlie  warehouse  and 
sales  rooms),  a  large  brick  building,  20x80  feet,  three  stories  in  height,  where  are  constantly  employed  from  forty-five 
to  fifty  skilled  operatives  and  from  which  is  turned  out  work  in  every  department  that  will  bear  comparison  with 
that  emanating  from  the  largest  and  best  known  manufactories  in  the  country.  With  these  facilities,  and  occupying 
one  of  the  largest  business  edifices  in  the  city,  a  trade  that  extends  through  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio,  West  Virginia, 
Iowa,  Indiana  and  Ulinois,  Mr.  Pickersgill  has  established  an  annual  business  that  will  average  about  $2.50,000,  and 
requires  in  its  various  departments,  aside  from  the  manufactory,  six  traveling  salesmen,  two  book-keepers,  five  city 
salesmen  and  other  employes. 

Altogether,  the  House  of  Mr.  Pickersgill  takes  equal  rank  with  any  in  the  State  and  is  entitled  to  consideration  as 
such,  while  the  jninciples  upon  which  it  is  conducted  are  alike  liberal  and  enterprising.  As  a  business  man  the 
founder  of  this  House  has  done  no  little  to  enhance  the  reputation  of  Pittsburgh  in  the  diversity  of  its  industries,  and 
as  one  who  has  always  conserved  the  public  interest  in  every  reformatory  measure,  he  has  achieved  a  place  in  the 
esteem  of  the  community  as  richly  deserved  as  it  is  sincere. 

A.  O'Ij'BA'R'Y— China,  Glass  and  Queensware,  No.  73  Wood  St. 

One  of  the  oldest  Houses  in  its  line  in  this  city  is  that  of  Mr.  A.  O'Leary,  now  situated  at  No.  73  Wood  Street. 
The  business  was  first  started  by  John  J.  O'Leary  in  1854,  witli  a  capital  of  $10,000,  and  conducted  by  him  up  to  1871, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  the  present  proprietor  who  has  perfected  arrangements  for  meeting  the  wants  of  the  trade 
ujion  as  good  terms  as  any  house  in  Cleveland  or  Pliiladelphia.  He  carries  a  stock  of  about  $10,000,  consisting  of  every 
desirable  variety  of  Foreign  and  Domestic  China,  Glass  and  Queensware,  and  occupies  three  floors  and  basement  of  an 
ample  building,  where  he  employs  three  men  and  is  doing  a  trade  of  about  .f  :jO,onO  per  annum,  through  Western  Penn- 
sylvania, but  has  a  large  city  trade.  His  Eetail  Department  offers  special  inducements  and  attracts  a  large  patrona:jp. 
Mr.  O'Leary  handles  English  and  French  Goods  quite  extensively  and  imports  directly  from  foreign  manufacturers.  He 
is  thirty-five  years  of  age,  a  native  of  this  city,  and  an  enterprising  busine.ss  man. 

GEl^Y  &  CO -Distillers  &  Wholesale  Dealers  in  Whiskey,  184  &  186  First  Ave. 

The  house  of  Getty  &  Co.,  was  founded  in  1872  by  Mr.  James  Getty,  Jr.,  who  is  at  present  sole  proprietor.  Mr. 
Getty  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  but  became  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  at  an  early  age.  He  deals  largely  in  Wines, 
Liquors,  etc.,  carrying  a  stock  of  about  $5,000,  and  transacting  a  bu.siness  of  $30,000  per  annum.  His  trade  is  principally 
located  in  Pittsburgh  and  vicinity,  and  he  makes  a  specialty  of  supplying  families  with  the  purest  and  best  articles  of 
Old  Manongahela  Eye  Whiskey.  His  stores  are  located  at  Nos.  184  &  186  First  avenue,  being  36x50  feet  in  size.  To  all, 
in  want  of  a  pure  article  of  unadulterated  liquors  for  medicinal  or  family  use,  we  can  confidently  recommend  the  house 
of  Getty  and  Co.,  whose  goods  are  selected  expressly  for  the  purposes  named. 

15 


112  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

McCANDIiESS,  JAMISON  &  CO.-Dry  Goods  and  Notions,  103  Wood  St. 

This  House  was  established  in  1838  by  Gregg  &  McCandless,  succeeded  by  J.  M.  McCandless  &  Co.  in  1851,  and  by 
the  present  style  of  firm  in  1854,  with  a  few  changes  in  its  members  which  are  now  composed  of  Jas.  McCandless, 
Thomas  Jamison  and  J.  M.  Simpson,  who  are  still  conducting  the  business,  Mr.  McCandless  residing  in  the  East, 
where  he  manages  the  purchasing  department  of  the  concern  at  No.  214  Chestnut  Street,  Philadelphia. 

As  the  oldest,  and  one  of  the  largest  Dry  Goods  Houses  in  this  city,  its  commercial  connections  range  not  alone 
over  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  but  Eastern  Ohio,  West  Virginia  and  Maryland,  together  with  other  points  more  dis- 
tantly removed.  Unshaken  by  the  financial  disasters  that  have  wrecked  less  solid  and  conservative  firms,  the  history 
of  this  House  for  forty-one  years  is  one  of  the  most  pointed  exponents  possible  of  the  business  thrift  and  able  man- 
agement of  the  concern,  which  in  spite  of  all  general  depression  has  continued  to  increase  its  strength,  trade  and 
special  facilities. 

In  the  departments  of  Woolens,  Domestic  Blankets  and  Flannels,  this  House  oflfers  inducements  to  buyers  which 
are  not  only  unrivalled  in  this  but  in  any  other  market,  and  forms  the  bulk  of  the  enormous  business  done  by  the 
firm,  which  in  this  city  is  conducted  by  Messrs.  Jamison  and  Simpson,  resident  partners,  whose  names  are  synony- 
mous with  that  liberal  commercial  rectitude  for  which  the  House  has  always  been  characterized. 

ALBREE  &  CO.-Boots  and  Shoes,  No.  71  Wood  St. 

This  House  was  established  by  Mr.  Geo.  Albree  more  than  half  a  century  ago,  during  which  period  the  business  has 
been  conducted  without  interruption,  regardless  of  general  commercial  derangements,  financial  panics,  or  social  upheav- 
als. As  the  oldest  Shoe  house  in  the  West,  it  is  at  the  same  time  perhaps  the  best  known,  from  the  remarkable  charac- 
teristics of  its  founder,  whose  unflinching  integrity,  great  liberality,  and  financial  solvency,  are  as  widely  recognized  as 
his  marked  proficiency  as  a  meteorologist.  In  1876  Mr.  Geo.  Albree  retired  from  active  participation  in  the  business, 
and  was  succeeded  under  the  above  title  by  his  son,  Jos.  Albree,  and  W.  P.  Thomson,  who  still  maintain  the  established 
conservative  proclivities  of  the  House,  at  the  same  time  infusing  into  the  business  an  energy  that  keeps  it  abreast  of  the 
times  and  in  sharp  competition  with  younger  cotemporaries  in  the  same  trade.'  The  business  premises  occupied  by  the 
firm  are  of  ample  dimensions  for  the  storage  and  display  of  a  stock  extraordinary  for  excellence,  and  the  uniform  care 
displayed  in  its  selection.  The  jobbing  trade  of  the  house  extends  beyond  pur  own  into  two  or  three  adjacent  States, 
while  the  retail  department,  to  which  the  liouse  is  giving  close  attention  and  great  variety  of  styles  to  the  custom,  at 
prices  ranging  usually  lower  than  the  exnluseively  retail  houses,  embraces  the  highest  class  of  dealers  and  buyers  with- 
in the  commercial  range  of  this  city  and  home  patrons. 

DR.  GEORGE  H.  IK.'EYS'ER,- Physician,  120  &  240  Penn  Ave. 

For  many  years  the  name  of  Doctor  Keyser  has  been  "familiar  as  household  words"  to  most  of  the  families  of 
Pittsburgh  and  the  towns  within  a  radius  of  three  hundred  miles,  not  only  by  reason  of  the  wonderful  cures  he  has 
performed  in  his  professional  capacity,  but  the  excellence  and  efficacy  of  the  many  preparations  from  his  laboratory. 
Dr.  Keyser  is  a  native  of  Franklin  county,  Pa.,  but  has  for  many  years  resided  in  Pittsburgh.  He  is  a  graduate  of  two 
medical  schools,  both  allopathic  and  eclectic,  and  has  attained  considerable  celebrity  as  a  surgeon.  He  has  been  a 
practitioner  for  the  past  thirty-five  years  and  met  with  the  most  gratifying  success.  Of  late  years  he  has  abandoned 
the  allopathic  system  of  treatment  and  devotes  his  attention  principally  to  the  treatment  and  cure  of  chronic  diseases. 
Probably  no  physician  living  to-day  has  devoted  so  much  attention  and  study  to  diseases  of  the  lungs  and  pulmonary 
organs,  and  we  are  confident  that  no  one  has  effected  so  many  permanent  cures  of  the  most  difficult  cases.  The  doctor 
has  been  a  well  known  ,  highly  respected  and  honored  citizen  of  Pittsburgh  for  thirty-one  years,  during  twenty-seven 
of  which,  he  was  proprietor  of  the  leading  drug  store  of  the  City,  on  Wood  street.  For  a  number  of  years  he  was  pres- 
ident of  the  eclectic  medical  association  of  Allegheny  county,  and  has  always  enjoyed  the  most  unbounded  confidence 
and  respect  of  the  profession.  His  oflices  at  present  are  at  No.  120  and  at  240  Penn  Ave.,  his  laboratory  being  at  the 
latter  number,  where  he  manufactures  and  distributes  all  over  the  country,  his  famous  preparations  known  as  "Dr. 
Keyser's  Lung  Cure  or  Pulmonary  Restorative,"  "Dr.  Keyser's  Pectoral  Cough  Syrup"  and  other  medicines  of  his 
own  exclusive  discovery  and  manufacture.  Tlie  virtues  of  his  widely  known  and  justly  celebrated  medicines  are 
known  and  appreciated  by  invalids  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  and  we  can  only  advise  all  afflicted  with  diseases  of  the 
lungs  or  pulmonary  organs,  to  call  on  Dr.  Keyser,  or  send  for  his  valuable  works,  which  will  be  forwarded  free  on  ap- 
plication as  above. 

WM.GUCKERT&  CO, -Desks,  Tables,  Wardrobes,  Cherry  d  Strawberry  Alleys. 

The  manufacture  of  Extension  and  Centre  Tables,  Wardrobes,  Office  Desks,  Book  Cases  and  similar  articles  is  car- 
ried on  extensively  in  connection  with  that  of  Banisters,  Newel  posts.  Hand  Railings,  &c.,  by  Messrs.  William  Guckert 
&  Co.,  at  their  factories,  corner  of  Cherry  and  Strawberry  alleys,  between  Smithfield  &  Grant  Sts.  This  business  was 
established  in  1849  by  Valentine  Guckert  &  Bro.,  who  were  succeeded  in  1878  by  the  present  proprietors  Messrs.  Wil- 
liam, Anthony  and  Frank  Guckert,  all  of  whom  are  natives  and  life-long  residents  of  Allegheny  county.  They  occu- 
py two  large  factories  at  the  location  mentioned  above,  one,  four  stories  in  height,  50x60  feet  in  size,  which  is  used  for 
the  manufacture  of  every  description  of  cabinet  work,  and  another,  tliree  stories  high,  25x60,  where  wood  turning, 
scroll  sawing  and  jobbing  of  all  lane's  is  carried  on.  The  capital  employed  in  the  business  is  $15,000,  and  their  trade, 
which  is  larger  than  that  of  any  similar  establishment  in  the  West,  extends  through  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  Virginia, 
West  Virginia  and  many  of  the  other  States.  The  specialty  of  this  house  is  the  manufacture  of  Centre  and  Extension 
Tables,  of  which  they  keep  a  large  stock  on  hand  and  manufacture  to  order  from  any  desired  material  and  in  any  size 
or  style.  They  also  manufacture  a  variety  of  styles  of  Brackets  from  their  own  patterns  and  designs,  besides  giving 
their  careful  attention  to  every  description  of  job  work  in  their  line. 

S.  HAMILTON— Pianos  and  Organs,  87  Fifth  Ave. 

In  1871  the  firm  of  S.  Hamilton  &  Co.  was  established,  and  in  1875  Mr.  Hamilton  became  sole  proprietor.  The 
line  of  business  carried  on  by  him  is  that  of  wholesale  and  retail  dealer  in  Pianos  and  Organs,  being  the  only  house  in 
this  city  dealing  exclusively  in  these  instruments.  He  occupies  the  spacious  sales  rooms,  20x120  feet,  at  No.  87  Fifth 
avenue,  nearly  opposite  the  Pittsburgh  Opera  House,  with  a  stock  of  these  goods  valued  at  from  $20,000  to  $25j000,  do- 
ing an  annual  business  of  $150,000,  which  is  the  largest  in  that  line  of  any  house  in  the  city.  Mr.  Hamilton  is  agent 
for  the  celebrated  Decker  Bros.  Pianos  and  the  Estey  Cottage  Organs,  both  of  which  articles  have  acquired  a  world- 
wide reputation  as  being  second  to  none  manufactured.  While  he  makes  a  specialty  of  these  superior  articles,  he  also 
keeps  a  large  line  of  cheaper  grades  and  other  makes,  which,  owing  to  the  superior  advantages  posses.sed  by  him,  he  is 
enabled  to  sell  at  great  bargains.  Mr.  Hamilton  is  a  native  of  Allegheny  county,  and  well  known  and  widely  e8t«emed 
as  a  citizen  and  business  man. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  113 


ALLEGHENY  INSURANCE  CO.-Office,  No.  67  Fourth  Ave. 

Incorporated  twenty  years  ago  under  the  laws  of  Pennsylvania,  as  a  Fire  and  Marine  Insurance  Co.,  the  Alle- 
gheny Insurance  Company  began  business  April  4th,  1859,  and  is  therefore  intimately  connected  with  the  most  vital 
periods  of  our  commercial  and  municipal  history.  Among  those  who  were  interested  in  tlie  inception  of  this  organiza- 
tion as  applicants  for  a  charter  and  stockholders,  are  observed  names  that  can  never  be  omitted  from  a  record  of  the 
industries  of  Pittsburgh  ;  the  list  is  given  entire,  because  many  of  them  have  passed  away,  leaving  untarnished  names 
and  a  projected  influence  that  must  affect  every  institution  with  which  they  were  connected.  Incorporation  Commis- 
sioners :  Hon.  Thos.  M.  Howe,  Jas.  B.  Murray,  Esq.,  Dr.  C.  G.  Hussey,  Harvey  Childs,  Esq.,  \Vm.  M.  Lyon,  Esq., 
John  D.  McCord,  Esq.,  Isaac  Jones,  Esq.,  Geo.  W.  Jackson,  John  A.  Wilson,  Geo.  E.  White,  Allen  Kramer,  Hon. 
Geo.  W.  Cass,  Capt.  Robt.  Beer,  R.  B.  Sterling,  James  Laughlin,  Alexander  Speer,  Mark  AV.  Watson,  and  Robt.  Pat- 
rick. The  present  officers  of  the  company  are  as  follows:  John  Irwin,  Jr.,  Prest.,  Jas.  S.  McCord,  Vice  Prest.,  C.  G. 
Donnell,  Secty.,  and  Capt.  Wm.  Dean,  Gen'l  Ag't.,  all  being  natives  of  Pennsylvania,  except  Capt.  Dean,  wiio  was 
born  in  Columbiana  Co.,  Ohio,  but  has  been  connected  with  this  company  for  twenty  years,  and  for  thirty  ycr.rs  pre- 
vious was  engaged  in  the  River  traffic  between  this  point  and  Cincinnati  as  captain  upon  the  old  Packet  line.  Mr. 
Irwin  is  a  member  of  the  firm  of  T.  H.  Nevin  &  Co.,  White  Lead  Manufacturers,  in  Allegheny  City,  and  Mr.  McCord 
is  now  senior  partner  of  the  old  house  of  McCord  &  Co.,  Hatters,  No.  131  Wood  St.,  and  Mr.  Donnell  has  always  been 
intimately  identified  with  the  Insurance  business  as  an  able  ur(derwriter.  So  officered  and  managed,  this  company 
has  stood  the  various  disasters  of  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  with  unflinching  solvency.  It  has  paid  all  its  losses 
promptly  and  rarely  passed  a  dividend.  With  a  paid  up  capital  of  $100,000  it  has  accumulated  assets  to  the  amount  of 
$1.31,17.3,63,  with  a  surplus  of  over  $16,000.  The  policy  of  its  management  from  the  first  has  been  a  liberal  and  a  just  one, 
the  natural  result  being  that  no  similar  institution  in  the  city  is  regarded  with  greater  favor  or  respect. 

CENTRAL  REFINING  CO -Office,  178  Wood  Street. 

The  gigantic  growth  and  present  importance  of  the  Oil  Trade  in  Pennsylvania,  and  especially  with  reference  to 
its  bearing  upon  the  business  of  Pittsburgh,  may  be  perhaps  somewhat  illustrated  by  a  brief  account  of  the  operations 
of  the  Central  Refining  Company,  wliich  was  incorporated  in  1873,  the  officers  being  W.  M.  McKelvey,  President, 
Wm.  Frew,  Esq.,  Vice  President,  and  F.  J.  Gillespie,  Secretary  and  Treasurer,  the  capital  stock  being  $255,300.  The 
property  of  the  Company  consists  of  one  Refinery  and  Barrel  Factory  at  Kennedy's  Station  on  the  West  Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad,  and  one  Refinery  at  Sharpsburg,  on  the  same  road,  eighteen  buildings,  substantially  constructed, 
forty  tanks,  two  steam  engines,  fourteen  steam  pumps,  with  other  machinery,  together  with  all  the  modern  apparatus 
of  the  barrel  factory,  covering  in  allnearly  fifty  acres.  Here  are  employed  about  350  hands  in  the  various  depart- 
ments, requiring  a  monthly  disbursement  of  S12,000  and  producing  40,000  barrels  of  Refined  Oil  per  month,  all  of 
which  finds  its  way  to  European  and  other  foreign  markets. 

J.  H.  ST'E'VENSOTS,- Attorney  at  Law,  No.  JOG  Fifth  Ave. 

In  addition  to  his  regular  law  practice,  Mr.  Stevenson  is  Notary  Public,  Real  Estate  Agent,  Patent  Attorney  and 
Solicitor.  He  has  been  established  in  Pittsburgh  since  1871  and  enjoys  a  large  and  lucrative  patronage.  His  Real 
Estate  business  is  large,  extending  through  Western  Pennsylvania,  and  having  a  thorough  understanding  of  the  Pat- 
ent business,  examinations  of  claims  and  securing  patents  has  been  very  successful  in  that  line.  Mr.  Stevenson  was 
born  in  Lawrence  county,  Pa.,  in  1842.  He  received  his  early  education  in  the  public  schools  of  New  Castle,  Pa.,  and 
read  law  with  J.  Smith  Du  Shane,  Esq.,  then  district  attorney  of  Lawrence  county.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1868  at  New  Castle,  where  he  practiced  successfully  for  two  years.  He  afterwards  practiced  three  years  in  Beaver 
county,  from  which  place  he  removed  to  Pittsburgh,  where  he  has  met  with  the  most  encouraging  success  and  estab- 
lished a  high  reputation. 

C.  F.  AUIuBUS -Merchant  Tailor,  No.  77  Smithfield  St. 

This  house  was  established  in  1867  as  Ahlers  and  Bayha,  the  latter  retiring  from  the  firm  in  1872  and  Mr.  Ahlers 
becoming  sole  proprietor.  He  has  stock  amounting  in  value  to  $4,000,  and  at  present  is  transacting  an  annual  business 
of  815,000,  although  at  times  it  has  amounted  to  as  high  as  $25,000.  He  has  eleven  men  in  his  employ,  to  whom  he 
pays  an  average  salary  of  $14  per  week.  His  trade,  which  is  large,  and  rapidly  increasing,  is  located  principally  in 
the  city  and  surrounding  country.  Mr.  Ahlers'  goods  are  of  the  best  quality,  and  the  fit  and  style  of  his  suits  are  un- 
equalled in  the  city.    He  was  born  in  Germany  in  1834,  and  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1857,  where  he  has  since  resided. 

H.  'LA.'SZt,— Boots  and  Shoes,  113  Market  Street,  at  Junction  of  Market  and  Liberty  Sts. 

Mr.  Lanz  is  classed  among  the  few  fir.st-class  workmen  in  the  city.  His  neat  establishment  is  divided  into  two 
departments,  viz: — Manufactory  and  Salesroom,  in  which  departments  five  hands,  men  who  are  thoroughly  first-class 
workmen,  are  busily  employed.  Mr.  Lanz  carries  a  stock  ranging  from  $2,000  to  $3,000,  composed  of  the  very  best  ar- 
ticles that  can  be  manufactured.  He  deals  in  all  kinds  of  Men  and  Boys',  as  well  as  Misses'  and  Ladies'  Goods,  both 
of  the  heavy  and  fine  manufacture.  Mr.  Lanz  has  been  engaged  in  this  business  for  about  twenty  years,  and  formerly 
was  established  at  No.  21  Diamond  Street,  where  he  had  hosts  of  cu.stomers  and  friends  whom  he  still  retains.  His 
trade  is  located  mainly  in  the  city  and  is  rapidly  increasing  since  his  removal  to  Market  and  Liberty  Streets.  He 
makes  a  specialty  of  Fine  Custom  Work,  in  the  manufacture  of  which  he  has  no  superiors  and  few  equals. 

R.  C.  OEHMLER,-yi/o.  78  Fourth  Avenue. 

Painter,  Proprietor  &  Mfr  of  Oehtnler's  Patent  Star  Gold  Faint,  Liquid  &  Blackboard  Slating, 

For  fifteen  years  Mr.  Oehmler  has  been  one  of  the  most  prosperous  painters  in  our  city  and  still  gives  employment  to 
6  or  8  hands,  and  often  to  a  large  number,  in  the  capacity  of  house,  office,  sign  and  ornamental  painting,  gilding,  etc. 
He  is  the  patentee  and  manufacturer  of  Oehraler's  Patent  Star  Gold  Paint  Liquid,  "Ready  Made  Sizing"  and  Ochinler's 
Slating  for  Blackboards,  all  three  of  which  are  the  results  of  his  thorough  knowledge  of  oils,  paints  and  metals,  after 
close  study  and  untiring  experiments.  The  Star  Gold  Paint  Liquid  and  the  Blackboard  Slating  are  his  specialties. 
The  former  being  a  composition  used  in  the  form  of  paint,  which  gives  a  bright,  durable,  bronze  surface  to  metals  to 
which  it  is  applied,  superior  to  any  other  preparation  in  the  world;  the  latter,  also  in  a  form  to  be  applied  as  paint,  has 
had  practical  tests  in  our  own  public  schools  and  has  manifested  all  he  claims  for  it  as  a  superior  slating  surface  for 
marking,  distinctiveness  and  easiness  of  erasure,  and,  an  excellent  blackboard  surface,  applicable  either  to  plaster,  wood 
or  paper.  His  products  have  already  attained  a  celebrity  throughout  this  country  and  Europe,  and  can  be  found  in 
nearly  every  paint  and  drug  store,  being  represented  in  our  own  city  by  Geo.  A.  Kelly  &  Co.,  and  other  first  class 
houses. 
17  (8) 


114  INDUSTEIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

H.  E.  COLLINS  &  CO -Brokers  in  Pig  Iron  &  Metals,  175  Wood  St.,  Cor.  Liberty. 

As  Special  Dealers  and  Brokers  in  Ores,  Iron,  Zinc,  Lead  and  Metals,  Pig  Iron,  Spelter,  Spiegeleisen,  Ferro,  Man- 
ganese and  Copper,  New  Iron  and  Steel  Rails,  Old  Iron  and  Steel  Bails  and  Car  Wheels,  Bessemer  Rail  Ends,  etc., 
tlie  firm  of  H.  E.  Collins  &  Co.  have  established  a  connection  and  risen  to  a  prominence  among  the  manufacturers  of 
this  city  that  places  them  at  the  head  of  this  very  important  branch  of  industry. 

Mr.  Collins  is  originally  from  New  York  State,  and  Mr.  Jas.  H.  Murdock  (the  Co.  of  the  tirm)  is  a  native  of  Ohio, 
both,  however,  being  intimately  identified  with  the  iron  trade  of  Missouri  and  Pennsylvania  for  fifteen  years.  Thor- 
oughly educated  in  their  business  and  practically  familiar  with  the  metals,  and  metallurgical  properties,  grades,  dis- 
tinctions and  qualities  of  the  products  in  which  they  deal,  tliis  House  can  offer  advantages  to  its  customers  not 
surpassed  by  any  similar  concern  in  the  country.  The  wide  extent  from  which  this  firm  draws  consignments  em- 
braces every  metal  and  ore-producing  State,  the  Canadas  and  Great  Britain,  relations  being  established  wherever  the 
least  advantage  is  to  be  gained  or  the  slightest  benefit  accrues  to  those  for  whom  they  are  commissioned  to  act. 

Though  the  career  as  a  firm  of  H.  E.  Collins  &  Co.  has  dated  only  from  1877,  the  "progress  they  have  made  in  that 
short  period  and  the  rapidly  increasing  importance  of  the  House  would  be  sufficient  evidence,  "were  others  wanting, 
that  the  energy,  knowledge  and  enterprise  displayed  by  it  is  a  natural  result,  in  the  esteem  and  high  consideration 
with  which  it  is  held. 

FLEISHMAN  'B'R.QS.-Trimmings,  Millinery  &  Fancy  Goods,  No.  92  Market  St. 

Founded  by  S.  C.  &  E.  Fleishman  in  1875  as  jobbers  and  retail  dealers  in  Millinery,  Fancy  Goods,  Flowers,  Trim- 
mings and  general  Furnishing,  this  house  soon  became  a  prominent  one  from  the  enterprising  and  successful  manner 
of  its  competition  witli  older  cotemporaries.  With  a  very  comprehensive  experience  in  the  business,  together  with 
Eastern  and  importing  connections  that  insure  every  advantage  that  can  be  desired  from  a  careful  scrutiny  of  the 
markets,  tlie  Messrs.  Fleishman  are  almost  always  enabled  to  ofier  extraordinary  advantages  to  buyers,  and  are  rapid- 
ly establishing  this  fact  by  the  remarkable  increase  of  their  trade  and  the  favor  with  which  the  house  is  regarded  by 
the  best  buyers  in  the  city.  In  Kid  Gloves  and  Corsets,  made  specially  for  them,  and  protected  with  their  own  trade 
mark,  the  firm  make  a  specialty,  and  in  this  line  are  beyond  competition.  Another  specialty  of  the  house  is  their 
millinery  department,  which  is  always  represented  with  "a  choice  selection  of  trimmed  hats,  and  others  not  trimmed, 
accommodating  parties  by  trimming  to  order,  which  gives  emploj-ment  to  a  large  force  of  trimmers  wlio  occupy  the 
second  floor  of  the  building.  With  handsome  and  commodious  premises  in  the  very  best  location,  a  numerous  staff 
of  assistants,  and  a  stock  noted  for  the  good  taste  evinced  in  selection,  the  house  of  Messrs.  Fleishman  Bros,  is  heartily 
commended  to  the  public  as  affording  facilities  in  their  line  of  trade  hard  to  duplicate  in  this  or  any  other  city. 

THOMAS  M.A.'H.'Et^— Saddlery  Hardware  and  Carriage  Trimmings,  135  Wood  Street. 

This  branch  of  business  has  assumed  extensive  proportions,  and  this  old-established  House  has  long  enjoyed  a 
remunerative  patronage,  offering  as  it  has  in  the  past  and  still  continues  to  do,  the  best  facilities  to  the  trade  for  sup- 
plying articles  in  this  line  upon  the  most  favorable  terms.  This  business  was  originally  started  in  1856  bj'  McWhin- 
ney,  Hare  &  Co.  In  1861  the  Company  was  dropped  from  the  firm.  In  1866  it  became  Thomas  Hare  &  Brother.  Upon 
the  death  of  his  brother  in  January,  1878,  Mr.  Thomas  Hare  assumed  the  entire  control  of  the  business,  which  he 
continues  to  conduct  with  most  encouraging  results  and  business  ability.  He  carries  a  stock  of  from  $40,000  to  $.50,000 
and  his  annual  sales  will  reach  about  $125,000.  His  place  of  business  is  at  135  Wood  Street,  above  Fifth  Avenue, 
where  he  occupies  four  floors  and  basement  of  an  ample  building  and  employs  eight  inside  clerks  and  keeps  two  trav- 
eling salesmen,  with  trade  princiiaally  through  Oliio  and  Western  Pennsylvania.  He  carries  large  and  diversified 
lines  of  Saddler's  Hardware,  both  foreign  and  domestic,  and  Carriage  Trimmings  of  all  desirable  kinds.  His  thorough 
acquaintance  with  the  business  and  superior  facilities  enable  him  to  offer  the  closest  figures  to  the  trade  and  to  com- 
pete with  an5'-  house  in  this  city,  or  with  Cleveland  or  Philadelphia.  Mr.  Hare  has  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh 
since  1847,  and  is  consequently  closely  identified  with  its  business  interests  and  prosperity. 

G.  B.  BARRETT  &  CO —Wholesale  Jewelers,  dc.  No.  77  Fifth  Avenue. 

Pittsburgh  combines  more  geographical  advantages  of  position  than  any  inland  city  of  the  United  States.  Within 
a  radius  of  four  hundred  miles  from  the  Iron  City  some  of  the  following  States  entire  and  portions  of  others  may  be 
reached  :  Pennsylvania,  New  York,  Massachusetts,  Vermont,  Connecticut,  Rhode  Island,  Delaware,  New  Jersey, 
Maryland,  Virginia,  West  Virginia,  Ohio,  North  Carolina,  South  Carolina,  Tennessee,  Kentucky,  Indiana,  Illinois, 
Michigan  and  Canada  West.  With  such  a  vast  scope  for  the  sale  of  her  manufactures  and  merchandise,  is  it  any 
wonder  that  she  stands  to-day  celebrated  for  the  magnitude  and  extent  of  her  trade  and  for  the  enterprise  of  her  mer- 
chants and  business  men?  In  every  branch  of  trade  required  in  the  United  States,  Pittsburgh  can  boast  of  represent- 
ative business  houses  which  compare  favorably  with  any  in  the  Eastern  cities.  In  the  line  of  Fine  Watches, 
Diamonds  and  Jewelry,  the  House  of  G.  B.  Barrett  &  Co.,  of  No.  77  Fifth  Avenue,  takes  rank  among  the  leading  and 
most  reliable  in  the  land.  The  firm  was  established  in  1871  by  the  present  proprietors,  Mr.  G.  B.  Barrett  and  Mr. 
Wallace  Patrick.  They  occupy  two  floors,  25x82,  employing  nine  clerks  and  assistants  and  transacting  a  yearly  busi- 
ness of  from  $100,000  to  $200,000,  which  is  principally  in  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  Maryland,  Virginia,  West  Virginia  and 
territory  adjacent.  They  carry  a  stock  of  $50,000  to" $60,000,  are  extensive  importers  of  Diamonds,  Watches,  Jewelry, 
Clocks,  Watch-makers' Materials,  etc.  Mr.  Barrett  is  a  native  of  Eastern  Ohio,  where  he  was  born  in  1834.  He  has 
been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  since  1869.  Mr.  Patrick  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1829,  but  has  for  many  years  lived  and 
done  business  in  Pittsburgh.    This  is  the  largest  wholesale  jobbing  house  in  Pittsburgh  in  the  jewelry  line. 

JOHN  J.  TULcCOBMlCK -European  Steamship  Agent,  Smithfield  St.  &  Fourth  Av. 

The  leading  agent  in  Pittsburgh  for  the  various  European  Steamship  Lines,  and  also  holds  first,  fifth  and  tenth 
position  amongst  the  leading  agents  of  the  U.  S.  For  the  National  Line,  first  in  the  United  States,  Inman,  fifth, 
Cunard,  ninth,  is  Mr.  John  J.  McCormick,  whose  office  is  located  at  the  corner  of  Smithfield  Street  and  Fourth 
Avenue.  Mr.  McCormick  was  born  in  the  city  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  in  1834,  and  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1865.  In  the 
year  1868  he  opened  an  office  as  General  Steamship  Agent,  and  the  business  under  his  management  has  grown  to  be 
one  of  considerable  importance.  Mr.  McCormick  directly  represents  the  following  well-known  lines,  viz:  Cunard, 
Inman,  White  Star,  National,  American,  Guion,  Anchor,  State,  Red  Star,  etc.,  and  Steamers  to  San  Francisco,  Aus- 
tralia, Bermuda,  Nassau,  Savannah,  Florida,  etc.  He  also  procures  drafts  for  £1  and  upwards  on  the  leading  and  most 
responsible  banks  of  Dublin,  Belfast,  London,  Glasgow  and  at  Companies'  offices  in  London,  Liverpool,  Queenstown, 
Belfast,  Derry  and  Glasgow,  and  attends  to  the  obtaining  of  Passports  and  other  Notarial  business.  His  business,  be- 
sides being  la"rgely  of  a  local  character,  extends  through  the  States  of  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  Kansas,  Nebraska,  Colorado, 
and  many  of  the  Western  States. 

18 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  115 


WM.  P.  BBNNUTT, -Blank  Books,  Binding,  etc.,  No.  94  Fifth  Avenue. 

For  excellence  of  vcorkmanship,  quality  of  material,  beauty  of  design  and  durability,  the  specimens  of  Blank 
Books  turned  out  from  the  Bindery  of  Mr.  Win.  P.  Bennett  will  compare  favorably  with  those  of  any  other  establish- 
ment in  the  country.  The  business  was  founded  in  1859  by  J.  R.  Welden  and  in  1875  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Mr. 
Bennett,  who  is  a  thorough,  practical  workman  and  master  of  his  trade.  Mr.  Bennett  is  a  native  and  life-long  resident 
of  Allegheny  City,  where  he  was  born  in  1851.  He  carries  a  stock  of  about  gl, 200  and  transacts  a  yearlv  business  of 
from  S^lGjOOOto  §20,000  in  the  manufacture  of  Blank  Books  and  all  kinds  of  work  pertaining  to  a  General  Book  Bindery. 
He  occupies  two  floors,  22x65,  at  No.  94  Fifth  Avenue,  giving  employment  to  fifteen  hands,  with  a  weekly  pay-roU 
amounting  to  about  $150.00.  His  trade,  which  is  confined  principally  to  the  two  cities  and  adjacent  country,  is  of  the 
best  class  and  is  steadily  increasing.    Mr.  Bennett's  specialties  are  Blank  Book  Work  and  Sunday-School  SuppUes. 

F.  SUA'NIall'Y, -Boots  and  Shoes,  46  Smithfield  Street. 

The  business  now  conducted  by  Mr.  Shanley  at  No.  46  Smithfield  Street,  between  Third  and  Fourth  Avenues, 
was  established  in  1865  by  Mr.  T.  McCartan.  In  1870,  Mr.  Shanley  was  admitted  as  a  partner  under  the  firm  name  of 
McCartan  &  Shanley.  In  1874,  the  style  of  firm  was  again  changed  to  Shanley  &  KeUey,  and  in  1877  Mr.  Shanley  be- 
came sole  proprietor.  Under  all  these  changes  of  administration  the  popularity  of  the  goods  manufactured  by"  this 
House  has  remained  unchanged  and  the  trade  has  steadily  increased  until  it  has  become  as  extensive  as  that  of  any 
similar  establishment  in  the  city.  Mr.  Shanley  occupies  the  entire  three-story  building,  20x65  feet,  at  the  number 
mentioned,  with  a  stock  valued  at  from  $12,000  to  S16,000.  His  yearly  business  exceeds  130,000  and  extends  all  over 
the  country,  Mr.  Shanley  having  customers  even  in  California  and  Texas.  He  employs  twelve  first-class  workmen, 
whose  pay  amounts  to  about  $125.00  per  week.  The  manufacture  of  fine  Boots  and  Shoes  for  Ladies  and  Gentlemen, 
is  a  specialty  of  this  House  and  Mr.  Shanley  numbers  among  his  regular  customers  a  large  number  of  the  first  families 
of  the  Smoky  City  as  well  as  of  adjoining  States.  Mr.  Shanley  was  born  in  Ireland  in  1843  and  came  to  the  United 
States  in  1866,  locating  in  Pittsburgh,  where  he  has  since  resided. 

WALTER  KTSHyYiBSOTS, -Merchant  Tailor,  Cor.  Wood  &  6th  Av.  &  226  Liberty  St. 

There  is  no  longer  a  question  as  to  the  propriety  of  the  employment  of  a  competent  Merchant  Tailor,  with  those 
who  appreciate  properly  fitting  garments.  Clothes  made  for  nobody  in  particular,  never  fit  anj'body  in  particular. 
One  of  the  most  popular  establishments  of  this  kind  in  this  city  is  that  of  Mr.  Walter  Anderson,  whose  place  of  busi- 
ness is  situated  as  above.  The  business  was  started  in  March,  1875,  and  has  met  with  marked  success  ever  since  its 
commencement.  Mr.  Anderson  was  born  in  Scotland  in  18.34,  and  came  to  this  country  in  1865.  He  will  be  found  a 
pleasant  and  reliable  gentleman  to  transact  business  with,  and  as  he  employs  onlj'  first  class  experienced  cutters  and 
workhands,  you  are  assured  perfect  fitting  and  well  made  garments.  This,  he  is  at  all  times  prepared  to  guarantee. 
His  stock  of  price  goods  embraces  Fine  Cloths,  English  and  French  Cassimeres  and  all  the  most  popular  styles  for 
coats,  pants,  vests  or  suits.  He  carries  a  stock  of  about  .f 6,000,  which  is  constantly  being  replenished  from  the  most 
reliable  manufacturers  and  importers  in  the  country,  and  the  annual  sales  are  about  t25,000.  About  twenty  hands 
are  employed  in  the  manufacturing  department,  and  his  facilities  for  desirable  goods,  neat  fits  and  lowest  prices  are 
unsurpassed  by  any  establishment  of  the  kind,  East  or  West. 

ROBERT  JJ^K,— Engine  Builder  and  Machinist,  Cor.  First  Avenue  and  Ferry  Street. 

Peculiarly  noted  for  its  numerous  mechanical  industries,  and  especially  those  pertaining  to  the  manufacture  of 
machinery  and  the  conversion  of  iron  in  all  its  forms,  the  establishment  of  Mr.  Robert  Lea  becomes  a  natural  subject 
of  comment  in  a  publication  devoted  to  a  thorough  display  of  the  resources  of  Pittsburgh  and  its  gi-adual  development. 

Apprenticed  as  a  boy  in  1833,  at  seventeen  years  of  age,  to  the  firm  of  Stockhouse  &  Tomlinson,  the  pioneer  ma- 
chinists of  this  city,  Mr.  Lea  became,  upon  the  acquirement  of  his  trade,  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Warden,  Nicholson 
&  Co.,  (Mr.  Lea  and  Mr.  Marlette  forming  the  "Co."),  which  firm,  in  1844,  built  the  entire  machinery  for  the  J.  M. 
White,  the  famous  swift  Mississippi  steamboat,  whose  time  still  remains  on  record  as  never  having  been  beaten,  Mr. 
Lea  making  the  patterns  for  all  the  machinery.)  subsequently  Warden  &  Lea,  succeeded  by  Robert  Lea  in  1854,  and 
continuing'without  change  from  that  period.  With  a  gTandfather  who  was  a  soldier  in  the  French  and  Indian  War  of 
1758  under  General  Forbes,  and  residing  in  the  homestead  where  his  father  and  himself  were  reared,  Mr.  Lea  may 
indeed  be  regarded  as  having  a  more  than  ordinary  interest  in  the  welfare  of  this  community,  and  vitally  interested 
through  his  present  enterprises  as  well  as  the  traditions  of  the  past,  with  everything  that  pertains  to  or  bears  upon 
the  prosperity  of  the  Iron  City. 

Though  commencing  business  in  a  very  small  way  and  with  but  limited  means,  a  steady  increase  has  taken  place, 
which  puts  this  house  upon  a  par  with  any  in  the  city.  Occupying  premises  that  cover  60x104  feet,  the  works  are  di- 
vided into  four  departments,  viz  : — Pattern  Shop,  Machine  Shop,  Fouiidry  and  Blacksmith  Shop,  the  machinery  of 
which  is  of  the  most  superior  kind  and  is  operated  by  a  twenty-horse  power  engine.  Here  Marine  and  Stationary 
Steam  Engines  are  constructed  of  various  designs  and  every  desired  capacity.  Patterns  made,  and  Castings  of  all  de- 
scriptions in  iron  made  to  order.    From  thirty  to  thirty-five  men  are  engaged,  nearly  all  of  whom  are  skilled  artizans. 

To  the  matter  of  Steamboat  Machinery,  Engines  and  Blacksmithing  special  attention  is  given,  and  the  work 
turned  out  by  this  establishment  has  achieved  a  reputation  that  has  extended  the  trade  of  the  House  to  many  of  the 
adjacent  and  Western  States.  During  the  xjrolonged  business  career  of  Mr.  Lea  he  has  been  not  unficquently  identi- 
fied with  numerous  civic  and  social  reforms  and  connected  with  many  of  the  staunchest  institutions  in  Pittsburgh, 
such  as  Banks,  Insurance  Companies  and  other  corporations.  Always  exerting  an  infiuence  for  good,  he  is  well 
entitled  to  the  high  esteem  with  which  he  is  universally  regarded,  the  rich  results  of  a  life  of  laborious  integrity. 

J.  P.  DZEHL  &  SON,-M^a//  Paper,  No.  175  Liberty  Street. 

This  house,  though  having  been  established  as  late  as  1877,  has  already  taken  a  prominence  in  the  Wall  Paper  trade 
that  places  it  among  those  that  stand  at  the  head  of  business  in  this  community,  and  entitles  it  to  mention  in  a  work  csf 
this  kind.  Started  by  J.  P.  and  H.  J.  P.  Diehl,  father  and  son,  under  the  "above  style,  these  gentlemen  brous;ht  an 
extented  experience  to  the  work,  the  senior  partner  having  been  connected  with  the  l)usiness  for  20  years  in  this  city, 
the  junior  half  that  time.  Witli  an  ample  capital  for  rea.sonable  re(iuirements  the  firm  secured  the  premises  at  No.  175 
Liberty  Street,  consisting  of  one  three-story  brick  building,  with  basement,  the  whole  of  which  is  occupied  by  the 
house  for  a  storage  and  arrangement  of  one  or  the  most  complete  and  elegant  assortments  of  the  Wall  Paper  and  Costly 
Hangings  to  be  found  in  this  city.  From  the  cheapest  paper  at  8  cents  per  roll  to  that  at  |15  this  house  can  supply  ail 
grades,  together  with  every  variety  of  decoration  and-ornament,  suitable  for  modern  and  antique  styles  of  furnishing. 
Five  or  six  hands  are  employed  in  the  business,  which  extends  not  only  to  the  city  and  environs,  but  over  a  large  part 
of  Western  Pennsylvania  and  adjacent  States.  Carrying  a  stock  valued  at  over  910,000,  the  firm  atford  the  most  ad- 
mirable facilities  for  a  selection  in  all  grades,  styles  and  prices,  and  have  established  a  reputation  for  integrity  and 
general  reliability  that  tends  to  make  all  dealings  with  them  of  the  most  satisfactory  character. 

19 


116  INDUSTRIES   OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 

S.  BOYD  8c  CO,— Looking  Glasses,  Pictures  and  Frames,  No.  100  Wood  Street. 

The  headquarters  in  Pittsburgh  for  Looking  Glasses,  Frames,  Fine  Pictures,  Elegant  Engravings  and  Works  of 
Art,  is  at  the  establisliiuent  of  S.  Boyd  A,  Co.,  No.  100  Wood  Street.  This  House  was  founded  in  1865  by  Boyd, 
Murray  &  Fawcett,  who  were  succeeded  by  Boyd  &  Murray,  and  in  1874  the  firm  became  S.  Boyd  &  Co.  Their  large 
and  spacious  salesrooms  at  the  number  named  are  23x85  feet,  and  they  occupy  the  entire  four  stories  and  basement, 
carrying  a  stock  ranging  in  value  from  $16,000  to  $19,000  and  employing  here  ten  assistants.  Their  stock  comprises  a 
large  line  of  elegant  Plate  Glass  Mirrors,  Fine  Engravings,  Chromos,  Lithographs,  Photographs,  Statuettes  and  arti- 
cles of  virtu.  Their  faclory  is  located  at  the  corner  of  Ferry  Street  and  First  Avenue,  occupying  one  floor  40x80  and 
employing  ten  workmen.  They  manufacture  the  finest  description  of  Mirror  Frames  and  also  those  of  a  cheaper  and 
more  common  grade,  employing  a  different  set  of  hands  on  each  kind.  They  also  manufacture  every  description  of 
Cheap  Frames,  and  have  jjushed  their  business  in  this  department  to  such  an  extent  that  their  trade  reaches  everj- 
portion  of  the  country.  They  sell  largely  to  the  trade  in  Louisville,  Cincinnati,  St.  Louis,  Chicago  and  other  Western 
cities,  and  their  trade  in  the  East  is  even  larger  than  in  the  Western  States.  The  manufacture  of  Cheap  Frames  and 
Fine  Walnut  Mirror  Frames  is  a  specialty  of  this  House.  At  their  salesrooms  the  Fine  Art  Department  is  the  most 
noticeable  specialty  and  tlie  display  of  Fine  Engravings  cannot  be  excelled.  Mr.  S.  Boyd  was  born  in  Washing- 
ton County,  Pennsylvania,  in  1821,  and  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1845.  Mr.  D.  S.  Boyd  is  also  a  native  of  Washington 
County,  and  Mr.  J.  B.  Ncvin,  the  junior  member  of  the  firm,  was  born  in  Beaver  county  of  this  State.  This  is  one  of 
the  most  reliable  and  straightforward  firms  in  our  city,  well  deserving  the  very  large  patronage  which  they  enjoy. 

A.  J.  ^T'ESl'Lll.-Wagon  Maker,  58  and  60  Anderson  Street. 

Mr.  Steele  commenced  the  business  in  which  he  is  now  engaged  in  1862,  with  a  capital  of  only  $125.  This  he  has 
increased  until  he  now  constantly  keeps  on  hand  a  stock  of  81500  to  $2,000  and  does  an  annual  business  of  from  $6,000 
to  $10,000.  He  occupies  a  building  41x80  feet  and  three  stories  high,  with  good  yard  attached,  and  employs  seven  men 
in  the  several  departments,  with  a  pay-roll  of  $52  per  week.  Every  description" of  Wagons,  Carts,  Drays  and  Spring 
Wagons,  Wheel  Barrows,  Trucks,  Skids,  etc.,  are  here  manufactured  in  the  best  and  most  durable  manner,  and,  at 
the  same  time,  particular  attention  is  paid  to  Repairing  and  Job  Blacksmithing.     His  trade  is  local. 

Mr.  Steele  was  born  in  Jefferson  County,  Pennsylvania,  April  7,  1835,  and  came  to  this  city  nine  years  later.  He 
began  business  on  Washington  Street,  Pittsburgh,  in  May,  1862.    He  is  widely  known  and  esteemed. 

WHITE,  ORR  &  CO -Dry  Goods,  No.  85  Fifth  Avenue. 

One  of  the  oldest  Retail  Dry  Goods  Houses  in  the  West  was  established  in  1828  by  Geo.  R.  White,  Esq.,  now 
deceased,  and'continued  at  the  present  time  under  the  above  title  by  Messrs.  James  White  and  R.  Leslie  Orr,  the 
latter  being  the  eldest  son  of  Mr.  Robert  Orr,  also  deceased,  formerly  the  active  partner  in  the  House  and  well-known 
as  being  a  man  of  great  ability,  possessed  in  a  remarkable  degree  with  the  highest  sense  of  personal  and  commercial 
honor. 

No  House  in  the  same  line  of  business  stands  higher  than  Messrs.  W^hite,  Orr  &  Co.,  for  the  character  of  its  trade 
and  tlie  uniformly  excellent  quality  of  the  goods  in  which  they  deal — especially  in  Linens,  Dress  Goods,  Hosiery, 
White  Goods,  Silks,  Cloaks  and  Shawls,  Curtains  and  Domestic  Fabrics,  etc.  The  premises  occupied  by  the  firm  are 
perhaps  tlie  most  spacious  and  elegant  in  the  city — centrally  and  prominently  located,  every  convenience  and  facility 
is  afforded  buyers,  who  by  the  extent  of  the  annual  trade  freely  attest  the  esteem  in  which  this  House  is  held. 

GEO.  A.  KELLY  &  CO,-Wholesale  Druggists,  Cor.  Wood  St.  &  First  Ave. 

As  an  important  factor  in  the  growth  and  general  progress  of  this  city,  the  Drug  trade  has  played  no  insignificant 
part,  as  might  be  illustrated  by  the  detailed  history  of  the  above  house,  which  was  established  during  the  infancy  of 
our  commerce,  half  a  century  ago,  by  B.  A.  Fahnestock  &  Co.,  who  were  succeeded  in  1872  by  the  above  firm,  com- 
posed at  present  of  Geo.  A.  Kelly,  Capt.  Jehu  P.  Smith,  (Estate  of)  and  Van  R.  Smith. 

The  business  premises  occupied  by  the  house  are  located  on  the  corner  of  First  Avenue  and  Wood  St.,  and  consist 
of  a  large  four-story  double  brick  edifice,  admirably  situated  and  adapted  for  the  trade.  The  departments  are  numer- 
ous and  embrace  Paints,  Oils,  Varnishes,  Dye-Stuffs,  American  and  Foreign  Chemicals,  with  a  large  and  complete  as- 
sortment of  Drugs  and  Druggists' Sundries,  Perfumery,  &c.,  &c.,  aggregating  a  stock  of  the  average  value  of  $100,000 
with  a  businesss  that  requires  the  employment  of  It)  hands,  and  a  weekly  disbursement  for  salaries  of  over  $300.  Mr. 
Geo.  A.  Kelly  is  a  native  of  this  city,  where  he  was  born  in  1832  :  at  a  very  early  age  his  education  was  commenced  in 
the  Drug  business,  which  he  acquired  thoroughly  in  all  its  branches,  and  with  which  he  has  been  intimately  identified 
all  his  life.  Upon  succeeding  the  firm  of  B.  A.  Fahnestock  it  Co.,  he  became  associated  in  business  with  Capt.  Jehu 
P.  Smith,  who  dying  several  years  subsequently,  his  son  Van  R.  Smith,  who  had  been  engaged  in  the  house  since 
1872,  was  admitted  to  an  interest  in  1876.  Prominent  in  every  public  movement  that  seemed  to  promise  a  greater  de- 
gree of  prosperity  and  comniercial  importance  for  the  Iron  City,  Mr.  Kelly  has  achieved  a  reputation  for  business  vi- 
gor and  intellectual  aptitude,  that  has  given  great  weight  to  every  undertaking  in  which  he  has  been  concerned.  As- 
a  firm  Geo.  A.  Kelly  &  Co.  stand,  in  its  resources,  magnitude  of  its  transactions  and  high  business  qualities,  at  the 
head  of  the  trade  in  this  city,  justly  esteemed  for  those  attributes,  liberality,  integrity  and  thrift,  which  invariably 
conduce  to  solid  and  lasting  success. 

B.  TTEOJL'L— Merchant  Tailor,  No.  58  Smithfield Street. 

For  more  than  a  decade,  the  name  and  fame  of  Mr.  B.  Tiegel,  as  a  Fashionable  and  Reliable  Merchant  Tailor,  has 
been  familiar  to  the  citizens  of  Pittsburgh  and  Western  Pennsylvania,  where  he  has  a  large  and  profitable  business 
acquaintance.  And  not  alone  throughout  this  immediate  section  has  his  reputation  extended,  for  his  customers  may 
be  found  in  nearly  every  Western  State  and  Territory.  From  the  mines  of  Colorado,  the  growing  cities  of  the  far  West, 
even  unto  the  sunny  slopes  of  the  Pacific  Ocean  are  orders  received  for  garments  of  Mr.  Tiegel's  manufacture.  Strict 
attention  to  business,  uudeviating  honesty,  and  the  artistic  excellence  of  his  fits,  are  undoubtedly  the  secrets  of  his 
success  in  business. 

Mr.  Tiegel  is  a  native  of  Breslau,  Province  of  Silesia,  FVussia,  and  was  born  in  the  year  1845.  At  the  age  of  nine 
years  he  came  to  the  United  States,  and  in  1865  he  removed  to  Pittsburgh,  where  he' has  since  resided.  In  l8G8he 
commenced  business  for  liimself,  on  a  comparatively  moderate  scale,  and  to-day  his  Establishment  will  compare 
favorably  with  any  similar  one  in  the  United  States.  He  employs  regularly  from  six  to  fourteen  experienced  work- 
men, his  weekly  pay  roll  at  times  amounting  to  nearly  two  hundred  dollars.  Carrying  a  carefully  selected  stock  of  the 
best  materials  of  from  $4,000  to  $5,000  in  value,  his  annual  trade  amounts  to  nearly  twenty  thousand  dollars.  He 
occupies  the  entire  building  (four  stories),  20x30  feet  in  diuiensious,  at  No.  53  Smithfield  Street,  besides  having  a 
considerable  portion  of  his  manufacturing  done  by  outside  parties. 

20 


II 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  117 


CAMPBELL,  WILLIAMSON  &,  J}1CK,-Dry  Goods.  88  &  85  Fifth  Ave. 

This  is  the  leading  house  in  Pittsburgh  doing  an  exclusively  cash  business  in  the  Dry  Goods  line.  It  was  estab- 
lished in  1871  by  the  present  proprietors  under  the  title  of  the  "People's  Store,"  a  name  which  has  since  become  widely 
known  and  deservedly  popular  throughout  the  two  cities  and  the  adjoining  territory.  The  members  of  the  firm  are: 
Mr.  William  Campbell,  who  was  born  in  Perthshire,  Scotland,  and  came  to  .the  United  States  in  1865  and  located  in 
Pittsburgh  in  1871;  Mr.  Andrew  Williamson,  a  native  of  Fyfeshire,  Scotland,  born  in  1838,  a  resident  of  the  United 
States  since  I860,  and  of  Pittsburgh  since  1871  ;  Mr.  Peter  Dick  was  borii  at  Paisley,  Scotland,  and  came  to  America  at 
the  age  of  eighteen,  and  located  in  Pittsburgh  eight  years  ago.  They  occupy  two  floors  of  the  spacious  "  Masonic  Hall 
Building,"  Nos.  So  and  85  Fifth  Avenue,  50.xll0  feet,  and  carry  on  a  General  Wholesale  and  Petail  Business  in  Diy 
(ioods.  Notions  and  Carpets.  Their  stock,  which  is  very  full  in  all  its  departments,  comprises  every  description  of  goods 
pertaining  to  their  line,  and  is  estimated  at  from  S70,000  to  $100,000,  with  an  annual  trade  e.xceeding  ip200,000.  They 
employ  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  clerks  and  assistants,  and  in  the  Winter  season  manufauture  large  quantities  of 
Ladies'  Cloaks  and  Suits.  In  the  Summer  they  manufacture  Ladies'  Dresses  in  great  variety.  •  Their  regular  trade  is 
principally  derived  from  the  two  cities  and  the  towns  of  Pennsylvania  and  Ohio  within  a  radius  of  two  hundred  miles, 
with  considerable  transient  business  from  all  parts  of  the  Union. 

E.  P.  ROBERTS  &,  SO'NS,-Jewelers,  No.  16  Fifth  Avenue. 

One  of  the  best  known  and  oldest  establishments  of  its  kind  in  Pittsburgh  is  that  of  Messrs.  E.  P.  Roberts  &  Sons. 
Establislied  thirty  years  ago  by  J.  M.  Roberts, Esq  ,  whose  demise  in  1866  occasioned  a  change  to  the  present  firm.  Ko 
house  in  this  community  has  enjoyed  a  more  deserved  popularity.  The  individual  members  of  the  firm  are  E.  P.,  S.  P. 
and  C.  W.  Roberts,  all  of  whom  give  their  personal  attention  to  the  business,  which  embraces  a  manufacturing  depart- 
ment where  every  class  of  work  is  elegantly  and  artistically  made  to  order  The  stock,  valued  at  S30,000,  is  not  so 
remarkable  for  its  extent  as  the  exquisite  taste  and  judgment  evinced  in  its  selection.  In  the  matter  of  Silver  and 
Silver  Plated  Ware,  Diamonds,  Jewels,  Ornaments,  and  especially  fine  Clocks  and  American  Watches,  this  house  can 
perhaps  otter  facilities  to  buyers,  in  the  way  of  selection  and  price,  not  to  be  duplicated  west  of  New  York.  Five 
assistants  are  constantly  employed,  and  the  trade,  amounting  to  $10,000  annually,  extends  through  Pennsylvania  and 
adjacent  States.  Messrs.  E  P.  Roberts  &  Sons  are  all  natives  of  Pittsburgh,' and  have  done  no  small  service  in 
promoting  the  mercantile  credit  and  thrift  of  the  Iron  City. 

WM.  Mc.  C.  DRAVO,-(?/75,  No.  99  Water  Street. 

The  subject  of  this  brief  sketch  was  born  in  the  City  of  Pittsburgh  in  1834,  and  has,  in  a  measure,  grown  up  with 
the  business  of  the  city,  and  been  for  a  numt)er  of  years  connected  with  the  leading  blanches  of  the  city's  industries  ; 
having  formerly  been  connected  with  the  coal  trade,  and  since  T876  in  his  present  business  of  Wholesale  and  Retail 
Dealer  in  Ijubricating  and  Signal-Light  Oils.  These  are  manufactured  for  the  special  trade  of  this  house  and  are  always 
perfectly  pure  and  reliable,  and  of  such  a  quality  as  to  have  built  up  for  the  house  of  W.  Mc.  C.  Dravo  an  influential 
reputation  with  the  river  trade  which  forms  the  chief  patronage  of  this  house.  To  dealers  throughout  the  city,  and  the 
entire  country,  as  well  as  to  those  engaged  in  the  river  traffic,  the  Editor  respectfully  calls  attention  to  the  full  line  and 
choice  Oils  of  this  house,  as  I.  X.  L  Engine  Oil,  Head-Light  Oil,  Caibon  Oil,  Natural  Lubricating  Oil,  Pit  Car  Oil,  &c., 
as  well  as  to  his  department  of  Engineers'  Supplies  in  Machinery  Grease,  Belt  Stuffing,  and  Wliite  and  Red  Lead, 
Colors  and  Varnishes,  Lamp  Globes  and  Wicks,  etc.,  all  of  which  they  will  find  at  the  lowest  market  prices. 


C.  YEAGER  &  CO, -Wholesale  Dry  Goods,  dc,  No.  110  Market  Street. 

Established  forty  years  since,  by  Christian  Yeager,  the  senior  partner  of  the  present  firm,  this  house  is  perhaps  as 
intimately  connected  and  identified  with  the  development  and  prosperity  of  Pittsburgh  as  any  commercial  enterprise 
in  the  city.  A  native  of  Lancaster,  Pa.,  Mr.  Yeager  settled  in  this  community  in  1835,  and  in  1839  began  his  present 
business,  in  a  small  way,  with  but  a  very  limited  capital  in  cash,  but  generally  endowed  with  business  ability  of  a  high 
order,  energy,  economy  and  integrity,  and  with  these  as  his  ujain  dependencies  he  founded  the  present  house.  In  a 
history  extending  over  nearly  half  a  century,  no  house  can  exhibit  a  more  untarnished  career,  with  the  rapid  growth 
of  the  city,  its  trade  prospered,  and  for  over  thirty  years  it  has  been  a  direct  importer  of  every  class  and  grade  of 
Fancy  Goods,  Toys,  Notions  and  Fabrics,  its  sales  having  reached  as  high  as  $360,000  per  annum.  As  an  enterprising, 
but  remarkably  conservative  man,  Mr.  Yeager  has  alwaws  been  the  custodian  of  numerous  public  and  private  trustis, 
and  is  at  the  present  time  President  of  the  Pennsylvania  Insurance  Co.,  a  Vice-President  of  the  Dollar  Savings  Bank, 
Director  of  Mechanics'  National  Bank,  member  of  several  Benevolent  Societies,  and  more  or  less  interested  in  the 
Reformatory  Institutions  of  the  State. 

Dealing  largely  in  Dry  Goods,  Fancy  Goods  and  Hosiery,  this  house  pursues  the  policy  of  having  no  traveling 
salesman,  a  plan  which  if  generally  adopted  would  add  greatly  to  the  profit  of  producer,  dealer  and  consumer.  For 
this  and  other  reasons,  the  results  of  a  long  and  varied  experience,  the  firm  is  prepared  to  oti'er  advantages  to  the  trade 
hardly  to  be  duplicated  in  this  country,  and  a  stock  of  goods  that  for  extent  and  variety  would  be  impossible  to  match 
in  the  State. 

H.  C.  Yeager  is  the  company  of  the  house,  and  has  under  his  special  charge  the  books  and  clerical  department. 
The  premises  of  the  firm  are  ample  and  consist  of  the  five  story  brick  building  No.  110  Market  Street,  21x80  feet,  and 
stocked  with  goods  from  basement  to  roof.  Nine  assistants  are  employed  here  to  aid  in  the  conduct  of  the  businers 
which  ranges  over  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  West  Virginia.  In  the  consideration  of  the  community  no  house  takes  a 
higher  rank,  or  is  more  deserving  of  the  success  which  it  has  achieved,  or  the  spotless  reputation  it  bears. 

E.  J.  WARING  &  co-star  Oil  Works,  Office,  No.  49  Fifth  Avenue. 

Bt'ftnery,  Bennett's  Station,    W.   P.  It.  H. 

Eleven  yearn  ago  this  business  was  established  by  Messrs.  LafTerty  &  Waring.  Subsequently,  in  1868,  Mr.  Lafferty 
died  and  was  succeeded  by  .J.  H.  Ralston,  Esq..  and  the  firm  became  Ralston  &  Waring,  till  his  death  in  1872,  when 
the  above  title  was  assumed.  When  the  firm  first  began  business,  they  did  so  with  a  limited  capital,  which,  however, 
was  enlarged  from  time  to  time  until  the  capacity  of  the  works  now  reaches  26,000  barrels  crude  oil,  monthly.  Conveniently 
located,  on  the  Allegheny  River  near  Bennett's  Station,  W.  P.  R.R.,  the  works  consist  of  five  buildings,  with  numerous 
tanks,  stills,  etc.,  which  occupy  five  acres  of  ground,  and  afford  every  facility  for  the  business.  The  average  trade  of 
the  concern  is  ibout  S300,000  per  annum,  and  the  monthly  pay  roll,  when  in  full  operation,  will  amount  to  from  $1,600 
to  $1,800,  and  a  force  of  forty-five  hands  employed. -^Mr.  Waring  is  a  native  of  Saratoga  Co.,  New  York,  and  is  now 
thirty-one  years  old.  He  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1865  and  has  since  been  intimately  identified  with  the  oil  trade. 
Possessed  of  no  ordinary  business  ability,  as  well  as  a  high  sense  of  personal  rectitude,  liis  great  success  is  regarded  as 
being  as  natural  as  it  is  well  deserved,  and  entitles  him  fairly  to  occupy  the  elevated  position  he  has  achieved  in 
commercial  and  social  circles. 

21 


118  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

KOWNBUJM.-Optician,  No.  25  Fifth  Ave. 

Though  having  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  for  only  three  years,  Mr.  Kornblum  has  already  established  a  repu- 
tation of  being  the  best  optician  and  most  capable  dealer  in  philosophic  intruments  of  any  man  in  this  city.  A  native 
of  Austria,  he  acquired  his  profession  under  the  best  scientific  masters  of  his  vocation  in  Vienna  and  Europe,  and 
since  his  residence  in  America  for  16  years  has  devoted  himself  entirely  to  the  attainment  of  perfection,  in  his  chosen 
profession,  with  the  most  signal  success.  His  ^yide  experience  as  an  optician  has  been  followed  by  a  reputation  that 
places  him  in  correspondence  with  the  most  distinguished  men  from  all  sections  of  the  country,  who  desire  to  avail 
themselves  of  his  marked  proficiency.  Upon  every  point  relating  to  the  eye  and  its  diseases  and  defects,  he  is 
thoroughly  posted,  and  by  a  merely  superficial  observation  gauges  the  strength  of  the  organ  in  any  case  and  selects 
lenses  of  the  appropriate  power.  At  his  present  location,  to  wliich  he  has  just  removed,  will  be  found  a  complete 
and  carefully  selected  stock  of  Spectacles,  and  every  variety  of  rare  scientific  and  philosophic  instruments,  the  work 
of  the  best  "makers  in  this  country  and  in  pjurope.  Those  at  a  distance  may  be  assured  that  any  orders  by  mail  or 
enquiries,  will  receive  prompt  and  intelligent  responses,  and  further  that  any  business  placed  in  the  hands  of  Mr. 
Kornblum,  will  result  in  the  most  satisfactory  manner  and  a  continued  appreciation  of  his  unquestioned  abilities. 

D.  W.  C.  CARROLL  &  CO -Fort  Pitt  Boiler,  Bridge  and  Tank  Works. 

Corner  Third  A.ve.  and  Liberty  St.  and  Second  A.ve.  and  Short  St. 

The  history  of  this  house  has  been  so  intimately  connected  with  the  development  of  the  trade  of  Pittsburgh,  that 
no  record  of  the  Industries  of  this  community  would  be  complete  that  did  not  take  cognizance  of  the  firm  of  D.  W.  C.  Car- 
roll &  Co.  and  its  predecessors.  Established  in  1843,  the  business  was  founded  by  M.  Stackhouse,  Esq.,  succeeded  by 
H.  Busha  &.  Co.,  who  preceded  C.  Gutendorf  &  Co.,  who  gave  place  to  Caroll  and  Snyder,  who  were  succeeded  by  the 
present  proprietors,  D.  W.  C.  Carroll  and  R.  G.  Jones,  under  the  caption  title,  in  1872 ;  the  business  premises  and  works 
of  the  firm  occupy  an  entire  square  fronting  on  four  streets.  Short  and  Liberty  Streets,  and  Second  and  Third 
Avenues,  consisting  of  a  substantial  brick  building,  ranging  from  one  to  three  stories  in  hight,  well  supfilied  with  the 
most  approved  machinery,  consisting  in  part  of  one  45  horse  power  engine  with  two  boilers  of  40  and  15  horse  power 
respectively,  10  foot  plate  rolls,  2  pairs  power  shears  for  cutting  the  heaviest  iron  plate,  9  power  punches  for  boiler 
plates,  one  plate  planing  machine,  8  vertical  drills  and  many  other  pieces  of  ingenious  mechanism  and  tools  proper  to 
the  trade,  making  in  all  the  best  equipped  works  in  the  city,  or  west  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains.  The  extent  to 
which  the  business  of  this  concern  has  reached  is  not  limited  to  the  United  States,  but  embraces  Mexico,  much  of 
South  America  and  Canada,  finding  customers  in  fact  in  nearly  all  parts  of  the  world. 

In  the  manufacture  of  Steam  Boiler  and  Heavy  Plate,  Iron  Bridges,  Buildings,  Oil  Tanks,  Gas  Holders,  and  Sheet 
Iron  Work  generally,  this  House  has  few  rivals  and  no  superiors.  The  first  Oil  Refining  appliances,  Tanks,  Stills, 
etc.,  ever  manufactured  in  this  city,  were  constructed  by  this  establishment,  which  still  maintains  a  celebrity  un- 
equalled for  this  class  of  work.  The  iron  dredge  boat  "G.  W.  R.  Bailey,"  used  by  Capt.  J.  B.  Eads  in  his  excavation 
of  the  Mississippi  Jetties,  was  built  by  this  firm,  who  have,  perhaps,  made  more  steamboat  outfits  in  their  line  than 
any  other  concern  in  the  business.  For  some  years  the  manufacture  of  boilers  for  agricultural  machinery  has  engaged 
the  attention  of  the  House  asa  specialty,  their  admirable  facilities  insuring  work  of  a  high  order  of  excellence  in  this 
department,  which  is  rapidly  assuming  greater  importance. 

The  firm  employ  seventy-five  men  in  the  business  and  do  a  trade  that  approximates  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars 
annually.  Mr.  C.  H.  Parker,  the  manager,  is  a  gentleman  of  wide  experience,  a  native  of  Providence,  R.  I.,  and  formerly 
engineer  of  the  National  Bridge  Works,  of  Boston,  Mass.  The  members  of  the  firm  are  both  natives  of  Pittsburgh  and 
have  always  resided  here,  intimately  involved  in  the  iron  trade,  and,  as  a  firm,  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  in  every 
respect  it  stands  at  the  highest  point  in  the  estimation  of  its  cotemporaries  and  the  commercial  world  at  large. 

HEAD  &  'SILeEL'RO'Y —Produce  Commission  Merchants,  No.  249  Liberty  Street. 

Dealers  in  Butter,  Eggs,   Cheese,  Flour,   Grain,  Seeds,  Fruit,    Vegetables  &c. 

This  house  refers  by  permission  to  the  Hon.  Robt.  Sidell,  Mayor  of  Pittsburgh,  Messrs.  Arbuckles  &  Co.,  whole- 
sale Grocers,  Geo.  S.  Head,  Esq.,  President  of  Second  National  Bank,  Pittsburgh.  Head  &  McElroy  began  business 
in  their  present  location,  April,  1876,  succeeding  the  old  and  well-known  Wholesale  Grocery  House  of  Head  &  Metz- 
gar.  Tliey  occupy  the  fine  four-story,  iron-front  warehouse  No.  249  Liberty  Street,  the  location  being  the  choicest  for 
this  style  of  business  in  the  city,  the  largest  and  most  complete  warehouse  "used  in  the  produce  commission  business 
in  Pittsburgh,  having  a  deptli  of  120  feet,  four  lofty  stories,  a  splendid  cool  cellar,  steam  engine,  two  elevators,  one  of 
which  is  operated  by  steam,  two  offices  with  speaking  tubes  and  telephone,  and  all  the  modern  appliances  for  the 
careful  and  prompt  despatch  of  business.  With  these  facilities  and  a  full  force  of  efficient  hands,  all  business  is 
tran.sacted  promptly,  accurately  and  intelligently,  and  upon  sound  business  principles.  Head  &  McElroy,  during  the 
three  years  in  which  they  have  been  in  business,  have  built  up  a  trade  that  will  not  suffer  by  comparison  with  the 
oldest  established  house  in  the  trade  in  Pittsburgh.  The  plan  pursued  by  this  House  has  been  to  sell  without  delay 
all  consignments  and  to  make  prompt  retui-ns  tlierefor,  which,  judging  from  their  success,  seems  to  commend  itself  to 
the  favor  of  shippers  as  the  correct  method  of  doing  business.  They  also  make  liberal  advances  upon  non-jierishable 
goods,  where  it  is  desired.  Any  one  having  business  in  this  line  can  feel  assured  that  it  could  not  be  entrusted  to 
safer  hands. 

J.  B.  IKAHRCH.'E'R^-Hardware  and  Cutlery,  73  Market  Street. 

The  Hardware  House  of  J.  B.  Kaercher  was  established  at  the  above  location  in  1877,  and  from  a  comparatively 
moderate  beginning  has,  within  the  past  two  years,  met  with  encouraging  success,  and  he  now  transacts  a  business  of 
about  $12,000  per  annum.  Mr.  Kaercher  occupies  three  floors  of  the  building  at  No.  73  Market  Street,  13x60,  and 
carries  a  general  line  of  Hardware  and  Cutlery,  embiacing  all  the  leading  and  staple  articles  known  to  the  trade.  His 
business  is  principally  local.  Mr.  Kaercher  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  having  been  born  in  1859,  and  has  had  six  years 
experience  in  the  business. 

BROWN,  MURPHY  &;  THRTIG -Sewer-Pipe,  Cement,  etc., 

No.  65  and  67  SandtisJcy  Street,  Allegheny, 

The  firm  of  Brown,  Murphy  &  Fertig  was  established  January  1,  1878,  as  successors  to  Mr.  Charles  Brown.  Their 
office  and  yard  are  located  at  Nos.  65  and  67  Sandu.sky  Street,  which  is  the  Headquarters  in  Allegheny  for  the  cele- 
brated Akron  Sewer  Pipe.  They  are  also  wholesale  and  retail  dealers  in  all  the  standard  brands  of  Hydraulic 
Cement,  Terra  Cotta  Chimney-tops,  Hot  and  Cold  Air  Flue  Linings,  Chimney  Flues  and  other  Terra  Cotta  Goods, 
Fire  Brick,  Grate  Tile  and  Ground  Fire  Clay,  White  Sand,  Lime,  Plaster,  etc.  The  building  occupied  by  them  is  a 
three-story  .structure,  30x100,  with  a  commodious  yard  adjoining.  They  carry  an  average  stock  of  about  $3,000  and 
transact  a  business  in  the  two  cities  and  surrounding  towns  which  is  principally  local,  amounting  to  $15,000  per  an- 
num.   The  individual  members  of  the  firm  are  Charles  Brown,  J.  G.  Murphy  and  Frank  Fertig. 

22 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  119 


MILLER,  FORSE  &  CO,-Wholesale  Liquors,  No.  253  Liberty  St 

As  a  representative  House  in  the  line  of  one  of  the  hn-gest  commercial  and  manufacturing  industries  of  this  city, 
and,  at  the  same  time,  one  of  the  oldest,  the  firm  of  Miller,  Forse  &  Co.  are  entitled  to  more  than  hrief  mention  in  a 
publication  of  tliis  descrijition.  Founded  in  IS:'.!,  w  nearly  half  a  century  ago,  by  Wm.  Miller,  Esq.,  who  began  busi- 
ness upon  a  capital  of  81,000,  the  fortunes  of  the  House  have  been  as  intimately  connected  witli  the  rise  and  develop- 
ment of  the  industries  of  Pittsburgh  as  any  concern  in  the  community.  For  many  years  the  business  was  conducted 
by  Mr.  Miller  alone,  and  during  that  period  he  not  only  established  a  reputation  for  honor  and  responsibility  that 
ranked  him  first  among  the  pioneer  business  men  of  the  city,  but  laid  the  foundations  of  a  great  monetary  success. 

In  1866,  by  the  death  of  Chas.  Ricketson,  the  style  of  the  House  was  changed  to  Wm.  Miller.  In  1869,  however, 
the  firm  title  became  Wm.  Miller  &  Co.,  remaining  as  such  till  1S72,  when  Mr.  Miller,  having  accumulated  a  fortune 
estimated  to  be  not  less  than  $1,000,000,  dissolved  the  partnership  by  his  demise  and  the  present  firm  shortly  suc- 
ceeded, being  composed  of  Morris  Miller,  Esq.,  nephew  of  Wm.  Miller,  Esq.,  and  Wm.  H.  Forse,  who  conduct  the 
business  upon  the  same  principles,  respecting  those  traditional  rules  of  the  House,  upon  which  its  prosjjerity  has 
hinged  so  largely. 

Having  just  removed  to  the  four-story,  iron-front  edifice,  23x125  feet,  at  No.  253  Liberty  Street,  the  firm  are 
perhaps  better  prepared  to  aflbrd  those  facilities  to  the  trade  for  which  they  have  always  been  noted — especially  in 
the  line  of  Old  Monongahela  Bye  Whiskies,  the  celebrated  "Cabinet  Whiskey,"  Pure  Imported  Wines,  Brandies, 
Ales,  Cigars,  etc.  Messrs.  Miller,  Forse  &  Co.  can  not  be  surpassed  either  in  the  quality  of  goods  or  fair  and  liberal 
terms.  With  a  trade  extending  to  almost  every  State  in  the  Union,  and  aggregating  not  less  than  $125,000  per  annum, 
and  steadily  increasing,  this  House  may  be  regarded  as  a  favorite  among  those  retailers  who  demand  a  brand  upon 
which  to  rely  with  implicit  confidence.  Such  a  brand  is  that  of  this  firm  and  to  the'scrupulously  preserved  purity  of 
their  wares  may  be  traced  the  signal  success  of  their  operations. 

THEOPHILUS  lEi01Ju'ER,-Wholesale&  Retail  M' facturer  of  Parlor  Furniture, 

No.  122  Ohio  Street,  Allegheny  City. 

The  goods  manufactured  at  the  above-mentioned  establishment  have  attained  a  well-merited  reputation  among 
the  residents  of  both  cities  for  their  beauty  of  design  and  elegance  of  finish.  Being  almost  the  only  house  in  the  city 
which  makes  a  specialty  of  Parlor  Furniture,  and  employing  only  experienced  workmen,  Mr.  Roller  enjoys  a  trade  of 
5^15,000  to  918,000  per  year,  and  carries  a  stock  valued  at  .1^16,000.  The  business  is  divided  into  three  departments, 
comprising  the  salesroom  at  No.  122  Ohio  Street,  the  manufactory,  on  Cedar  Avenue,  which  is  24x150  feet,  and  where 
twelve  men  are  emploj'ed  at  salaries  aggregating  SluO  per  week,  and  the  warehouse  on  Avery  Street.  The  proprietor, 
Theoplailus  Roller,  was  born  in  Germany  in  October,  1836,  and  came  to  this  country  in  March,  1859.  In  1873  he  began 
business  at  his  present  location,  with  a  capital  of  $2,000,  which  he  has  since  increased  to  $5,000.  Mr.  Roller,  being  a 
practical  mechanic,  has  introduced  several  valuable  improvements  in  his  business — among  other  things  he  has  in- 
vented and  patented  a  reversible  spring  mattress,  which  is  well  known  among  all  dealers  in  furniture,  and  which  has 
a  large  sale. 

MRS.  T.  A.  ROliLEK-Millinery, DressdCloakMaking, 122  OhioSt.,  Allegheny. 

One  of  the  most  extensive  Millinery  and  Dress  and  Cloak  Making  establishments  in  Allegheny  City  is  that  of 
Mrs.  T.  A.  Roller  at  No.  122  Ohio  Street.  The  building  itself  is  a  large  one,  measuring  18x100  feet,  and  contains  ample 
space  for  the  accommodation  of  the  three  departments  of  the  business,  viz: — Dress  Making,  Cloak  Making  and  Millin- 
ery, which  require  the  services  of  thirty  hands.  Besides  these,  there  are  three  salesladies  employed  in  the  store 
proper,  and  the  pay-roll  weekly  reaches  the  sum  of  $140.  The  proprietress,  Mrs.  Boiler,  was  born  in  "France,  Feb.  22, 
1835,  and  came  to  this  city  in  1851,  where,  in  ISGl,  she  erected  the  building  which  she  at  present  occupies.  At  that 
time  her  capital  was  only  $50,  but  by  the  use  of  those  talents  for  her  business  which  are  peculiar  to  her  country- 
women, and  by  the  exercise  of  good  taste  and  judgment  in  the  selection  of  designs,  she  has  since  increased  it  to 
$20,000,  and  has  built  up  a  trade  throughout  the  two  cities  and  surrounding  country  which  amounts  to  $20,000  an- 
nually and  requires  the  keeping  on  hand  of  a  stock  valued  at  $8,000.  Her  assortment  of  Ribbons,  Flowers  and  Straw 
Goods  is  one  of  the  best  in  either  Pittsburgh  or  Allegheny  City. 

ARTHUR  K.1RK,— Powder,  and  Miner's  Supplies.  No.  19  Seventh  Street. 

Mr.  Kirk  was  born  in  Scotland  in  1825,  but  has  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  since  1839,  and  prominently  identi- 
fied with  the  business  interests  and  material  prosperity  of  this  city  for  many  years.  Although  not  a  politician,  Mr. 
Kirk  is  a  public-spirited  gentleman  whose  name  has  frequently  been  connected  with  public  affairs.  He  established 
tlie  business  in  which  he  is  now  engaged,  as  dealer  in  Powder,  Quarrying  and  Miner's  Supplies,  etc.,  in  1867,  but  had 
previously  been  actively  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits  for  over  twenty  years.  His  trade  has  steadily  increased,  as 
may  be  seen  from  the  fact  that  during  tlie  first  year  of  business  he  disposed  of  only  two  hundred  packages,  while  up  to 
the  commencement  of  tlie  panic  ten  thousand  packages  were  disposed  of  annually.  He  occupies  a  large  and  conve- 
niently arranged  office  at  No.  19  Seventh  Street,  employing  four  assistants,  at  a  weekly  expense  of  about  $40.00.  His 
trade  is  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  West  Virginia.  His  past  honorable  business  career  is  a  sufficient 
guarantee  for  a  successful  future.  In  the  same  office  with  Mr.  Kirk  Is  N.  G.  Ayres,  Ms  son-in-law,  who  is  the  author- 
ized agent  for  the  well-known  Austin  Powder  Company. 

JOHN  L.  DAWES,  SONS  &  CO— Druggists'  Glassware,  No.  81  Third  Avenue. 

This  house  was  established  in  1864  by  .Tohn  L.  Dawes,  Sr.,  being  the  pioneer  of  this  business  west  of  the  Alleghenies. 
Later,  E.  L.  Dawes  and  John  L.  Dawes,  Jr.,  were  admitted,  and  now  form  the  only  firm  in  Pittsburgh  engaged  in 
manufacturing  Glass,  Isabels  for  Druggists,  and  making  a  specialty  of  supplying  that  trade  with  glassware  and  general 
sundries.  The  premises  occupied  by  the  firm  are  situated  as  above,  where  eight  assistants  are  employed  in  the 
manufacture  of  "  Dawes'  Patent  Label,"  which  for  neatness,  durability  and  economy  has  no  i-ival  in  the  market,  and 
has  created  a  demand  throughout  the  United  States  and  Canada.  Mr.  Dawes,  Sr.,  has  been  a  resident  of  this  city  for 
nearly  forty  years  ;  he  has  been  identified  in  many  ways  with  its  progress  and  development.  His  sons  are  natives  of 
Pittsburgh;  they  have  a  thoroughly  detailed  knowledge  of  their  business,  and  are  constantly  making  improvements 
that  tend  very  greatly  to  its  increase,  and  advantage.  The  house  always  carries  a  large  stock  of  Labels  and  Glassware, 
which  are  sold  by  sample  and  manufactured  to  order,  and  it  is  not  saying  too  much  to  remark,  that  occupying  in  a 
certain  sense  the  position  of  a  monopolist,  this  fact  would  never  be  suspected  from  the  liberal  and  square  manner  in 
which  the  business  is  conducted. 

23  .  ' 


120  INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

ROSENBAUM  &  CO— Trimmings,  Millinery  and  Notions,  91  Market  Street. 

The  largest  and  best  known  house  in  Pittsburgh  engaged  in  this  line  of  business  is  that  of  Rosenbauni  &.  Co.,  who 
have  recently  removed  their  quarters  to  the  elegant  and  spacious  sales  rooms,  No.  91  Market  iStreet,  where  they  occupy 
three  floors,  each  18x90  feet,  completely  stocked  with  a  fresh,  fashionable  and  elegant  assortment  of  Millinery  Goods, 
Trimmings  and  Notions.  The  house  was  founded  eleven  years  ago  by  Mr.  Rosenbaum  and  another  gentleman,  and 
since  that  time  the  business  has  steadily  and  rapidly  increased,  until  the  sales  now  reach  the  round  sum  of  $120,000  per 
annum.  They  carry  a  stock  of  not  less  than  3?40,OUii,  and  are  in  receipt  of  all  the  latest  styles  and  designs  in  Foreign 
anil  Domestic  Millinery  and  Trimmings  simultaneously  with  their  appearance  in  the  New  York  and  Philadelphia 
markets.  Their  openings  are  attended  by  the  elite  of  the  two  cities  and  surrounding  towns,  and  this  house  has  come  to 
be  justly  celebrated  by  the  ladies  as  the  headquarters  for  fashionable  and  elegant  styles.  Messrs.  Kosei; baiim  &  Co. 
employ  the  services  of'  twenty-live  clerks  and  assistants  in  their  Establishment,  witha  weekly  pay  roll  amounting  to 
about  S200.    Mr.  liosenbaum  is  a  native  of  Germany,  but  has  resided  iu  this  country  for  about  sixteen  years. 

B.  li.  H.  HKSB^— Artist  Photographer,  Cor.  Market  and  Liberty  Sts. 

Mr.  Dabbs  commenced  business  in  this  city  in  1861  and  opened  rooms  for  the  sale  of  Photographic  Materials.  He 
was  very  successful  and  had  a  large  trade,  extending  through  several  States.  Becoming  interested  in  the  art  of  Pho- 
tography and  tinding  he  had  both  inclination,  taste  and  knowledge  for  it,  he  opened  rooms  in  Allegheny.  Almost  at 
once  he  took  the  lead  in  that  branch  and  has  kept  that  position  ever  since.  His  thorough  and  practical  mei'cantile  ed- 
ucation has  been  greatly  in  his  favor,  giving  him  the  business  sense  of  proving  by  actual  demonstration  that  as  good 
pictures  could  be  made  in  Pittsburgh  as  anywhere  in  the  world  ;  he  has  been  going  on,  steadily  improving  from  the 
very  commencement  of  his  business  career.  In  1863  he  removed  to  this  city,  as  he  found  that  his  trade  increased  faster 
than  the  facilities  he  was  possessed  of  in  Allegheny  would  keep  pace  with,  he  therefore  fitted  up  a  gallery,  studio  and 
reception  rooms  on  Sixth  street,  such  as  had  never  been  seen  before  in  this  locality,  and  which  were  abandoned  in 
1875,  only  to  take  possession  of  his  present  premises,  and  now  has  without  any  question  as  complete  facilities  for  carry- 
ing on  his  business  as  can  be  obtained.  The  rooms  which  he  now  occupies  were  built  according  to  his  own  plans  and 
ideas,  consequently  they  are  just  what  are  needed.  His  past  experience  taught  him  just  what  was  most  desirable,  he  has 
one  of  the  finest  plate  glass  skylights  in  the  United  States.  He  always  examines  carefully  into  everything  new  that 
is  ever  introduced  in  Photography,  and  if  he  considers  it  practicable  and  any  impi-ovement  on  what  he  has  hitherto 
used,  never  fails  to  adopt  it.  Acting  on  this  principle  he  bought  the  right  for  the  making  of  the  new  permanent  prints 
by  the  Carbon  process,  and  through  this  method  he  has  been  most  successful  in  obtaining  beautiful  results  in  porce- 
lain pictures.  There  is  the  most  pleasing  variety  in  his  pictures,  his  positions  are  all  characterized  by  an  ease  and 
grace  which  very  few  photographers  can  obtain.  We  consider  iMr.  Dabbs'  greatest  success  lies  in  this,  he  studies  the 
sitter  and  aims  to  give  to  each  one  such  a  position  as  will  best  suit  them,  and  this  he  almost  seems  to  know  by  intui- 
tion. He  takes  a  pride  and  a  great  pleasure  iu  his  work,  which  materially  helps  him  in  the  good  results  which  he 
obtains. 


F.  SQ^'VY'E,- Merchant  Tailor,  No.  288  Penn  Avenue. 

Mr.  Soevyn  is  a  jiractical  cutter  and  has  had  over  thirty  years  experience  as  a  Tailor,  thus  being  enabled  to  not 
only  understand  every  detail  of  the  business,  but  to  give  perfect  satisfaction  to  his  cu.stomers.  He  has  been  estab- 
lished in  his  present  line  for  about  five  years,  during  which  time  he  has  secured  the  patronage  and  confidence  of 
many  af  the  leading  gentlemen  of  Pittsburgh,  in  all  cases  giving  the  most  undoubted  satisfaction,  and  establishing  a 
reputation  second  to  none  engaged  in  the  same  business.  He  keeps  on  hand  a  carefully  selected  and  fashionable  stock 
of  the  best  foreign  and  domestic  fabrics  for  gentlemen's  wear,  from  which  to  select,  and  his  garments  are  all  made  up 
in  the  most  thorough  and  workman-like  manner.  His  business  is  exclusively  Custom  Work,  and  his  specialty  is  in 
the  manufacture  of  fashionable  dress  and  business  suits  at  prices  to  suit  the  times. 

JOHM  SEIFERTH -I^/m  and  Liquors,  Nos.  27  and  29  Market  Street. 

Mr.  Seifcrth  has  been  engaged  in  his  present  line  of  business  in  the  old  First  Ward  for  the  past  twenty-one  years,  and 
at  his  present  location  for  sixteen  years.  He  is  a  well  known  and  highly  respected  business  man  and  a  prominent  cit- 
izen of  the  Smoky  City.  He  now  occupies  the  three  story  brick  warehouse,  fronting  on  Market  street  373^  feet  and 
extending  back  on  Second  avenue  SO  feet,  where  he  keeps  a  large  and  finely  selected  stock  of  pure  Wines  an'd  l^iquors, 
both  Imported  and  Domestic.  Ho  is  an  extensive  rectifier  and  carries  on  both  a  wholesale  and  retail  busines,  amount- 
ing to  not  less  tlian  S'25,000  per  annum,  employing  three  hands,  and  making  a  specialty  of  Pure  Unadulterated  Wines 
and  Liquors  for  family  use.  Mr.  Seiferth  has  in  stock  some  of  the  oldest  and  purest  Liquors  to  be  found  in  the  city, 
and  his  trade,  which  is  both  local  and  country,  is  of  the  very  best  class.  He  was  born  in  Germany  in  1829,  but  has 
for  many  years  resided  in  Pittsburgh  and  boon  identified  with  themercantilc  and  spiritual  welfare,  being  a  prominent 
and  consistent  member  of  the  German  Lutheran  Church. 

LASHEL  &  WAJLTTJEL -Commission  Merchants.  &c.,  54,  56  &  58  Ferry  St. 

These  gentlemen  are  engaged  in  the  business  of  general  Commission  Merchants  and  dealers  in  Flour,  Grain,  Mill 
Feed,  Hay,  Produce,  &c.,  and  pay  special  attention  to  the  buying  and  selling  of  Horses.  They  have  good  stabling  in 
connection  with  their  establishment  for  the  accommodation  of  patrons.  The  business  was  established  in  1875  by  Mr. 
Murry  Trimble,  who  was  exclusively  in  the  feed  business  and  was  succeeded  in  1879  by  the  present  firm.  They  caiTV 
a  stock  of  over  ?f2,000,  while  their  annual  business  will  amount  to  many  thousands  of  dollars.  They  occupy  the  prem- 
ises 60x60  feet  at  the  numbers  above  named.  The  members  of  the  firm  devote  their  personal  attention  to  the  business 
and  employ  one  assistant.  Their  sales  are  principally  made  in  the  city  and  surrounding  towns,  and  they  receive  con- 
signuientsfrom  almost  every  section  of  tlie  country.  "  Mr.  G.  A.  Lashel  was  born  in  Pennsylvania  in  1845  and  is  an 
experienced  business  man  of  many  years  standing.  Mr.  J.  T.  Walter,  the  junior  member  of  the  firm,  takes  no  active 
part  in  the  business,  but  his  son,  E.'j.  Walter,  fills  that  position  with  ability,  he  having  a  long  experience  in  the 
Commission  business  before  embarking  in  the  enterpi'ise  iu  which  he  is  now  engaged. 

McELROY  &i  CQ -Brooms,  Brushes,  Paper,  Paper  stock,  dc,  80  &  82  Third  Ave 

This  firm  do  a  business  of  from  §80,000  to  §100,000  employing  in  their  manufacturing  and  assorting  departments 
35  hands,  who,  with  the  aid  of  the  best  machinery  to  assist  in  making  "hand-made"  Brooms  and  Brushes,  turn  out 
the  best  work  known  to  the  trade.  Hugh  McElroy,  one  of  the  firm,  is  senior  partner  in  the  Choshocton  Paper  Co. 
of  Choshocton,  Ohio;  whose  mill  manufactures  the  Paper  handled  by  JfcElroy  &.  Co.  and  deal  largely  in  Rags  and 
other  Paper  stock,  etc.    The  firm  is  one  of  the  most  solid  of  the  city  and  is  at  all  times  reliable. 

24 


CITY   OF  PITTSBURGH. 


121 


PITTSBURGH  TAR  CHEMICAL  WORKS.//  A.  Clifford  &  Co., 

No.  170  Rebecca  Street,  Allegheny  City. 

Few  persons,  not  familiar  with  the  business,  have  any  conception  of  the  variety  of  aiticli's  manufactured  from 
that,  to  many,  repulsive  loolcing  and  smelling  material  known  as  Tar.  The  Pittsburgh  Tar  Cliemical  Works  is  the 
only  manufactory  in  this  city  of  this  description  of  goods.  Tlie  Works  were  established  by  I).  Hostetter,  Otto  Wuth, 
and  A.  Herz,  with  an  original  capital  of  §110,000,  which  they  increased  to  $25,000.  The  present  proprietors  are  H.  A. 
Cliflford  and  Erail  Schalk,  doing  biisiness  under  the  firm  name  and  style  of  H.  A.  Clittbrd  &  Co.,  and  they  increased 
the  capital  to  $40,000.  The  premises  occupied  by  this  firm  are  145x300  feet  in  size,  containing  five  buildings  and  four 
sheds.  The  dimcn.sions  of  the  buildings  are  respectively  as  follows  :  40x80  feet,  SOxUO  feet,  20x30  feet,  20x30  feet  and 
18x50  feet.  Their  laboratory  and  works  are  fitted  with  all  the  requisite  appliances  and  machinery  for  tlie  distillation 
and  manufacture  of  their  various  products.  The  works  require  one  5-horse  power  engine  and  one  8-horse  power 
boiler,  and  furnish  employment  to  eight  hands  with  a  monthly  pay  roll  aggregating  about  $425.  They  carry  a  stock 
of  about  $25,000,  and  their  annual  business  will  reach,  if  not  exceed  that  amount.  Their  trade  is  principally  local 
although  they  ship  goods  occasionally  to  ditferent  portions  of  tlie  United  States.  The  works  will  compare  favorably 
with  similar  establishments  in  St.  Louis  and  Chicago  manufacturing  the  same  class  of  goods.  Among  the  various 
articles  for  which  they  have  established  a  high  reputation,  we  may  mention,  Pvoofing  Cement,  Paving  Cement  and 
Composition,  Dead  Oil,  Napthaline,  Crude  Benzole,  Pure  White  Rectified  Benzole,  Iron  Varnish,  Cotton  Tie 
Varnish,  Crude  and  Refined  Carbolic  Acid,  Carbolate  Powder,  "Universal  Disinfectant"  and  Oil  Myrbane,  an  article 
used  extensively  for  perfuming  Soaps  in  place  of  Almond  Oil. 

Mr.  H.  A.  Cliflford  is  a  native  of  New  Hampshire  and  came  to  this  city  in  1874;  and  his  son,  Mr.  Charles  W. 
Cliflford,  is  book-keeper  and  superintendent  of  the  clerical  and  corresponding  department. 


HODGE,  GODDARD  &  CO -Wholesale  Jewelers,  No.  43  Fifth  Avenue. 

No  history  of  the  Industries  of  Pittsburgh  would  be  complete  without  frequent  reference  to  the  trade  in  which 
the  above  house  is  engaged,  and  in  which  it  has  achieved  so  prominent  a  position.  Established  in  1864  by  Messrs. 
Scott  &  Hennegen,  that  firm  was  shortly  succeeded  by  Scott,  Hennegen  &  Co.,  who  were  followed  by  Scott,  Barrett  & 
Co.,  then  J.  T.  Scott  &  Co.,  and  finally  by  the  present  firm,  composed  of  Messrs.  W.  C.  Hodge,  Geo.  E.  Goddard  and 
E.  W.  Hill,  making  a  specialty  of  American  Watches.  They  represent  the  Waltham,  Springfield,  and  Elgin  Watch 
Cos.,  wliose  superb  products  are  known  for  their  accuracy  over  the  entire  world,  and  are  remarkable  for  the  perfec- 
tion of  their  construction  and  matchless  time  keeping  qualities,  being  regarded  as  absolutely  flawless  in  the  latter 
respect. — As  Importers,  Jobbers,  and  Manufacturers  of  Jewelry,  Clocks,  Watches,  Silver  and  Silver  Plated  Ware, 
Dinner  Sets,  Tea  Sets,  etc.,  with  every  variety  of  goods  suitable  for  all  occasions,  tliis  house  offers  facilities  to  the  trade 
that  are  unsurpassed  between  Philadelphia  and  Chicago.  As  an  evidence  of  this  fact  may  be  cited  the  remarkable 
growth  of  a  business,  which  of  a  most  limited  character  at  its  inception,  has  reached  the  proportions  of  one  of  the 
largest  houses  in  the  West.  Exclusive  of  the  individual  members,  each  of  whom  takes  an  active  part  in  the  business, 
the  firm  employ  four  salesmen,  two  of  whom  are  constantly  on  the  road,  one  skilled  engraver  and  designer,  one 
watch-maker,  two  jewelry-jobbers,  and  several  other  assistants.  Engaged  exclusively  in  Jobbing,  the  trade  of  this 
heuse  extends  through  Western  Pennsylvania,  West  Virginia,  Ohio  and  Indiana,  its  products  being  highly  regarded 
in  the  trade  for  beauty  and  originality  of  design,  special  attention  having  been  directed  to  perfect  all  goods  in  these 
respects.  As  a  firm,  Messrs.  Hodge,  Goddard  &  Co.  stand  at  the  head  of  the  Wholesale  Jewelry  trade  in  this  ciiy, 
carrying  the  largest  stock  and  doing  the  most  extended  business,  and  are  regarded  with  esteem  and  consideration  by 
all  with  whom  they  come  in  contact.  Their  business  policy  is  just  and  lilseral,  resulting  naturally  in  the  marked 
success  that  has  attended  their  operations. 


SOMERS,  BROTHER  &  CO., 

Ill  LIBERTY  STREET, 

Produce  Dealers  and  Shippers, 

and  General  Commission  Merchants. 

There  are  few  kinds  of  business  which  have  the  capacity  of  a  wider 
range  and  scope  than  the  business  in  which  Messrs.  Somers,  Bro.  &  Co. 
are  engaged.  These  gentlemen  commenced  business  at  No.  177  Liberty 
Street,  in  1876,  with  a  comprehensive  knowledge  of  its  responsibilities  and 
requirements,  and  have,  by  their  straightforward  business  transactions, 
established  a  flourishing  trade,  and,  at  the  same  time,  won  the  confidence 
of  all  with  whom  they  have  had  dealings.  The  gradual  increase  in  their 
business  made  it  necessary  to  secure  more  convenient  quarters,  and  they 
subsequently  removed  to  No.  202  Liberty  Street,  and  later,  again  to  en- 
large their  business  space  and  facilities,  to  their  present  location.  No.  211 
Liberty  Street.  Their  transactions  embrace  a  General  Produce  and  Com- 
mission business,  receiving  and  disposing  of  Consignments  of  Produce, 
Fruits  or  Dairy  Products,  as  well  as  Buyers  and  Shippers.  We  know  of  no 
house  in  this  city  to  whom  we  could  more  cordially  commend  country 
dealers,  nor  any  whose  facilities  are  better  for  the  disposition  of  any 
products  placed  in  their  hands.  They  occupy  four  floors  and  basement  of 
a  capacious  building,  employ  seven  per.sons  in  the  diflferent  departments  of 
their  business,  and  their  annual  tran.sactions  will  reach  at  least  $100,000. 
They  receive  consignments  from  all  parts  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Maryland, 
New  York,  West  Virginia,  Kentucky  and  this-State,  with  sales  princi- 
pally in  this  city  and  vicinity  and  shipments  to  Eastern  cities.  The  firm 
is  composed  of  J.  L.  &  Charles  Somers,  men  of  excellent  business  qualifica- 
tions, formerly  of  Beaver  County,  this  State. 
25 


122 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANLl. 


JOHN  T.  NATCU'E'R -Carpenter  and  Builder,  Nos.  125  &  127  First  Avenue. 

.Tno.  T.  Katclu'v  w;is  bnni  in  Carlisle,  rcniisylvania,  in  1S47.  He  commenced  the  tradt-,  whicli  he  lias  followed  in 
this  city  willi  siicli  signal  siut'oss,  in  his  native  town  in  11S()3.  Four  years  after  he  came  to  I'ittsburiih,  where  he  has  re- 
sided siiiee  that  time.  Heoeeuiiiosa  buildini;;'.t)xr)J  feet,  built  on  alotSOxKU)  feet,  reaeliinfj;  from  First  to  Second  Ave  .and 
has  an  animal  business  of  from  SotJ.OtHl  to  S7."i,tRi().  He  furnishes  steady  en\iilovment  to  from  1(1  to  5(1  hands,  at  an  aver- 
aiie  salary  of  $1.75  per  diem  eaeli.  Throuuh  the  eity  and  vicinity  are  iandnuir"ks  of  his  mechanical  ability,  some  of  the 
tiiicst  structures  of  arcliitcctural  skill  are  pointed  out  as  erected  by  him,  viz  :  "The  First  I'resbytcrian  i'liurch  on  the 
south  side;"  "South  Side  City  Hall  and  Market  House;"  "St.  Clair  U.  P.  Church"  at  ]Mount  Lebanon,  and  many 
others  might  be  mentioned.  Anu)n!;  the  many  prominent  firms  of  our  city,  to  whom  he  has  given  satisfaction  in 
buildini;  ami  repairing,  we  uuiy  nuuition  a  few  as  follows :  A.  Garrison  &  Co.,  Robison,  Rea  I'i:  Co.,  Roht.  J.  Ander.son 
it  Co.,  \Vm.  Clark  it  Co.,  INlclntosh,  Hemi)hill  &  Co.,  Zug  ct  Co.,  besides  numerous  others.  His  shop  is  the  best  regu- 
lated one  in  tlie  city,  perfectly  equipped  ami  systcmizcd,  and  tilled  with  uoue  butthe  best  of  mechanics.  Thus  repre- 
sented and  located  "he  is  perfectly  prepared  to  give  cstinuites  and  perform  ail  jobs  on  contracts  in  the  best  manner, 
either  by  day  or  contract,  making  a  specialty  of  mill  and  foundry  work,  also  giving  special  attention  to  erecting  steam 
and  hand  cranes  of  all  sizes,  in  which,  as  with  other  work  executed  by  him,  he  has  established  a  reputation  equal  to 
the  best  of  his  cotemporaries,  and  well  deserved. 

L.  FUNDIS  &  SON,— Clothing  &  Furnishing  Goods,  57  Frankstown  Ave,  East  End. 

One  of  the  leading  houses  of  the  East  End  is  that  of  L.  Fundis  &  Son,  dealers  in  Ready  Made  Clothing,  Hats, 
Caps  and  Gents'  Furnishing  Goods,  situated  at  No.  57  Frankstown  Avenue,  in  the  fine  brick  block  owned  by  the  firm. 
Tlie  sales  room  now  occupied  by  the  house  is  •20x(j0,  and  is  stocked  with  a  full  and  complete  assortment  of  articles 
pertaining  to  the  lines  enumerated.  This  house  was  founded  in  1852  by  Mr.  L.  Fundis  with  a  caiiital  of  $300,  which 
iias  by  careful  management  and  shrewd  business  tact  increased  to  not  less  tliau  S^5(l,()00,  which  is  principally  invested 
on  Real  Estate,  clear  vi  all  encumbrance.  The  stock  now  carried  by  the  firm  is  about  S(),Ot)0,  and  their  annual  sales 
reach  S12,000,  wliicli  are  i>rincipally  to  residents  of  the  East  End  and  surrounding  districts.  The  members  of  the  firm 
are  Mr.  Lewis  Fundis,  wlio  was  born  in  Baden,  Jan.  14,  1832,  and  cauu^  to  this  city  in  184S.  and  Mr.  John  Fundis, 
born  at  East  Liberty,  Dec.  14,  185S.  They  ai'e  wide  awake,  enterprising  and  energetic  business  men,  as  the  brilliant 
success  which  has  attended  their  business  career  will  sufficiently  indicate. 

D.  AYRES  &  CO. -Live  Stock,  Central  Stock  Yards,  East  End. 

The  present  firm  was  established  January  10,  1879,  by  Mr.  D.  Ayres,  Jr.,  and  Mr.  H.  A.  Holdridge,  as  Commission 
Dealers  in  Live  Stock.  Mr.  Ayres  has  for  the  past  twelve  years  been  identified  with  the  business  at  the  Central 
Stock  Yards  and  connected  with  the  firms  of  Hedges,  Hull" it  Co.,  Cochran,  .Vyres  *t  Co.,  and  Hamilton,  Lougry  it  Co. 
The  office  of  this  firm  is  at  the  Stock  Yards,  East  End,  and  they  do  ai\  exclusively  Commission  Business  in  Cattle, 
Hogs  and  Sheep.  They  employ  two  men  at  an  average  expense  of  §125  per  month.  Mr.  Ayres  was  born  at  Kalida, 
Putnam  Co.,  O.,  in  1841,  and  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1867.  jNIr.  Holdridge  was  born  in  Knox  Co.,  O.,  in  1840,  and  came 
to  this  eity  in  1878.    They  are  wide-awake  anil  energetic  young  men  and  do  a  thriving  business. 

M.  J.  TKRREUL.-Plumbing,  Gas  &  Steam  Fitting,  No.  236  Penn  Ave. 

Though  apparently  diversified,  the  various  branches  of  business  in  which  Mr.  Farrell  is  engaged  form  one 
complete  whole  and  are  interlinked.  In  addition  to  the  occupation  of  Locksmith  and  Bell-hanger  he  is  an  experi- 
enced Plumber  and  Gas  and  Steampipe  Fitter,  manufacturer  of  Stencilplates  and  Materials,  Steel  and  Rubber 
Stamps.  Repairer  of  every  description  of  Small  Machinery^,  Cutlery  and  Household  Mechanism,  and  general  dealer 
in  Hardware,  Locks,  Keys',  Cutlery,  etc.,  at  No.  2oii  Pcnn  Avenue,  between  7th  am  8th  Streets.  Mr.  Farrell  is  a 
native  of  Ireland,  but  has  been  a  "resident  of  the  United  States  for  many  j'cars  and  for  over  twenty  years  engaged 
in  his  present  line  of  business  in  this  city.  His  premises  are  20x50  feet  in  size  and  he  employes  three  experienced 
workmen  with  an  excellent  local  trade. 


WOODRUFF  SLFFPING  AND  PARLOi/l  COACH  CO,, 

Office,  So.  4  Market  Street, 

The  Woodruff  Sleeping  and 
Parlor  Coach  Company  is  a 
stock  company,  incorporated 
January,  1872,  by  special  char- 
ter, with  a  paid  up  capital  of 
?ri0O,O()0  and  charter  privilege 
of  "^ "1,000,00(1.  The  officers  arc 
as  lollows:  Frank  Kahm,  Pres- 
ulent,  James  Irwin,  Vice  Pres- 
ulent.  and  Augustus  Trump, 
^elIctaI■y.  The  object  of  the 
Comp.uiy  is  the  controlling 
and  running  over  various  lines 
of  lailroads  Sleeping  and  Par- 
lor Coaches  combined,  that 
shall,  through  the  perfection 
ot  ill  |iie\iiuis  lb  simiN  by  ihe  late  Jonah  Woodruff'  (the  onainator  of  the  Sleeping  and  Parlor  Coach  idea), 
surp.iss  all  others  in  i educed  Mbration,  improved  ventilation,  suppress. on  or  uicket  and  friction,  increased  safety  in 
the  adjustment  of  the  centre  of  [.gravity — nearer  the  floor — removal  of  berths  from  over  the  trucks,  and  other  advan- 
tages, special  among  which  is  doing  away  with  dead  weight  of  at  least  six  tons  as  compared  with  other  sleeping  cars, 
and  being  the  only  cars  manufactured  tliat  are  built  with  electric  bell  at  each  berth,  which  enables  passengers  to  at 
once  sun\mon  tlic  porter  to  the  respective  berth  calling,  when  anything  is  desired,  lieing  of  special  advantage  to  ladies 
with  eliildren,  besides  a  general  elegance  and  sumptuous  convenience  iiitherto  unapproached  in  any  cars  previously 
manufactured  or  designed.  The  business  of  the  Con\pany  has  already  become  extensive  on  many  of  the  roads 
throughout  the  United  States,  where  not  less  than  eighty  of  "these  cars  add  greatly  to  the  comfort  and  convenience  of 
the  general  public,  and  are  the  first  company  to  reduce  their  rates  twenty-five  per  cent,  from  former  prices,  but  en- 
hance greatly  the  earnings  of  the  respective  roads  upon  which  they  are  employed. 

26 


CITY  OF  PITTSBURGH.  123 


LAUGHLIN  &  jy:E  AN, -Ship  Chandlers,  Boat  Stores,  Groceries,  dc,  90  Water  St. 

In  compiling  a  record  of  tiie  business  liouses  of  tlie  City  and  in  niuking  mention  of  tlie  City's  conimerce  and 
river  traffic,  we  have  a  two-fold  reason  for  noticing  tlio  house  of  Lauglilin  &  Dean,  lirsl,  as  a  new  iironiinent  busi- 
ness liousi!  on  tlie  river  for  their  benelit,  and  secondly,  for  the  benefit  of  the  readers  of  this  volume  doing  a  nav- 
igation business,  in  directing  their  attention  to  the  line  stock  of  supplies  here  to  he  found  in  llie  necessaries 
ajipurtenant  to  tlie  shipping  interests  of  our  city,  by  way  of  ropes,  cordage,  oils,  calking  materials,  provisions, 
groceries,  &c.  At  the  store  of  this  firm,  which  occupies  tliree  floors  of  a  building,  25x80  feet,  may  be  found  not  on- 
ly a  full  line  of  goods  above  mentioned,  but  also  a  comjjlcte  stork  of  clioice  and  staple  groceries,  fresh  country 
produce  and  dairy  products,  as  butter,  cheese,  eggs,  fruits,  vegetables  and  fowls,  this  being  indeed  headquarters  oli 
Water  street  for  these  every  day  necessities,  whose  real  merit  lies  in  their  purity  and  freshness,  which  is  always 
here  guaranteed.  In  addition  to  these  lines  the  firm  make  specialties  of  St.  Louis  flours,  tlie  leading  of  which  is 
the  celebrated  "Che.ster"  brand  bought  direct  from  the  mills  as  per  order  of  this  house,  h.  M.  Laughlin  and  John  L>. 
Dean,  who  compose  the  linn,  are  both  well  known  to  the  trade,  and  we  are  safe  iu  commending  to  our  river 
readers  the  fulfillment  of  their  every  want  at  satisfactory  prices. 

JAMES  I^HHL, AN, —Hosiery  and  Gents'  Furnishing  Goods,  No,  82  Fifth  Avenue. 

The  "Old  Stand  Stocking  Store"  is  one  of  the  landmarks  on  Fifth  avenue.  It  was  started  in  1889  by  Michael  Daly, 
uncle  of  the  present  proprietor.  Mr.  Phelan  succeeded  to  the  business  in  18D4,  having  been  connected  with  the  house 
as  early  as  18.50.  Three  floors  are  here  occupied  by  a  stock  of  goods  amounting  in  value  to  about  $20,000.  The  business 
embraces  Hosiery  and  Furnishing  Goods,  and  the  sales  require  the  attention  of  five  persons  in  the  store.  Special  at- 
tention is  given  to  fine  imported  goods,  and  tlie  best  selections  are  made  from  Knglish,  French,  German,  Irish  and 
Scotch  manufactures,  among  which  may  bo  noted  the  Irish  Balbriggan  Goods  and  Scotch  Underwear.  The  house  has 
also  a  high  reputation  for  its  manufacture  of  well-fttting  shirts  of  the  best  quality  of  material.  For  fine  goods,  large 
variety,  choice  selection  of  goods  and  reliability  of  guarantees,  Mr.  Phelan's  house  has  a  reputation  of  which  any  bus- 
iness man  might  be  proud. 

LOUIS  A.  ID'ENISON,— Grocer,  Penn  and  Frankstown  Avenues,  East  End. 

In  a  block  of  three-story  buildings  fronting  on  both  Penn  and  Frankstown  Avenues,  East  End,  owned  by  the 
Denison  brothers,  is  located  the  well  arranged  Grocery  Store  of  Louis  A.  Denison.  This  house  was  established  in 
IS.'JS  by  Mr.  William  L.  Denison,  father  of  the  present  proprietor,  who  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1832  from  Connecticut. 
After  his  death,  which  occurred  in  1873,  the  business  was  conducted  under  the  firm  name  and  style  of  W.  L.  Deni- 
son's  Sons  until  .Jan.  1,  1879,  when  Mr.  Louis  A.  Denison  became  sole  proprietor.  The  house  is  now  one  of  the  most 
popular  in  the  East  End,  and  the  business  will  compare  favorably  with  that  of  any  similar  establishment  in  the  city 
proper.  His  store  is  20x70,  fi-onting  on  botli  the  streets  named,  and  four  assistants  are  constantly  employed.  Mr. 
Denison  was  born  in  Pittsljurgh  in  1851,  and  may  appropriately  be  classed  among  her  most  prosperous  and  enterprising 
young  merchants. 

A  R.  REINEMAN  &:  BUO. -Wholesale  &  Retail  Florists,  25  Fifth  Avenue. 

The  delightful  industry  of  the  florist  has  increased  with  the  growing  wealth  and  luxury  of  this  city  to  such  an  ex- 
tent, as  to  form  a  very  important  factor  in  the  general  prosperity  and  resources.  Among  those  houses  that  have 
secured  by  their  enterprise  and  energy  more  than  usual  prominence  in  this  department,  may  be  mentioned  the 
Messrs.  A.  R.  &  E.  C.  Reineraan,  who,  under  the  caption  title,  founded  their  Vjusiness  more  than  a  year  ago,  with  facil- 
ities that  placed  them  at  once  in  the  front  rank  as  commercial  and  botanical  florists.  The  Garden  Houses  of  the  firm 
are  located  on  Troy  Hill,  and  consist  of  about  10  acres  of  garden  thoroughly  stocked  with  the  choicest  variety  of  trees, 
shrubs  and  plants  to  be  found  in  this  section  of  the  country.  The  Green  House,  which  is  heated  by  steam  and  a  2.5 
horse  power  engine,  covers  an  area  alone  of  aljout  an  acre  and  contains  a  selection  of  rare  indigenous  and  tropical  flow- 
ers and  flowering  plants.  From  this  source  the  store  at  No.  25  Fifth  avenue  is  su  ftp  lied  with  daily  floral  additions  to  its 
stock,  and  charming  decorations  furnished  for  every  social  or  funeral  occasion.  Orders  from  abroad  are  promptly  filled, 
for  Flowers  cut  or  otherwise,  Plants,  Bulbs,  Fancy  Stands,  Baskets  and  Vines  of  every  description.  With  these  facil- 
ities and  all  the  added  advantages  to  be  derived  from  an  enlarged  experience  and  thorough  familiarity  with  the  work, 
the  Messrs.  Reineman  are  to  no  small  degree  deserving  of  the  hearty  support  and  consideration  of  the  community. 

I.  JACIL'&ON-  Star  Clothier,"  322  Liberty  Street. 

One  of  the  most  complete  and  extensive  stocks  of  Ready  Made  Clothing  and  Gentlemen's  Furnishing  Goods  to  be 
found  in  Pittsburgh,  may  be  seen  at  the  well  known  "Star"  Clothing  Emporium  of  Mr.  I.  .Jackson,  which  is  located 
at  No.  322  Liberty  street,  corner  of  Oak  alley.  The  store  room  is  15x00  feet  and  is  filled  with  a  line  of  the  most  desir- 
able and  fashionable  goods  in  the  market,  estimated  at  not  less  than  $10,000  in  value.  He  has  a  large  city  trade  as 
well  as  an  e.Ktensive  and  lucrative  custom  along  the  line  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  amounting  to  SlO,006  or  Sl2,000 
annually.  In  addition  to  the  Clothing  and  Furnishing  Goods  business,  Mr.  .lackson  makes  a  specialty  of  manufac- 
turing fine  suits  to  order,  having  a  merchant  tailoring  department  in  connection  with  his  establishment,  in  which  he 
employs  a  number  of  first  class  workmen.  Mr.  .lackson  was  born  in  Germany  in  1844.  He  came  *.j  the  United  States 
in  1860  and  to  Pittsburgh  in  1874,  when  the  present  business  was  established  by  him. 

W.  A.  TSUNTTNQc^-Stencil  Works,  25  &  27  Fifth  Avenue. 

Mr.  Bunting  started  his  business  in  1869  at  No.  11  Market  street,  afterwards  removed  to  184  Liberty  street,  and 
became  located  as  above  in  April  1878.  His  business  embraces  the  cutting  of  Stencils,  Steel  Stamps  and  Burning 
Brands,  the  manufacture  of  Seal  Presses,  Rubber  Stamps,  Ribbon  Stamps,  Dies,  Seals,  &c.,  also  Elecirotyping  and  Stere- 
otyping. The  office  and  exhibition  rooms  are  on  the  2nd  floor,  the  manufacturing  department  on  the  4th.  Eight  men 
are  employed  in  cutting,  manufacturing,  &c.,  one  on  steel  stamps  and  burning  brands,  two  on  seal  presses,  one  on  rub- 
ber stamps,  one  on  ribbon  stamps,  one  printer,  one  clerk  and  one  office  boy.  New  designs  in  letters  and  dies  are  con- 
stantly being  produced.  A  new  article  is  metal-bodied  rubber  type  for  hand  presses,  superior  to  any  other.  This 
house  is  the  leading  one  in  its  line  in  the  city,  and  equal  to  New  York  houses  in  variety  and  scope  of  work  and  in  the 
execution  of  the  same.  Its  trade  extends  from  Harrisburgh,  Pa.,  to  Indiana  and  further  West,  through  which  dis- 
trict he  has  numerous  agents,  and  solicits  correspondence  from  those  who  wish  a  plea.sant  and  paying  business.  The 
proprietor  is  the  inventor  of  the  "Eureka  Cigar  Box  Brand,"  the  most  convenient  and  rapid  stamp  in  the  world,  and 
makes  a  specialty  of  its  manufacture.  He  was  born  in  Maryland  in  1846,  and  has  been  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh  since 
1809. 

27 


124  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

KEYSTONE  PAPER  CO -/\los.  726  <&  728  Second  Avenue. 

J^'ew   Yor!:,  22   Vesey  S/rcct. 

This  company  was  establislu-d  in  1S7S  by  Capt.  C.  C.  Markle  and  J.  K.  Cass,  for  the  purpose  of  handling  the 
products  of  the  West  Newtou,  Mill  Grove  and  Koaring  Spring  Paper  Mills,  Capt.  Markle  being  a  member  of  the  well 
known  house  of  C.  P.  Markle  &  Sons,  proprietors  of  the  two  tir.st  named  plants,  and  Mr.  Cass  of  tlie  firm  of  Morrison, 
B;u'e  &  Cass,  owners  of  the  Roaring  Spring  Mills.  Engrossing  the  total  product  of  those  e.vtensive  concerns,  the 
Keystone  Paper  Co.  finds  a  market  for  600,000  pounds  of  paper  per  month,  involving  annual  transactions  of  over  one 
million  dollars,  at  the  present  unprecedented  prices,  and  ranging  over  the  entire  United  States ;  a  considerable  export 
tr.ide  being  done  with  Cuba  and  other  foreign  points.  The  larger  part  of  the  business  of  the  house  lies  in  the  line  of 
News  Printing  and  Book  Paper,  but  includes  Hardware,  Manillas,  Express,  Tea,  Glass,  Rag  and  Straw  AVrapping, 
Roofing  Felt,  Lining  Felt,  and  Printed  Wrappings,  etc.,  affording  buyers  all  the  range  and  facilities  that  can  be  offered 
by  any  contemporaneous  concern  in  the  country.  Some  idea  of  the  capacity  of  the  house  may  be  gained  from  the 
fact  that  the  West  Newton  Mills  alone  cover  an  area  of  over  two  acres,  and  employ  IGO  skilled  operatives,  to  pay 
whom  an  annual  outlay  is  necessary  of  between  $60,000  and  $75,OD3.  Of  the  four  mills  under  control  of  the  company 
each  manufactures  four  different  kinds  of  paper,  the  machinery  in  all  of  them  being  the  best  that  modern  ingenuity 
can  devise,  or  capital  and  enterprise  supply. 

Capt.  lilarkle  is  the  resident  partner  and  is  personally  alert  in  every  department  of  the  business,  supervising  the 
operations  of  the  mills  at  West  Newton,  and  conducting  the  financial  and  various  other  transactions  at  the  office  and 
ware  rooms  in  Second  Avenue.  A  native  of  Westmoreland  Co.,  Pa.,  the  Captain  was  born  in  1840  ;  he  served  through 
the  late  War  of  the  Rebellion  with  honorable  distinction,  and  removing  to  Pittsburgh  in  1867  has  since  that  time 
been  largely  identified  with  the  industrial  interests  of  the  community,  not  only  in  the  line  of  his  present  vocation, 
but  extensively  connected  with  the  manufacture  of  coke  along  the  line  of  the  B.  &  0.  R.R.  The  successful  operation 
of  numerous  diverse  enterprises  has  made  Capt.  Markle  widely  known  in  this  city  and  surroundings,  where  his 
extraordinary  business  cajMcities  have  been  universally  recognized  and  appreciated  as  being  of  the  highest  order. 
His  p.irtner  in  the  Keystone  Co.,  Mr.  J.  K.  Cass,  was  born  at  Coshocton,  O.,  1844,  and  is  a  nephew  of  Gen.  Geo.  W. 
Cass.  He  removed  to  this  city  in  1877,  and  shortly  thereafter  to  New  York,  where  he  conducts  the  extensive  Eastern 
business  of  the  company  at  No.  22  Vesey  Street.  As  a  firm  with  whom  to  establish  permanent  relations,  the  Key- 
stone Paper  Co.  is  perhaps  one  of  the  most  desirable  in  the  country.  Liberal,  decisive  and  honorable,  with  a  product 
unsurpassed  for  excellence  in  any  market,  and  facilities  that  defeat  all  competition,  the  house  is  thoroughly 
commended  to  the  public  as  entii-ely  meriting  the  high  consideration  of  which  it  is  the  object. 

H.  W.  LAGEMAN  &  IBRO -Groceries,  Tea,  Flour,  dc, 

Corner  Frankstotviat  Avenue  and  Station  Street,  £ast  £nd. 

This  firm  succeeded  Adam  Mohler  in  his  business,  in  March,  1877,  and  have  since  increased  their  tr.ade,  until  it 
now  ranks  with  the  most  prominent  of  the  East  End  grocery  houses.  Their  stock,  usually  to  the  value  of  about 
S3,500,  is  composed  of  the  choicest  articles  to  be  obtained,  and  "their  business,  which  is  about"$25,000  yearly,  requires 
the  attention  of  three  men  (two  salesmen  and  a  delivery-man)  besides  the  proprietors,  the  pay  roll  being  SlOO 
monthly.  Their  capital,  which  was  originally  8^2,000,  has  largely  increased,  while  their  uniform  system  of  fair  dealing 
and  courteous  endeavors  to  please,  have  extended  their  trade  throughout  East  Liberty  and  the  surrounding  villages 
of  Homewood,  Dallas  and  Wilkinsburg.  Their  store,  a  three-story  brick  building,  20x70  feet,  is  situated  in  one"  of 
the  most  prominent  locations  in  the  East  End,  and  this,  added  to  the  facts  before  mentioned,  has  secured  them  a 
lai'ge  and  respectable  class  of  trade.  Both  members  of  the  firm  are  natives  of  this  city  ;  Herman  AY.  Lageman  having 
been  born  December  13,  1854,  and  H.  ,T.  Lageman,  August  5,  1849.  They  have  resided  here  all  thcirlives,  and  are 
therefore  too  well  known  to  require  a  more  extended  notice. 

PENNSYLVANIA  LEAD  CO -Smelters  and  Refiners,  Office,  44  Wood  St. 

Works,  Mansfield,  Pa. 
Adding  in  no  small  degree  to  the  general  industrial  thrift  of  this  community,  the  Pennsylvania  Lead  Company 
naturally  demands  the  attention  of  a  work,  the  objective  point  of  whose  aim  is  a  proper  and  detailed  display  of  the 
resoiirces  and  advantages  of  Pittsburgh.  Organized  in  1872,  under  the  mining  and  manufacturing  laws  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, as  the  Pittsburgh  Smelting  and  Refining  Company,  the  title  was  changed  the  following  year  to  the  present 
style,  as  being  more  appropriate  and  descriptive.  A  close  corporation,  its  operations  in  the  smelting  and  refining  of 
lead  for  the  use  of  coiToders  and  others,  have  been  awai'ded  the  most  signal  success,  the  business  having  constantly 
augmented  from  the  inception  of  the  enterprise  to  the  present  time,  and  still  rapidly  increasing.  The  plant  of  the 
company  is  located  at  Mansfield,  a  short  distance  west  of  the  city,  upon  the  line  of  the  P.  C.  &  St.  L.  R.R.,  and  some 
idea  of  the  magnitude  of  the  works  maybe  gained  from  the  fact  that  .=ixty  men  are  constantly  employed,  and  that 
last  year  12,500  tons  of  lead  wore  brought  to  a  state  of  chemical  purity  and  freedom  from  every  trace  of  foreign  matter 
or  alloy  that  would  aifect  or  impair  the  product  of  the  corroder.  The  principal  markets  for  these  goods  are  found  in 
Pittsburgh,  Chicago,  New  York,  Philadelphia,  and  other  large  cities  of  the  East  and  West.  The  officers  of  the 
couip.any  are  Mr.  J.  E.  Schwartz,  President,  J.  B.  Arnold,  Esq.,  Secretary,  both  men  well  known  to  the  community 
and  long  identified  with  the  manufacturing  interests  of  this  city,  and  as  there  are  few  institutions  that  have  achieved 
so  great  a  degree  of  prosperity  in  so  limited  a  period,  so  there  are  perhaps  still  fewer  that  occupy  in  every  respect  a 
liigher  position,  or  one  subjected  to  less  cavil. 

H.  KLEBER  &  "BRO.-Pianos  and  Organs,  No.  722  Wood  St. 

For  the  past  quarter  of  a  century  the  firm  of  H.  Kleber  &  Bro.  has  been  known  in  Pittsburgh,  as  dealers  in  musi- 
cal merchandise.  It  is  the  oldest  house  engaged  in  that  line  of  business,  under  the  original  firm  name  and  style,  now 
in  the  Smoky  City.  It  was  established  in  1848  by  Henry  Kleber,  who  two  years  after  took  his  bi'other  Augustus  into 
partnership.  These  are  gentlemen  of  unquestioned  business  integrity,  whose  long  experience  in  the  business  gives 
them  advantages  which  are  enjoyed  by  few.  They  occupy  the  spacious  five  story  building  No.  122  Wood  St.,  20x80 
feet,  and  are  sole  agents  in  Pittsburgh  for  the  celebrated  Steinway  and  Chickering  Pianos,  which  agency  they  have 
held  since  1857.  They  have  also  been  the  exclusive  agents  for  the  world  renowned  Burdett  Organs  tor  the  past  twenty 
years,  during  which  time  their  sales  have  far  exceeded  those  of  any  other  instruments  of  that  description.  They 
have  at  present  on  exhibition  about  eighty  pianos  and  some  sixty  organs  of  various  syles,  and  they  also  carry  one 
hundred  and  fifty  pianos  for  rent.  The  amount  of  stock  generally  kept  on  hand  is  valued  at  about  SSO,000.  In  addi- 
tion to  the  large  number  of  pianos  and  organs  to  be  found  at  this  establishment,  they  keep  every  description  of  musi- 
cal instruments  known  to  the  trade,  and  the  largest  line  of  general  musical  merchandise  to  be  found  West  of  New  York 
City.  Their  trade  is  distributed  through  Western  Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio  and  West  Virginia,  and  the  amount 
of  their  annual  sales  exceeds  $150,000.  Mr.  H.  Kleber  and  Mr.  Augustus  Kleber,  the  two  geiLtlemen  composing  the 
firm,  were  both  born  in  Germany,  but  came  to  this  country  when  verv  young,  and  have  been  residents  of  the  United 
States  since  1832. 

28 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  125 


JAM£S  RBUS,— Machinery,  Duquesne  Way  and  4th  St. 

Among  those  enterprises  tliat  liave  made  Pittsburgh  celebrated  for  its  splendid  mechanical  success,  that  of  Mr. 
James  ll.'es  is  perhaps  entitled  to  particular  mention  in  a  woric  designed  to  exhibit  in  detail  the  varied  resources  aud 
capabilities  of  this  city.  For  more  tluin  a  quarter  of  a  century  this  iiouse  has  engaged  in  tlie  manufacture  of  every 
grade  and  class  of  machinery,  including  Marine  and  Land  Engines,  Saw  and  Sugar  Mills,  Steam  Boilers,  Oil  Tanks, 
Salt  Pans,  &c.  Blast  Furnace  machinery.  Iron  aud  Brass  Castings,  and  Pipes,  Steam  Pumjjs,  <tc.,  all  of  which  from 
the  perfection  of  construction  and  mechanical  e.^cellence  have  established  a  reputation  that  is  not  confined  to  the 
United  States.  As  a  builder  of  Steam  Boats,  in  Wood,  Steel,  or  Iron  worker,  he  has  perhaps  performed  his  greatest  feats 
as  a  mcclianician,  and  achieved  the  most  signal  success.  The  first  steel  steam  boat  ever  constructed  in  tlie  United 
States  was  built  last  year  by  this  house,  under  the  direction  of  Jas.  Rees'  son,  Thos.  M.,  who  went  to  South  America 
and  superintended  its  construction,  and  after  its  completion  made  a  successful  trial  trip  on  the  Magdalena  River,  for 
trade  on  the  Magdalena  River  in  South  America,  and  it  has  been  a  matter  of  comment  and  congTatulation  by  the  press 
of  the  country  that  this  first  etfort,  opening  up  so  wide  a  field  for  industry  and  capital,  was  attended  by  the  most 
Siitisfactory  results,  meeting  more  than  all  the  requirements  demanded,  and  acconii^lishing  with  ease  a  speed  of  ten 
miles  an  hour  against  a  five  mile  current.  The  plant  of  Mr.  Rees  is  located  on  the  Allegheny  River,  at  the  foot  of 
4th  St.,  and  is  about  as  completely  equipped  as  modern  improvement  and  inventive  talent  can  suggest.  The  build- 
ings cover  an  area  of  over  lialf  an  acre  aud  afford  ample  conveniences  for  the  business.  A  large  force  of  mechanics 
are  employed  here,  requiring  a  large  weekly  outlay.  The  annual  trade  of  the  concern  is  very  large,  and  extends 
through  the  United  States  and  to  other  countries.  Mr.  James  Rees,  the  founder  of  the  establishment  in  1854,  and 
still  at  its  liead,  is  originally  from  Wales.  He  came  to  this  country  when  but  a  youth,  and  by  the  exercise  of  sterling 
virtues  and  great  constructive  ingenuity,  has  becoraQ  a  representative,  and  a  self  made  man  of  the  truest  type.  As 
the  inventor  of  a  Patent  Steam  Boat  Hull,  and  the  best  adjustator  cut-off  for  Steam  Engines  in  use,  Mr.  Rees  is 
widely  known  on  all  the  rivers  of  the  West,  the  latter  invention  being  applied  to  nearly  all  tlie  steamboats  navigat- 
ing the  Ohio  River.  The  commencement  of  his  career  was  attended  with  great  difficulties,  small  returns,  and  no 
calpital.  Its  outcome  reflects  credit  upon  the  Iron  City,  and  entitles  him  to  the  high  estimation  of  all  honest  pro- 
moters of  Industry. 

A.  G.  HATRY,-/row  Commission.-COY'Ni:  &  HATRY" -Machine  Builders. 

Office:  114  &  US  Water  St.—  WorUs:    Cor.  28th  and  Smallman  St.,  nttsburgh. 

Among  those  extensively  engaged  in  the  sale  of  Iron,  Nails,  Steel,  Borax,  and  particularly  Rail  Road  supplies  in 
manufactured  metal,  Mr.  A.G.  Hatry  occupies  a  prominent  place,  especially  in  the  last  named  department  of  his 
business,  from  the  fact  of  having  no  competitors  in  this  city.  Besides  conducting  a  commission  trade  in  these  products 
Mr.  Hatry  carries  a  very  considerable  stock,  requiring  a  capital  of  over  S20,000,  enabling  him  to  transact  with  greater 
facility  abusiness  that  extends  over  the  entire  United  States,  and  averages  between  §500,000  and  §1,000,000  annually. 
These  figures  seem  to  establish  the  fact  pretty  conclusively  that  Mr.  Hatry  either  has  it  in  his  power  to  otter  the  trade 
unusual  advantages,  or  that  his  ability  for  the  business  is  of  no  common  order,  the  real  source  of  such  prosperity  being 
probably  found  in  a  happy  conjunction  of  both  facilities  and  abilities.  The  extent  to  which  the  transactions  of  the 
house  are  carried,  will  appear  more  striking  when  it  Is  known  that  the  business  was  only  established  in  1874,  thougli 
Mr.  Hatry  had  been  a  resident  of  this  city  for  nine  years  prior  to  that  date,  and  previously  a  citizen  of  Ohio,  frr.m 
whicli  State  he  entered  the  Union  Army  during  the  late  rebellion,  and  served  with  distinction  for  four  years,  obtain- 
ing the  rank  of  Colonel  nearly  two  years  before  the  close  of  the  war. — In  1875  he  associated  himself  with  Mr.  John 
Coyne,  under  the  style  of  COYNE  &  HATRY,  for  the  purpose  of  manufacturing,  as  sole  patentees  and  inventors,  the 
Patent  Automatic  Nail  Selectors,  and  Improved  Cut  Nail  Machines,  the  former  being  one  of  the  most  useful  devices 
for  the  rapid  automatic  rejection  of  inferior  nails  ever  conceived,  and  proves  an  invaluable  apparatus  in  every  nail 
factory  where  introduced.  The  plant  of  the  firm  is  situated  at  the  corner  of  28th  and  Smallman  Sts.,  and  is  amply 
equipped  for  tlie  manufacture  of  these  .specialties,  in  wliich  a  business  is  trans.icted  annually  of  about  S100,000. — Mr. 
Coyne  is  a  native  of  England,  and  has  resided  in  Pittsbuvtrh  about  10  years.  His  personal  attention  and  superinten- 
dence is  given  to  the  constructive  departments  of  the  w  n  Ic,  and  as  an  accomplished  mechanician  he  has  few  equals. 
In  every  respect  the  house  is  a  reliable  one  and  highly  conducive  in  its  operations  to  the  industrial  prosperity  and 
advancement  of  the  city. 

JAMES  A.  M.c'N Alal/Y, -Importer  and  Jobber  of  Woolens,  No.  60  Wood  St. 

As  one  of  the  only  two  houses  engaged  exclusively  as  jobbers  of  piece  goods  in  this  city,  the  trade  and  establish- 
ment of  Mr.  James  A.  McNally  are  worthy  of  more  than  passing  mention  in  this  work.  Not  alone  from  the  extent 
and  magnitude  of  his  transactions,  but  tlie  extraordinary  ability  that  has  been  displayed  in  securing,  from  so  com- 
paratively small  an  origin,  so  signal  a  success.  A  native  of  the  County  Doun,  Ireland,  Mr.  McNally  came  to  this  city 
in  1856,  and  ten  years  later  established  his  present  business,  which  from  its  inception  to  the  present  time  has  been 
constantly  enlarging  tlie  trade  now  extending  over  a  large  portion  of  the  middle,  AVestern  and  Pacific  States,  a  very 
considerable  traffic  being  done  in  California,  in  all  amounting  to  over  a  quarter  of  a  million  annually.  The  premises 
of  the  house  are  located  as  above,  and  consist  of  one  large  double  brick  building,  three  stories  high,  25x90  feet,  on  the 
corner  of  Wood  St.  and  4tli  Avenue,  stocked  with  foreign  and  domestic  woolens  to  the  value  of  from  §05,000  to  870,000, 
carefully  selected  and  adapted  expressly  for  merchant  tailors,  with  whom  the  trade  of  the  concern  is  carried  on,  to 
transact  which  8  assistants  are  required.  Importing  direct  from  European  markets,  Mr.  McNally  has  established  re- 
lations that  enable  him  to  compete,  in  the  advantages  offered  the  trade,  with  any  firm  in  the  country,  wliile  his  deal- 
ings with  the  producers  of  domestic  fabrics  are  equally  satisfactory.  Energetic,  talented,  and  reliable,  Mr.  McNally 
lias  made  a  very  consjiicuous  mark  upon  the  commerce  and  trade  of  his  adopted  city,  with  whose  interests  he  has  been 
closely  involved  for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century,  and  whose  prosperity  he  has  materially  promoted. 

SAMUEL  R.  LIMEGROVER,-^a'^^r  and  Confectioner, 

Penn  Avenue,  opposite  Collins  St.,  £ast  £nd. 

The  "  Excelsior  Bakery  "  and  Steam  Ice  Cream  Works  is  located  on  Penn  Avenue,  opposite  Collins  Street,  at  the 
East  End.  It  was  originally  establislied  by  Daniel  E.  Bown,  who  was  succeeded  by  M.  Samuel  R.  Limcgrovoin  tlio 
early  part  of  the  present  year.  The  various  articles  manufactured  at  this  establishment  are  noted  for  their  excellence, 
and  the  business  is  steadily  increasing.  In  addition  to  the  products  of  his  Bakery  Mr.  Limegrover  keeps  a  fine  assort- 
ment of  Choice  Confectionery,  Fruits,  Jellies,  Canned  Goods,  &c.  One  steam  engine  and  boiler  is  used,  and  four 
hands  are  employed  at  the  establishment.  A  sp&ciality  of  Mr.  Limegrover  is  in  furnishing  Wedding  Parties,  Society 
and  Party  Dinners  and  Suppers,  and  entertainments  or  festivals  of  any  description.  His  facilities  for  this  part  of  tho 
business  "are  unsurpassed,  and  his  well  known  taste  and  skill  in  such  matters  enables  him  to  give  unbounded  satisfac- 
tion. He  carries  a  stock  of  about  SIOOO,  and  his  annual  business  reaches  between  $3000  and  $4000.  Mr.  Limegrover 
was  born  at  Sharpsburg,  Allegheny  County,  Jan.  1,  1855,  and  commeuced  business  at  his  present  location. 

29 


126  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

D.  K.  :B0  AS,- Druggist  &  Chemist,  Butler  &  43rd  Streets. 

At  the  corner  of  Butler  and  43d  Streets  is  one  of  the  most  elegant!}'  fitted  and  handsomely  arranged  Drug  Stores  and 
Pharmacies  in  this  city.  The  genial,  popular  and  enterprising  gentleman,  Mr.  Boas,  will  be  found  with  the  most  com- 
plete, varied,  handsome  and  elegant  stock  of  Drugs,  Chemicals,  Perfumery,  Toilet  Articles,  fine  Instruments,  etc.,  to 
be  found  anywhere  in  this  city,  everything  being  new,  fresh  and  clean.  The  room  is  handsomely  located  on  the  corner, 
is  17  feet  front  and  40  feet  deep,  is  filled  with  Marble  Counters,  Prescription  Case  of  elegant  designs,  handsomely  plated 
Show  Cases  and  Fixtures  of  all  kinds  of  most  neat  and  tasteful  patterns.  Mr.  Boas  has  been  located  at  junction  of  Penn 
Ave.  and  Butler  St.  for  6  years,  selling  out  there  early  in  1879,  and  opening  his  present,  beautiful  store,  at  an  expense  of 
about  ?S,000. 

Mr.  Boas  was  born  in  York,  Pa.,  in  1846,  came  to  Pittsburgh  in  1873.  He  served  two  terms  of  enlistment  in  the 
Union  Army,  first  in  the  130th  Pennsylvania  Volunteers,  afterwards  in  the  195th,  being  but  15  years  of  age,  when  first 
enlisting  He  participated  in  all  the  arduous  services  of  his  regiment,  going  through  all  their  campaigns,  marches  and 
battles.  He  was  the  youngest  man  in  his  corps  ;  after  close  of  the  war  he  graduated  at  Dickinson  College,  Carlisle,  Pa. 
During  his  Senior  year  at  that  institution  he  was  Assistant  Instructor  in  the  Laboratory  to  Dr.  C.  J.  Heons,  Professor 
of  Chemistry  and  Natural  Sciences.  After  graduating  he  went  to  No.  C.  and  engaged  in  business  and  was  burned 
out  in  1872,  then  came  to  Pittsburgh  and  entered  the  Drug  business  in  partnership  with  Mr.  Cornman  as  Cornman  and 
Boas,  at  Penn  Ave.  and  Butler  Street,  sold  out  his  interest  to  Cornman  in  1874  and  went  into  the  establishment  of 
McClarran  and  McKennan,  where  he  remained  but  a  short  time,  having  to  return  to  the  old  place.  Mr.  Cornman  not 
being  able  to  fulfill  his  contracts,  being  involved,  and  resume  the  business  which  he  assumed  with  liabilities,  shortly 
extinguishing  the  debt  and  placing  the  business  in  prosperous  condition.  He  remained  at  the  business  until  recently, 
when  he  sold  out  to  Mr.  Tea.  Air.  Boas  has  taken  considerable  interest  in  political  matters,  and  wields  a  large  influence 
in  the  community  where  he  is  known. 

A.  BRICKER  &  SO'NS.-Gommission  Merchants,  No.  199  Liberty  St. 

One  of  the  most  favorably  known  and  prominent  Commission  Houses  on  this  busy  thoroughfare  is  that  of  A.  Bricker 
and  Sons,  which  was  founded  in  a  small  way  in  18G5.  Their  business  however  has  steadily  increased  since  that  date, 
until  it  reaches  the  handsome  amount  of  $100,000  per  annum,  and  is  regularly  improving  each  succeeding  year.  They 
occupy  the  entire  building,  three  stories  and  basement,  22x110  feet  at  No.  199  Liberty  St.,  and  transact  a  general  Com- 
mission business  in  Flour,  Grain,  Fruit,  Butter,  C^heese,  Lard  and  every  description  of  country  produce,  employing  four 
assistants.  Mr.  A.  Bricker,  father  of  the  present  proprietors  and  one  of  the  founders  of  the  house  (now  deceased),  was 
a  gentleman  of  more  than  ordinary  business  sagacity  and  foresight,  and  his  sons,  David  and  Levi  Bricker,  who  now  carry 
on  the  business,  are  worthy  repi'esentatives  of  their  respected  sire.  As  originally  established,  the  business  of  this  house  was 
confined  to  Flour,  Feed  and  Grain,  but  shortly  before  the  death  of  Mr.  15ricker,  Senior,  it  was  changed  to  its  present  line 
with  gratifying  results.  By  Judicious  management,  strict  attention  to  business  and  undoubted  business  integrity  the 
young  men  of  the  firm  have  succeeded  in  making  a  large  increase  annually  to  their  trade,  and  the  house  to-day  ranks 
as  one  of  the  first  in  that  line  of  business  in  the  Iron  City. 

LUEBBE  &  "ERO. -Wholesale  and  Retail  Grocers,  Nos.  23  &  24  Diamond 

This  extensive  establishment  was  founded  many  years  ago  by  J.  D.  Draro,  Esq.  The  firm  afterwards  became 
Haslage  and  Co.,  who  were  in  turn  succeeded  by  the  present  proprietors,  Messrs.  William  and  Henry  Luebbe,  both 
natives  of  trei'many,  but  for  many  years  residents  of  Pittsburgh  and  connected  with  the  firm  of  Haslage  and  Co,  since 
1857.  They  occupy  a  large  double  warehouse,  40x115  feet,  at  the  number  above  given,  which  is  filled  from  basement  to 
attic  witli  a  large  and  complete  stock  of  every  description  of  goods  pertaining  to  the  Grocery  trade,  and  a  choice  assort- 
ment of  pure  Wines  and  Liquors,  employing  eleven  clerks  and  salesmen.  They  do  a  large  and  flourishing  business  in 
the  city  and  all  the  surrounding  towns,  comparing  favorably  with  that  of  any  other  house  in  the  same  line  of  business 
in  the  city. 

PITTSBURGH  "WIRE  WO'B.'KS^-James  R.  Taylor  &  Co.,  No.35  MarketSt. 

The  manufacture  of  Wire  Work  of  every  description,  plain  and  ornamental  Wrought  Iron  Railings  for  parks,  lawns, 
verandas  and  cemetery  lots  is  carried  on  very  extensively  by  the  firm  of  James  R.  Taylor  and  Co.,  at  "No.  35  Market  St. 
This  house  was  established  in  1842  by  James  R.  Taylor  and  Co.  In  1874,  Mr.  C.  Dean,  after  ten  years  faithful  service 
in  the  establishment,  was  admitted  as  a  partner.  The  increase  in  their  business  has  been  very  large  within  the  past  few 
j'ears.  The  main  building  occupied  by  them  at  the  location  named,  is  four  stories  high,  25x125,  and  they  also  occupy 
three  floors  ot  an  adjoining  building  of  the  same  dimensions.  They  employ  about  twentj'  hands  with  all  the  latest  and 
most  approved  machinery  for  the  speedy  production  of  all  work  in'their  line,  and  carry  a  stock  of  about  88,000,  transact- 
ing an  annual  business  of  about  $35,000.  This  house  has  of  late  years  been  particularly  noted  for  the  elegant  designs 
of  Wrought  Iron  Fences  manufactured  by  them,  and  they  make  a  specialty  of  an  improved  Fly  Screen^for  windows  and 
doors,  made  to  fit  any  desired  size  or  shape.  Air.  Taylor  is  a  thorough  master  of  this  branch  of  industry  and  has  resided 
in  this  city  for  many  years.  Mr.  Dean  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  1850.  Both  members  of  the  firm  are  practical  work- 
men and  energetic  and  reliable  business  men. 

W.  W.  WA.TT'L'BS.-deweler,  No.  30  Fifth  Avenue. 

The  assertion  may  be  safely  made  tliat  no  Retail  Jewelry  House  in  the  city  is  regarded  with  more  favor  than  that 
of  Mr.  W.  W.  Wattles.  E.stablished  twenty  years  ago  by  "the  present  proprietor,"the  business  has  gradually  aug- 
mented from  very  limited  proportions  to  an  annual  trade  of  5p50,000,  and  a  stock  unsurpassed  for  variety,  richness,  or 
tasteful  selection.  In  these  respects  the  house  has  acquired  a  reputation  that  is  an  assurance  to  its  customers  that 
tliey  could  not  here  buy  an  inferior  article  even  if  they  would,  no  second  qualities  ever  being  tolerated  in  this  estab- 
lishment. For  elegantassortments  of  fine  Watches  of  the  best  makes.  Rings,  Jewelry,  Jewels,  and  especially  in  Dia- 
monds, the  house  of  W.  W.  Wattles  has  a  wide  celebrity,  while  in  the  countless  articles  of  taste  and  utility  in  Silver 
and  Plated  Ware,  French  Clocks,  Bronzes,  Ceramics,  Brie  a  Brae,  and  some  articles  of  virtu.  Dinner  and  Tea  Sets,  Urns, 
Tureens,  Epergnes,Lav,ratory, Cologne  and  Toilet  Sets,  Fruit  Stands,  Cake  Baskets,  Casters,  Cand>esticks  and  Candel- 
abras,  the  house  presents  advantages  to  the  buyer  that  can  hardly  be  duplicated  in  the  West. — As  a  native  of  Penn- 
sylvania Mr.  Wattles  came  to  the  Iron  City  26  years  ago,  and  from  that  i)eriod  has  been  identified  with  his  present 
occupation.  It  is  but  simple  justice  to  say  that  he  has  always  maintained  a  position,  both  as  a  private  individual  and 
a  business  man,  that  has  won  for  him  in  no  stinted  measure  the  confidence  and  consideration  of  his  fellow-citizens, 
who  at  various  times  have  endowed  him  with  posts  of  responsibilities  and  trusts,  which  have  been  discharged  with 
scrupiilous  fidelity.    At  the  present  time  Mr.  Wattles  is  Treasurer  of  Thiol  College,  Greenville,  Pa. 

30 


CITY    OF    PITTSBUitOn.  127 


W.  H.  BO'RT'E'R— Alderman  and  Deputy  Mayor,  Cor.  Butler  and  37th  Streets. 

This  popular  gentleman  and  upright  and  honorable  officer  is  located  on  Butler  Street  between  35th  and  36th  Sts. 
He  was  elected  to  the  position  of  Alderman  in  1872,  in  which  capacity  he  has  continuously  served  since  that  date 
with  honor  to  liimself  and  to  the  great  satisfaction  of  the  people  of  his  and  adjacent  districts.  He  was  appointed 
Deputy  Mayor  of  5th  Police  District,  Feb.  1,  1878,  at  the  time  the  present  Mayor  assumed  the  Chief  Magistracy  of  the 
City,  in  which  capacity  he  has  rendered  efficient  services,  and  given  the  highest  satisfaction.  There  is  no  more 
efficient  officer,  nor  one  who  has  won  a  greater  degree  of  respect  and  confidence  by  his  honorable,  upright  and  gentle- 
manly course,  than  Alderman  Porter.  He  takes  an  active  interest  in  political  matters,  and  exerts  a  large  influence  in 
the  councils  of  his  party,  and  by  the  high  esteem,  in  which  he  is  held,  commands  a  very  large  influence  in  his,  and 
adjacent  districts.  He  was  born  near  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  in  1839,  came  to  this  city  at  the  age  of  eighteen,  and 
entered  the  furniture  business  in  the  12th,  and  afterwards  in  the  1.5th  Ward.  During  the  War  he  enlisted  in  the 
123rd  Pennsylvania  Volunteers,  Col.  Clark's  Regiment.  At  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  service  he  entered  the 
Naval  Service  of  the  Government  and  was  stationed  a  long  time  at  New  Orleans.  At  the  close  of  the  War  he  returned 
and  embarked  in  the  furniture  business,  in  which  he  continued  until  elected  to  his  present  office  in  1872.  He  is  an 
intelligent  gentleman  of  high  character,  and  possesses  the  respect  and  esteem  of  all  who  know  him. 

LONDON  TEA  YLOTJ^JL -Martin  d  Collins,  No.  3604  Butler  Street. 

The  large  and  fine  establishment  of  the  very  enterprising  firm  of  Martin  &  Collins  is  located  at  3604  Butler  Street, 
where  they  have  a  very  large  room,  20x60  feet,  well  arranged  for  their  business,  completely  stocked  with  as  fine  a 
stock  of  Groceries,  Tea.s,  Flour,  Provisions,  etc.,  to  be  found  in  any  establishment  in  the  East  End  ;  a  fine  and  tasteful 
display  of  their  varied  stock  is  made  showing  the  good  taste  of  the  proprietors.  These  young  gentlemen  opened  their 
present  establishment  in  1878,  and  since  then  has  begun  a  new  era  in  the  grocery  business  in  this  part  of  the  city. 
They  began  with  small  capital,  but  since  their  start  have  manifested  the  highest  business  (lualifications,  greatest 
enterprise,  and  remarkable  energy  in  pushing  their  business  forward  to  the  very  prominent  position  they  now 
occupy.  They  possess  a  thorough  appreciation  of  the  wants  and  demands  of  the  puhilic,  which  fact  has  enabled  them 
to  so  adjust  their  prices  and  conduct  their  business  as  to  draw  in  so  short  a  time  the  exceedingly  large  patronage  they 
now  enjoy,  and  enables  tliem  to  do  the  business,  reaching  to  $25,000  per  annum,  they  are  now  doing.  The  rapid  rise 
and  success  of  this  establishment  is  a  remarkable  one  and  speaks  well  for  the  enterprising  gentlemen. 

Both  of  the  proprietors  are  natives  of  Pittsburgh,  Mr.  G.  S.  Martin  having  been  born  in  18.53,  and  Mr.  A.  H. 
Collins  in  1849.  They  brfiught  with  them  a  thorough,  practical  and  experienced  knowledge  of  their  business,  having 
heretofore  been  connected  with  the  grocery  trade.  They  do  business  strictly  on  the  cash  ba.sis.  These  gentlemen 
are  both  quite  young,  but  the  energy  and  ability  they  have  shown  since  starting  are  rapidly  .sending  them  to  a 
leading  position  among  the  successful  business  men  of  the  East  End.  They  have  won  the  esteem  and  respect  of  the 
community  in  which  they  have  located,  by  their  upright,  honorable  course  and  courteous  manner. 

HOST£TT£R  &  SMTTH^Stomach  Bitters,  Nos.  57  to  61  Water  St. 

It  is  very  safe  to  assert  that  no  firm  extant  has  done  more  than  Messrs.  Hostetf  er  &  Smith  to  advertise  Pittsburgh, 
not  only  in  America,  but  the  most  remote  regions  of  the  habitable  globe,  as  well  as  promote  to  no  small  degiee  the 
wealth  and  industrial  thrift  of  this  community.  With  such  a  marked  reputation,  they  are  peculiarly  fit  objects  for 
mention  in  a  work  devoted  exclusively  to  a  detailed  disclosure  of  the  resources  of  the  Iron  City.  Established  more 
than  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago,  at  its  inception  the  enterpri.se  involved  but  a  very  limited  capital,  and  facilities  (com- 
paratively) of  the  most  meagre  kind.  At  that  early  period  in  its  history,  the  firm  occupied  part  of  a  building  on 
Penn  St.,' at  a  rental  of  $175  per  annum,  the  total  staff  of  employees  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  the  celebruted 
Hostetter's  Stomach  Bitters  would  scarcely  number  half  a  dozen.  The  business,  however,  contained  the  elements 
of  success,  and  under  the  consummate  tact  and  resolution  of  its  projectors  annually  increased,  with  rapidly  augmen- 
tive  revenues  and  proportionately  enlarged  facilities  in  every  department.  The  extent  to  which  the  operations  of 
this  house  have  reached  may  be  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  in  1806  it  became  necessary  to  do  all  its  own  printing, 
no  firm  in  Pittsburgh,  or  perhaps  in  the  whole  country,  being  capable  of  producing,  either  in  kind  or  quantity,  the 
work  requisite  in  carrying  on  the  trade  of  Hostetter  &  Smith.  In  the  Printing  and  Binding  departments,  alone,  are 
now  employed  eighty  compositors,  pressmen  and  others.  The  equipment  in  machinery  consists  in  part  of  10  large 
cylinder  presses,  and  8  smaller  ones,  all  of  which  are  kept  running  ten  months  during  the  year  upon  the  jjublication 
of  Hostetter's  Illustrated  United  States  Almanacs,  which  are  printed  in  the  English,  German,  Dutch,  French,  Span- 
ish, Welsh,  Norweu'ian,  Swedish  and  Bohemian  languages.  This  Almanac  was  first  issued  in  1862  and  was  published 
only  in  German  and  English,  increasing  its  edition  each  year  and  reaching  in  the  year  1867  one  million  copies,  which 
were  disseminated  in  these  two  languages.  Still  increasing  its  edition  each  year  it  reached,  in  1876,  9,000,000  copies, 
which  were  produced  that  year  in  all  the  various  languages  above  enumerated,  the  average  issue  per  year  at  the 
present  time  being  10,.500,060  copies,  Consuming  annually  16,000  reains  of  white  paper,  and  about  2000  reams  for  covers 
alone.  When  first  established  the  manufacture  of  Bitters  was  entirely  a  manual  operation.  The  enormous  increase 
in  production,  however,  made  this  process  impracticable,  and  machinery  and  apparatus  of  the  best  construction,  with 
a  capacity  for  putting  up  500  dozen  bottles  per  day,  is  now  employed  in  "preparing  and  bottling  the  Bitters,  which  are 
made  en  tin;!  y  from  the  choicest  remedial  roots,  barks  ond  herbs,  the  active  essences  and  freshly  expressed  juices  of 
which  are  preserved  in  chemically  pure  spirits,  forming  a  compound  of  the  most  remarkable  vital  force  and  efficacy, 
peculiarly  active  in  the  rapid  and  in  many  eases  almost  miraculous  relief  afforded  in  all  disea.ses  arising  from  climatic 
causes  or  derangements  of  which  an  impaired  stomach  is  the  prime  occasion.  In  this  department  of  the  work  14  pon- 
derous tanks  are  used,  15  feet  in  diameter  and  5  teet  high,  and  10  tanks  8  feet  high  and  6  feet  in  diameter,  and  here  are 
employed,  in  manufacturing,  packing  and  shipping,  not  less  than  50  liands.  The  buildings  now  occupied  and  owned  by 
tlie  firm  are  at  Nos.  57,  58,  .59,  60  and  61  Water  St.  They  cover  an  area  of  over  half  an  acre,  are  four  stories  in  height, 
and  are  admirably  situated  for  purposes  of  shipment  by  rail  or  river,  through  which  mediums  large  quantities  are 
shipped  to  all  parts  of  the  United  States  and  territories,  to  South  America,  Australia  and  otlier  foreign  countries.  Nine 
accountants,  correspondents,  &c.,  are  engaged  in  the  counting  rooms  of  the  firm,  and  it  is  not  an  over-estimate  to  say 
that  in  its  direct  and  contingent  operations,  such  as  the  gathering  and  growing  of  the  necessary  medicinal  drugs,  the 
manufacture  of  the  paper  with  its  dependent  industries,  the  product  of  grain  and  its  conversion  to  spirit,  &c.,  &c., 
the  house  employs  directly  and  indirectly  the  labor  of  1000  people  daily,  and  so  far,  a.side  from  the  intrinsic  merits  of 
its  specialty,  becomes  a  great  factor  in  promoting  the  general  good. 

The  .senior  partner,  Dr.  David  Hostetter,  is  a  native  of  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  where  he  was  born  Jan.  23,  1819  j  re- 
moving to  this  city  in  18-53,  his  whole  history  .since  has  been  attended  with  the  most  brilliant  and  successful  business 
achievements.  Not  confining  his  talents  to  limits  of  that  vocation  that  has  made  his  name  so  celebrated,  he  has  taken 
an  interest  in  the  development  of  the  various  resources  of  Pittsburgh,  and  conjoining  the  advantages  of  tlie  community 
with  his  own,  has  pursued  both  with  resistless  activity,  the  broadest  comprehension,  and  the  most  effective  results. 
Geo'.  W.  Smith,  Esq.,  the  junior  partner,  is  also  a-native  of  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  and  was  born  in  the  city  of  that  name 
Feb.  22,  1823.  He,  too,  is  largely  engaged  in  other  enterprises,  and  may  be  regarded,  in  the  fullest  sense,  as  a  self- 
made  man,  liberal,  intelligent  and  sincere.  As  a  firm  perhaps  no  house  in  Pittsburgh  is  entitled  to  a  higher  place; 
none,  certainly,  is  accorded  a  more  universal  or  unfeigned  consideration. 

31 


128  INDUSTKIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

THOMAS  ROSE  &  SOUf -Boots  and  Shoes,  No.W  Diamond  Street. 

One  of  the  oldest  and  best  known  Retail  and  Custom  Manufacturing  Boot  and  Shoe  Stores  in  the  city  was  estali- 
lished  by  Mr.  Thomas  Rose  in  1839,  and  for  nearly  half  a  century  lias  been  an  important  factor  in  supplying  the 
wants  of  the  Pittsburgh  public  in  this  essential  line  of  trade.  The  premises  occupied  are  centrally  located  and 
commodious,  the  upper  floor  being  devoted  to  the  making  of  Custom  Boots  and  Shoes  and  repairing,  where  five 
mechanics  are  employed.  The  first  floor  comprises  the  salesroom  for  machine  and  hand-made  work,  in  which  a  stock 
of  about  $10,000  is  generally  carried,  consisting  of  a  full  and  well  assorted  line  of  Children's,  Misses',  Ladies'  Shoes 
and  Gaiters,  and  Boys',  Youths',  and  Men's  Boots  and  Shoes,  bought  directly  from  Eastern  manufacturers,  which 
enables  the  house  to  compete  in  prices  and  styles  with  any  contemporaries,  to  the  decided  advantage  of  the  customer. 
As  a  firm,  this  house  is  so  well  established  for  their  strict  adherence  to  truthful  representation  and  reliability  in 
busiuess  honor,  that  any  comment  from  us  would  be  unnecessary  to  further  their  well  deserved  popularity.  The 
senior  member,  a  resident  of  this  city  for  forty-five  years,  has  built  for  himself  a  high  reputation,  while  the  junior 
member,  Mr.  A.  N.  Rose,  is  acknowledged  as  one  of  our  most  thoroughly  upright  young  business  men. 

M.  F.  CAl&^l'D'Y— Alderman,  94  Third  Avenue. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch,  M.  F.  Cassidy,  Esq.,  was  born  in  this  city,  September  26,  1839,  and  before  entering,  as 
the  people's  choice,  upon  the  duties  of  the  office  of  which  he  is  now  the  incumbent,  was  engaged  in  mercantile 
pursuits,  having  in  early  life  been  for  several  years  in  the  merchant  tailoring  business,  as  partner  in  the  firm  of 
Kane  &  Duffy  of  Sixth  Street,  later  was  of  the  firm  of  M.  F.  Cassidy  &  Co.,  Produce  Commission  Merchants,  and  was 
called  in  1872  to  fill  the  Aldermanic  chair  of  the  1st  Ward.  Filling  the  office  so  ably  and  so  satisfactorily  to  his 
constituents,  it  was  their  pleasure  to  continue  him  in  the  same  position  of  trust  in  1875,  when  he  was  re-elected  for 
another  term.  Not  only  as  a  careful  advocate  of  the  city's  interest  in  the  Council  Chamber  does  he  acquit  himself 
most  deservedly  of  the  people's  support,  but  in  all  matters  pertaining  to  his  private  office  business,  he  has  ever 
proved  an  upright  magistrate,  a  careful  business  agent  and  a  worthy  incumbent. 

H..  CHILDS  &  CO -Wholesale  Boots  &  Shoes,  183  Wood  Street. 

The  first  Boot  and  Shoe  House  established  West  of  the  Allegheny  Mountains  was  that  of  John  Albree,  at  Pitts- 
burgh, in  the  year  1817.  The  business  subsequently  jjassed  into  the  hands  of  Albree  &  Childs,  who  were  in  turn 
succeeded  by  H.  Childs  and  Co.,  under  which  style  the  business  has  now  been  conducted  for  over  forty  years.  Mr. 
Harvey  Childs,  Jr.,  and  Mr.  Ross  Johnston,  the  members  of  the  present  firm,  are  both  natives  of  Pittsburgh,  and  they 
have  always  been  identified  with  the  shoe  trade  of  this  section  of  the  country.  They  occupy  the  entire  five  stories 
and  basement  of  the  elegant  and  commodious  building,  No.  133  Wood  Street,  and  carry  a  stock  of  from  140,000  to 
$75,000,  comprising  as  full  and  complete  an  assortment  as  can  be  found  in  any  similar  establishment  in  the  Union. 
■They  employ  four  traveling  salesmen  with  an  extensive  business  acquaintance  and  flourishing  trade  in  Western 
Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio,  West  Virginia,  Kentucky  and  Maryland.  Few  mercantile  houses  in  the  United  States 
can  boast  of  such  a  long  continued,  honorable  and  successful  business  career  as  that  of  H.  Childs  &  Co.,  and  it  is  but 
seldom  that  any  one  firm  continues  so  long  engaged,  unchanged,  in  the  same  line  of  business. 

KENNEDY  F.  L AXGE,  Eagle  Pharmacy,  Cor.  Butler  d  37th  St. 

At  the  corner  of  Butler  and  87th  Streets,  the  handsome  and  attractive  Eagle  Pharrhacy  is  located,  and  is  stocked 
with  the  finest  and  most  complete  stock  of  Drugs,  Chemicals,  Fine  Instruments,  Toilet  and  Fancy  Articles,  in  endless 
variety,  and  the  finest  quality  to  be  found  in  the  city,  and  which  are  arranged  and  displayed  in  an  extraordinarily 
attractive  manner.  Mr.  Lange  carries  a  stock  of  goods  to  the  amount  of  $8,000,  and  is  doing  a  business  of  $12,000  or 
upwards  per  annum.  This  is  one  of  the  most  noted  establishments  in  this  part  of  the  city,  and  enjoys  a  reputation  of 
which  Mr.  L.  has  a  right  to  be  proud.  Mr.  L.,  the  genial  proprietor,  is  a  highly  accomplished  and  popular  gentleman, 
possessing  the  confidence  of  the  business  coinmunity  and  enjoying  the  respect  and  generous  patronage  of  an  appre- 
ciative public.  The  business,  which  was  started  by  Mr.  L.  in  18(57  with  a  small  capital,  has  grown  into  its  present 
handsome  proportions  through  the  untiring  energy  and  enterprise  of  its  proprietor.  Mr.  L.  occupies  a  very  hand- 
somely located  and  beautiful  store  room  and  three-story  building  on  the  corner,  and  the  handsome  and  beautiful 
display  of  his  goods  embellished  with  an  attractive  show  of  beautiful  and  rare  plants  during  the  Summer  season,  is 
the  subject  of  general  remark  and  commendation.  Mr.  L.  also  possesses  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  the  medical 
fraternity  in  an  eminent  degree.  He  was  born  in  the  city  of  Pittsburgh  in  1845,  is  a  son  of  Dr.  Lange,  a  well  known 
and  highly  respected  citizen  and  accomplished  physician.  He  has  lived  in  this  city  ever  since,  and  since  reaching 
the  age  of  maturity  has  been  identified  with  the  local  politics  of  the  city.  He  is  now,  and  has  been  for  some  years,  a 
member  of  the  Central  Board  of  Education,  a  position  that  he  fills  with  honor  ,to  himself  and  the  satisfaction  of  the 
comuiuuity.  He  is  a  leading  and  popular  Republican,  and  wields  an  important  influence  in  the  councils  of  his  party 
and  in  the  community  with  the  interests  of  which  he  is  so  closely  identified. 

THE  ENTERPRISE  EXCHANGE -C/?a5.  Hilger,  Proprietor. 

Cor.  Perm  Avenue  &  Butler  Street. 

The  most  popular,  respectable  and  high-toned  resort  in  the  East  End  is  the  Enterprise  Exchange,  which  under  the 
liberal,  careful  and  upright  management  of  the  very  genial,  courteous  and  popular  gentleman  Mr.  Chas.  Hilger  tne 
proprietor,  enjoys  a  high  degree  of  popularity  and  is  patronized  by  the  most  prominent  and  enterprising  citizens  of 
Lawrenceville,  and  is  the  favorite  resort  of  the  leading  citizens.  Mr.  H.  has  won  for  establishment  so  high  a  reputation 
by  keeping  a  house  of  the  highest  character,  and  in  the  most  respectable  order,  nothing  but  the  most  gentlemanly  be- 
havior is  for  a  moment  tolerated,  such  resorts  and  such  men  are  an  honor  to  the  community  in  which  they  are  found. 
Mr.  Hilger  is  also  proprietor  of  another  fine  establishment  farther  out  of  the  city,  which  is  also  a  fovorite  resort  during 
the  summer  season. 

Mr.  H.  was  born  in  Baden,  Germany,  in  the  year  1842,  he  came  to  the  U.  S.  when  a  child  and  located  in  Louisville, 
Ky.,  since  a  number  of  years.  During  the  war  he  left  there  and  went  to  Chicago,  where  he  remained  but  a  short  time,  re- 
moving from  there  to  Pittsburgh.  He  enlisted  in  the  Union  Army,  serving  9  months  until  the  close  of  war,  was  discharged 
at  Richmond,  Va.,  returning  again  to  this  city,  where  for  a  time  he  was  engaged  as  Commercial  Salesman.  Entering 
his  present  business  in  1867  in  connection  with  J.  B.  Pierson,  the  latter  retiring  from  the  Co.  partnership  at  the  end  of 
tlie  first  year,  since  which  Mr.  H.  has  conducted  the  business  him.self  in  such  manner,  as  to  win  the  esteem,  confidence 
and  respect  of  the  entire  community.  He  is  a  young  gentleman  of  intelligence  and  enterprise,  takes  great  interest  in 
tlie  political  affairs  in  his  ward,  exerts  a  large  and  important  influence,  he  has  been  a  member  of  the  School  Board  for 
6  years  and  is  now  a  member  of  Select  Council  of  the  city,  in  which  position  he  will  be  found  exerting  his  influence  in 
the  interests  of  true  reform.  Mr  Hilger's  popularity  has  been  won  by  his  manly  and  honorable  course,  during  the  ten 
years  or  more  of  business  connection  with  the  people  of  this  section. 

32 


CITY   OF  PITTSBUKGH.  129 


JAMES  T.  KING  AID,  Sr.-No.  107  First  Ave. 

This  manufactory  of  Steamboat  and  Hotel  Cooking  Stoves,  Tin  Ware,  etc.,  is  equal  to  the  best,  and  occupies  two 
floors,  the  upper  one  being  used  as  a  manufactory.  Five  hands  are  in  constant  employment,  manufacturing  Tin,  Cop- 
per and  Sheet  Iron  Wares.  The  greatest  variety  and  clioicest  workmanship  is  done  here  of  any  place  in  the  city, 
consuming  over  $12,000  worth  of  stock  per  annum.  The  firm  was  organized  in  ISlo  by  Lewis  Peterson,  with  whom 
Jas.  T.  Kincaid,  Sr.,  learned  his  trade,  and  afterward  became  partner  and  in  1S40  proprietor.  In  1SG()  the  firm  became 
"  Jas.  T.  Kincaid  &  Sons,"  and  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  present  owner  in  1874.  The  Steamboat  and  Hotel  Conk- 
ing Stoves  of  this  firm  are  original  witli  the  former  firm  of  Peterson  &  Co.  They  are  made  of  wrought  iron,  and  are 
known  and  acknowledged  to  be  the  best  in  use.  All  the  steamboats  on  the  rivers  use  them  in  preference  to  any  other. 
Mr.  James  T.  Kincaid  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  born  in  1828.  He  learned  the  business,  which  he  has  always  fol- 
lowed, with  his  father,  who  was  long  known  and  respected  in  this  city. 

LEE  &  MARSHALL -M^oo/  Dealers,  90  Water  Street. 

This  is  a  business  which  is  but  little  understood  by  the  masses,  and  its  magnitude  is  but  inadequately  appreciated 
by  the  general  public.  The  capital  invested  in  this  line  of  trade  is  very  large  and  the  business  is  one  of  the  important 
features  of  our  national  prosperity.  The  home  supply  of  wool  is  not  equal  to  the  demand  and  consumption,  and  large 
quantities  are  imported  form  foreign  countries.  The  house  of  Lee  and  Marsliall  is  composed  of  Mr.  II ugh  Lee  and  Mr. 
James  L.  Marshall.  They  have  been  engaged  in  business  on  Liberty  Street  for  the  past  thirty-live  years,  and  for 
twenty-four  years  under  the  present  firm  name  and  style.  They  have  agents  in  the  various  wool  growing  districts 
buying  for  tliem  on  commission,  and  they  handle  on  an  average  about  250,000  pounds  of  wool  per  year.  Tiieir  sales 
are  almost  exclusively  to  eastern  manufacturers  and  dealers  for  whom  they  principally  purchase  and  ship,  although 
frequently  buying  on  their  own  account  and  holding  it  for  an  advance  in  price. 

FREEHOLD  BAHJH -Discount  and  Deposit,  No.  68  Smithfield  Street. 

Contingent  upon  and  identified  witli  the  industries  of  Pittsbui-gh,  the  Freeliold  Bank  is  justly  regarded  as  one  of 
the  most  solid,  conservative  and  responsible  financial  institutions  in  the  city.  Organized  under  the  State  laws  in 
1870,  with  a  capital  of  S200,000,  the  bank  became  a  success  fi-om  its  very  Inception,  under  the  management  and  direc- 
tion of  the  following  well  known  gentlemen  :  E.  House,  Esq.,  President,  J  P.  Speer,  Cashier,  L.  H.  Widney,  Teller, 
the  Board  of  Directors  being  Messrs.  E.  House,  John  Paul,  John  MacKin,  T.  W.  Davis,  C.  L.  Magee,  Jared  M.  Brush, 
and  T.  S.  Biglow. 

The  building  owned  and  occupied  on  the  first  floor  by  the  bank  is  a  handsome  stone  front  edifice,  40x60  feet,  and 
three  stories  high,  centrally  located,  and  regarded  as  being  a  very  valuable  property.  Taken  altogether,  no  similar 
institution  possesses  a  higher  rank  either  on  the  score  of  solvencyor  able  management,  and  the  Freehold  Bank  may 
justly  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  representative  financial  establishments  of  the  Iron  City. 

J.  P.  ^WILLIBON, -Undertaker  and  Embalmer,  No.  4015  Butler  St. 

This  very  polite,  courteous  and  popular  gentleman,  and  accomplished  Undertaker  and  Embalmer  is  to  be  found  at 
4015  Butler  St.,  where  he  opened  his  establishment,  and  olfcred  his  valued  services  to  the  public  in  that  part  of  the 
city  in  1877,  since  which  time  his  genial  manners,  high  accomplishments,  and  prompt  and  careful  attention  to  all  bus- 
iness entrusted  to  his  hands  and  the  wants  of  the  public,  he  has  rapidly  grown  in  favor,  enlarged  his  business,  and 
widened  his  ah-eady  large  circle  of  acquaintances  and  patrons.  His  energy  and  determination  will  achieve  success  in 
whatever  enterprises  he  may  engage.  He  was  born  in  Allegheny  County  "in  1842,  worked  on  the  f-arm  of  his  father 
until  18  years  of  age,  then  learned  the  blacksmitli  trade.  He  enlisted  at  the  beginning  of  the  war  in  the  famous  62nd 
Pa.  Vol.,  Col.  Sam  Block,  and  served  during  the  entire  war,  being  wounded  six  times,  but  escaping  without  being 
seriously  maimed  or  crippled,  although  bearing  the  scars  of  the  "leaden  hail."  During  his  term  of  enlistment  lie 
prudently  saved  his  money  paid  him  by  the  Government,  with  which,  after  the  close  of  tb.e  war,  lie  was  enabled  to 
gratify  a  noble  and  lofty  ambition  to  educate  himself.  He  applied  himself  to  study  closely  for  a  considerable  period. 
In  1866,  through  the  efforts  of  an  influential  friend  he  secured  the  appointment  of  clerk  in  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives at  Harrisburg,  which  position  be  held  with  credit  to  himself,  and  the  satisfaction  of  his  friends  for  two  years 
After  that  he  entered  the  Dry  House  of  J.  J.  Bender  &  Co.  as  Book-keeper,  leaving  there  to  acccjit  the  position  o 
Cashier  in  tlie  Office  of  the  P.  C.  &  St.  L.  R.  R.,  in  which  position  he  served  seven  years,  after  which  iie  embarked  i'. 
his  present  enterprise,  in  which  he  is  meeting  with  encouraging  success.  Mr.  Willison  is  well  and  popularly  known 
in  his  community,  actively  participates  in  the  public  and  political  matters  of  his  ward,  and  exerts  an  important  influ- 
ence in  matters  of  that  kind. 

JOS.  VOGEL,-Z?ry  Goods,  Notions,  Carpets,  Oil  Cloths,  &c..  No.  3702  Butler  St. 

The  large,  handsome  and  splendily  stocked  establishment  of  Mr.  Vngel  is  located  at  No.  3702  Butler  St.,  and  is 
recognized  as  one  of  the  most  prominent  Dry  Goods  houses  in  the  East  End.  The  room  owned  and  occupied  by  Mr  .V,, 
is  20  feet  front  and  75  feet  deep,  the  building  being  a  fine  3-story  brick.  The  store  is  filled  from  end  to  end  with  as  large, 
varied  and  attractive  line  of  goods  as  any  one  could  desire,  and  the  stock  is  kept  sup]ilied  with  frequent  invoices  of  nil 
the  latest  novelties  and  newest  patterns.  The  beautiful  manner  in  which  the  goods  arc  displayed,  the  perfect  neatness 
in  which  everything  in  the  establishment  is  kept,  everything  in  perfect  order  Not  a  speck  of  dust  allowed  to 
accumulate  anywhere,  as  is  too  frequently  the  case  in  many  establishments,  speaks  volumes  for  the  good 
taste,  and  the  high  appriciation  of  the  advantages  to  be  derived  from  an  attractive  and  pleasant  place  in 
which  to  greet  customers  of  Mr  .Tos.  Vogel,  Jr.  The  popular,  very  polite  and  courteous  son  of  the  proprietor, 
who  takes  much  pride  in  this  as  well  as  all  other  features  of  the  business,  and  who  by  his  very  gentle- 
manly and  courteous  treatment  towards  all  the  patrons  of  the  establishment,  as  well  as  by  his  popularity 
and  general  high  character  in  the  community  adds  much  to  the  high  esteem  in  which  the  establishment  is 
held.  The  establishment  is  doing  a  large  and  growing  business,  reaching  very  large  figures  annually.  Vogel's  is 
known  by  everybody  in  this  part  of  the  city  and  favorably  mention  the  establishment  on  all  bands.  Mr  Jos.  Vogel 
first  began  business  in  this  city  25  years"  ago  as  a  Merchant  Tailor  on  Liberty  St.  with  limited  capital,  but  by  cb-se 
attention  to  business,  and  enterprising  ability  rapidly^ccumulatf'd  capital,  he  continued  in  that  business  until  9  years 
ago  when  he  removed  to  Lawrenceville  and  enctaged  in  the  Dry  (roods  business.  Mr.  Vogel  wns  horn  in  (iermany  and 
came  to  the  U.  S.  in  \KM,  first  locating  in  BiiflTalo.  N.  Y.,  afterwards  removing  to  this  city,  he  has:iccmiuilated  consider- 
able means  during  his  loni;  and  busy  career  in  this  city,  and  i';  an  honored  and  highly  respected  citizen,  and  an  upright 
honorable  Gentleman.  The  two  sons  of  Mr.  Vogel,  John  and  Joseph,  give  their  close  attention  to  the  busines  ;  they  are 
both  young  men  of  popular  and  agreeable  manners,  with  whom  it  is  a  pleasure  to  deal,  and  who  are  highly  respected  by 
the  community  in  which  they  reside. 

33  '91 


130  INDUSTRIES   OF   PENXSYLVAXIA. 


W.  L.  GRIFFITH  &  CO.-Millinery  and  Trimmings,  No.  76  Market  St. 

W.  L.  Grirtith  &  Co..  whdse  phuH>  i>f  business  is  us  above,  have  ii  just  vuasoii  to  feel  proud  of  tlie  success  which 
they  have  achieved  in  cst;iblisUiiis  tluiuselves  in  such  a  prounneut  position  in  connection  witli  the  millinery  trade  of 
our'city.  Tliey  are  dealers  in  all  lines  of  Ladies' and  Gents'  Furnishing  Goods,  Millinery,  Triiuuiings, "Ribbons, 
Feathers,  i<:e.,  Itc,  and  oci'upy  two  light  and  spacicus  floors,  as  sales  and  nianufaetuiing  departments,  in  whicli  ten 
salesmen  and  imineriius  triumiers,  Ac,  are  employed,  while  the  members  of  the  tirni,  Messrs.  W.  L.  and  S.  L.  GritKtli, 
pay  personal  supervision  to  l!ie  business.  Over  the  millinery  department,  as  superintendent,  Mrs.  S.  L.  Griliith,  a 
lady  who  possesses  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  business,  is  daily  in  attendance.  This  house  carry  a  large  and  diver- 
sitied  stock  of  :?10,Ui)l)  in  value,  where  every  want,  in  this  line  of  goods,  may  be  as  fully  and  economically  fulfilled  as 
at  any  place  in  the  city.  In  addition  to  the  attractions  usual  to  such  a  house,  here  may  he  found,  also,  headquarters 
for  tl"e  lelebrated  Peinorest's  Patterns,  the  most  reliable  in  the  country.  This  tirm,  although  established  as  late  as 
1875,  has  achievccl  a  recognized  success  and  reputation,  both  in  business  relations  and  in  social  connections,  which  may 
well  bo  worthy  if  th  •  sustenance  and  patronage  of  both  our  own  residents,  and  those  visiting  our  city  from  neighbor- 
ing cities  and  "t.nvns,  will  always  iind  it  to  their  advantage  in  visiting  the  house  of  W.  L.  Griffith  &  Co.,  at  No.  76 
Market  St. 

EPHRAIM  dLAY" -Hosiery,  Gloves,  Notions,  dc.  No.  37  Diamond  St. 

This  well  i^stablished  and  successful  jobbing  and  I'etail  house  is  of  eigheen  years' standing,  and  carries  a  large 
variety  of  goods  in  the  line  of  Hosiery,  Notions,  Gloves,  Yarns,  and  Gentlemen's  Furnishing  Goods,  the  usual  amount 
of  stock  being  about  3^15,000.  There  are  four  floors  in  the  building,  all  of  which  are  used  in  the  business  of  the  house. 
Five  hands  are  usually  engaged  in  the  busine.ss,  attending  to  the  wants  of  the  trade  at  the  house,  while  one  traveling 
salesman,  in  the  person  of  Mr.  Phil.  Baer,  represents  the  house  through  Western  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  and  West  Vir- 
ginia. The  well-earned  reputation  of  the  house  has  given  it  a  large  and  steadily  increasing  trade,  and  its  stock  is  as 
complete  as  any  in  the  city.  Mr.  Clay  was  horn  in  England  in  1818,  has  been  in  "this  State  for  about  30  years,  the  last 
IS  of  whicli  have  been  spent  in  this  city  and  in  the  business  he  has  so  successfully  established. 

JOSEPH  MACIulBAN, -Bookseller  and  Bookbinder,  Room  3,  NO.  41  Fifth  Ave. 

As  a  dealer  in  Books,  making  a  specialty  of  mechanical  scientifle  and  art  works,  and  rare  publications,  it  is  safe  to 
assert,  that  Mr.  Joseph  Jlaelean  possesses  a  more  detailed,  as  well  as  eouijiivhcnsive  knowledge  of  his  business,  than  any 
competitor  in  this  city,  and  can  at  the  same  time  otter  advantages  to  the  regular  or  casual  book  buyer,  that  may  not  be 
duplicated  in  the  West.  For  more  than  ten  years  Mr.  Maclean  was  associated  with  the  widely  known  publishing  lirni 
of  Gebbie  and  Barrie,  Philadelphia,  and  in  conjunction  with  them  established  a  Book  House  in  Pittsburgh  1871,  which 
liowever  was  subsequently  removed  to  xs^ew  York,  of  which  place  INIr.  Maclean  became  a  resident.  Between  the  last 
named  yieriod,  and  1878,  however,  he  was  a  frequent  visitor  to  this  city,  maintaining  his  relations  with  the  trade  here,  and 
finally  in  that  year  engaged  in  business  for  himself,  exclusively  at  the  above  location. 

The  premises  occupied  by  Mr.  Maclean  are  admirably  suited  for  the  book  trade,  and  are  stocked  with  a  choice  as- 
soi'tment  of  special  works  in  the  lines  mentioned,  as  well  as  a  large  miscellaneous  collection  in  the  province  of  general 
first  class  literature,  classical  and  modern,  the  stock  being  of  an  average  value  of  alxuit  five  thousand  dollars.  To  this 
spot  resort  many  of  the  prominent  book  lovers  and  buyers  of  this  city.  Finding  invariably  something  curious,  rare  or 
new,  upon  the  well  filled  shelves,  to  reward  them  for  the  quest,  constant  additions  being  made  in  all  departments, 
througii  the  foreign  or  eastern  connections,  established  by  the  energetic  proprietor.  As  sole  agent  for  the  Harper 
Brothers  in  this  city,  Mr.  Maclean  controls  the  sale  of  Stanley's  celebrated  work  in  Africa,  "Through  the  Dark  Conti- 
nent" and  deals  largely  in  other  subscription  hooks,  lor  reference  generally,  or  in  particular  branches  of  mechanics, 
chemistry  or  the  arts  etc.,  etc.  Indefatigable  in  the  pursuit  of  his  business,  for  which  he  possesses  marked  talent  and 
appreciative  comprehension,  Mr.  Maclean's  relations  are  mainly  with  the  highest  and  most  intelligent  classes  of  the 
community,  to  whom  he  can  always  otter  advantages  in  the  purchase  of  hooks,  and  the  selection  of  libraries  not  to  be 
equalled  by  any  eoteniporary,  either  here  or  in  the  eastern  cities,  and  which  have  given  him  a  position  in  the  trade, 
rarely  acquired  except  by  years  of  exertion  and  experience.  In  the  department  of  Binding,  Mr.  Maclean  has  ettected 
special  arrangements  with  the  best  binders  in  I'hihulelphia,  by  which  tlie  finest  work  is  invariably  insured,  at  the  most 
moderate  outlay.  In  every  respect  this  establishment  is  a  model  one,  the  proprietor  being  thoroughly  deserving  of  the 
patronage  and  consideration  of  the  public,  to  whom  his  enterprise  is  cordially  commended. 

THOS.  FAWCETT  &  SONS, -Bituminous  Coal,  Office,  87  Water  St. 

In  the  great  coal  interests  of  AVestern  Pennsylvania,  so  closely  identified  with  the  indusiries  and  development 
of  this  community,  a  review  of  the  trade  in  extent,  and  the  mode"  of  caiTying  it  on  in  respect  to  transportation  to 
other  points  must  prove  interesting  to  every  reader  of  this  volume,  either  in  or  out  of  this  city.  In  compiling  such  a 
review  perhaps  no  citizen  of  Pittsburgh  is  more  fully  posted,  and  more  capable  of  giving  to  our  readers  an  idea  of  the 
scope  and  extent  of  changes  that  have  occurred  in  the  last  quarter  of  a  century,  than  Thomas  Fawcett,  Sen.,  Esq., 
at  whose  otfice  our  reporter  obtained  the  information  fur  the  formation  of  this  brief  notice,  regarding  the  operations  of 
this  firm  (composed  of  Thomas  Fawcett,  Sen.,  .Tames  T.  Fawcett,  and  Thomas  Fawcett,  Jr.),  which  may  he  taken  as  an 
illustration  of  the  advancement  and  improvement  attained  in  this  line  of  industry. 

Succeeding  his  father,  Mr.  James  Fawcett,  who  commenced  the  mining  of  coal,  and  wholesale  dealing  in  the  same 
as  early  in  our  city's  history  as  18:>1,  and  was  accordingly  one  of  our  earliest  miners  and  coal  merchants,  ^Ir.  Thomas 
Fawcett,  Sen.,  had,  upon  entering  into  business  in  1850,  at  the  ago  of  23  years,  a  knowledge  and  experience  in  the  coal 
trade  possessed  by  few  young  men  of  those  days.  At  this  date  (1850),  before  the  general  use  of  steamboats  and  tugs, 
coal  was  floated  down  with  the  current  of  the  river  to  cities  south  of  us,  requiring  to  every  pair  of  boats,  with  a  capac- 
ity of  40,000  bushels,  25  men  to  guide  and  handle  them.  Through  the  dill'erentgradations  of  changes  from  year  to 
year,  this  firm  have  kept  pace  with,  and  made  large  original  improvements,  until  now  a  single  tow-boat  will  convey 
20  coal  boats  and  barges,  having  a  capacity  of  500,000  bushels,  manned  with  but  30  men,  showing  an  advancement  in 
this  branch  of  nearly  1000  per  cent,  over  "those  of  former  days.  Bringing  these  vast  advantages  in  practical  use,  this 
firm  now  own  and  operate  two  large  tow-boats,  50  barges,  holding  12,000  bushels  each,  and  100  coal  boats,  holding  24,000 
bushels  each,  which  are  called  in  requisition,  in  addition  to  one  tug-boat  for  harbor  use,  in  efl'ecting  for  them  an  outlet 
for  the  immense  amount  of  coal  mined  from  their  mines  at  Green  Springs,  opposite  Braddock's  Field,  where  they 
own  over  100  acres  of  excellent  coal  land,  from  which  are  yearly  extracted  not  less  than  6,000,000  bushels  of  bituminous 
coal,  which  is,  to  a  large  extent,  shipped  down  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  Rivers  as  far  South  as  New  Orleans,  at  which 
point  the  house  have  a  yard  for  the  saleof  their  coal  to  the  wholesale  and  retail  trade  of  that  city,  in  addition  towhich 
large  numbers  of  cotton  presses,  steamships  and  steamboats  are  supplied,  both  along  the  rivers  at  ditterent  points,  and 
at  the  intermediate  cities  lining  the  hanks  between  Pittsburgh  and  New  Orleans.  To  carry  on  the  business  of  Faw- 
cett &  Sons  200  men  are  engaged  in  the  ditterent  branches  of  mining,  shipping  and  handling,  to  whom  are  monthly 
distributed  about  Sr2, 000  in  i):iynient  for  their  labor.  As  a  representative  firm  in  the  coal  trade,  that  of  Thomas 
Fawcett  A  Sons  mayunmislak.ibly  be  styled  the  largest  shippers  down  the  river,  and  the  oldest  in  the  city,  being 
the  only  firm  engaged  continuously  since  1850,  and  justly  deserving  the  large  trade  they  have  built  up  and  so  success- 
fully hold.  The  senior  member  was  born  in  this  city  in  1827,  and  in  addition  to  the  part  he  has  taken  in  the  promo- 
tion" of  our  industries  in  the  capacity  in  which  he  is  most  prominent,  he  has  contributed  largely  in  capital,  time  and 
influence  to  the  upbuilding  and  upholding  of  our  financial  institutions. 

34 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  131 


G£0.  M.  IRWIN^— Grain  and  Provision  Broker,  No.  55  5th  Ave. 

Hardly  to  be  classed  under  the  Industries  of  Pittsburgh,  and  yet  intimately  connected  with  them,  by  association, 
the  business  of  Mr.  Geo.  M.  Irwin,  as  a  Grain  and  Provision  Broker,  demands  recognition  in  this  work.  A  native  of 
Beaver  Co.,  Pa.,  Major  Irwin  has  been  a  resident  of  this  city  for  over  10  years,  and  since  1875  has  devoted  himself 
with  great  and  deserved  success  to  his  present  occupation.  In  constant  connection,  by  wire,  with  the  corn  and  grain 
exchanges  of  Chicago  and  the  West,  and  with  extraordinary  advantages  in  tlie  prominence  and  sagacity  of  his  corre- 
spondents, no  man  is  better  able  to  form  a  judgment  on  the  fluctuations  of  the  market,  or  direct  witli  greater  success 
the  operations  of  margin  buyers.  His  tact  and  experience  in  this  respect  has  been  a  matter  of  frequent  comment  by 
the  pi-ess,  as  well  as  a  source"  of  handsome  profit  to  his  clients.  The  method  of  JVIaj.  Irwin  is  such  that  buyers  or  sel- 
lers through  him,  for  future  acceptance  or  delivery,  manipulate  their  own  investments,  the  same  being  deposited  in  a 
National  Bank  for  mutual  protection,  a  small  percentage  only  in  each  pool  or  transaction  going  to  the  broker.  As  a 
means  of  realizing  rapid  and  considerable  returns  upon  small  ventures,  the  operations  of  Maj.  Irwin  sliow  pretty 
conclusively  that  capital  so  employed  is  subject  to  no  more  risk  than  if  vested  in  ordinary  trade  transactions  or  com- 
mercial or  other  products,  while  the  profits  are  likely  to  be,  from  the  system  in  use,  measurably  greater.  As  a  judi- 
cious, cautious  and  adroit  adviser,  Mr.  Irwin  has  repeatedly  given  evidence  of  marked  capacity.  Those  at  a  distance 
who  desire  to  avail  themselves  of  the  advantages  he  offers  can  do  so  by  correspondence,  as  well  as  by  personal  inter- 
view. 

UNION  PLANING  MILL  COMPANY,-/l/o.  50  18th  St.,  South  Side. 

As  no  unimportant  factor  among  the  industries  of  Pittsburgh,  in  connection  with  the  lumber  trade,  the  above 
corporation  is  worthy  of  special  mention  in  tliis  work,  both  from  the  extent  of  its  operations  and  high  standing  in 
other  respects.  Chartered  in  1866,  witli  a  capital  stock  of  Si20,000,  the  affairs  of  the  company  have  been  so  ably  and 
faithfully  managed  tliat  each  year  has  brought  about  an  increasing  business,  enlarged  resources,  and  a  great  range  of 
usefulness.  The  officers  at  present  are :  James  McMasters,  President,  Wm.  Wigman,  I>.  Shutte  and  S.  Hamilton, 
Directors,  and  A.  H.  Hunter,  Secretary  and  Book-keeper.  The  premises  occupied  by  the  establishment  are  situated 
as  above,  and  consist  of  one  large  building,  40x120  feet,  with  extensive  wings,  containing  the  most  improved  and  per- 
fect machinery  for  the  manufacture  and  construction  of  Sashes,  AVindow  Frames,  Door.s  and  Door  Frames,  Mouldings, 
Weather  Boarding  and  Flooring,  Boxes  of  all  descriptions,  &e.,  &c.,  One  large  engine  and  steam  boiler  are  required 
to  drive  the  various  mechanical  appliances,  and  3.5  to  40  employees  are  constantly  engaged,  occasioning  a  disbursement 
of  from  S^.50  to  1600  per  week.  In  the  matter  of  the  manufacture  of  boxes  for  glass  and  otlier  wares,  tliis  concern  does 
a  larger  business  than  any  of  its  cotemporaries,  not  confining  its  works  only  to  this  immediate  locality,  but  extending 
it  to  a  wide  range  through  this  and  adjacent  States,  aggregating  a  trade  of  not  less  than  $9.5,000  annually.  Tlie  Presi- 
de!.t  of  the  campany  is  likewise  President  of  the  Farmers  and  Mechanics  Bank,  and  well  known  for  liis  enterprising 
connection  with  the  progress  and  development  of  the  resources  of  this  community.  The  concern  takes  its  standing 
from  tliose  who  are  concerned  in  it,  and  is  therefore  regarded  with  the  highest  favor,  as  being  perhaps  the  best  ap- 
pointed and  most  carefully  managed  Planing  Mill  in  this  section  of  the  State. 

JOS.  WOODWELL  &  CO -Hardware,  Cor.  Wood  St.  and  Second  Ave. 

Among  the  many  firms  engaged  in  the  above  line  of  trade  in  this  city,  none  occupy  a  more  suljstantial  position  than 
the  subject  of  this  sketch.  EstabJislied  March  1st,  1845,  as  Wood  well  and  Walker,  tlie  latter  partner  soon  retired  leav- 
ing the  firm  title  as  at  present.  Two  buildings  4-stories  high,  140  feet  in  lengtli  with  two  ample  basements,  are  barely 
sufficient  to  contain  a  stock,  which  rarely  runs  below  a  valuation  of  $100,000,  consisting  of  every  variety  of  foreign  and 
domestic  Hardware,  Cutleries,  Saws,  Shovels  and  Spades,  Harvest  and  Agricultural  Tools,  Builders,  Machinists,  Railway 
and  Cabinet  Hardware,  Chains,  Anvils  etc  ,  etc. 

The  firm  which  is  composed  of  Mr.  Josseph  Woodwell  and  two  Sons,  W.  K.  and  Jos.  B.  does  a  large  and  increasing 
business  in  Railroad  supplies,  as  well  as  a  very  extensive  retail  trade,  the  result  of  the  long  establishment  of  the  house, 
and  the  extended  acquaintance  of  its  members,  which  reaches  with  their  business  into  three  or  four  contiguous  State.s. 
Besides  posessing  all  the  advantages  above  enumerated,  this  firm  have  the  special  agency  for  the  celebrated  Nicholson 
Files,  Wood  Ornaments  and  the  mo.st  compl(;te  assortment  of  Iron,  Steel,  Bra.ss  and  Copper,  Wire  to  be  found  west  of 
the  niountains.  From  14  to  20  employees  are  regularly  retained  in  the  various  department  of  the  business,  which  in- 
volve sales  of  from  $1.50,000  to  g200, 000  per  annum.  The  general  characteristics  of  this  house  for  financial  solvency, 
thorough  conception  of  the  Ijusiness  in  which  they  are  engaged,  together  with  a  high  standard  of  personal  and  commer- 
cial honor,  would  reflect  credit  upon  any  community,  and  make  the  untarnished  record  of  nearly  thirty-five  years  a 
source  of  private  and  public  satisfaction. 

WESTERN  INSURANCE  COMPAN Y,-eraw/fe  Building,  81  Wood  St. 

This  old  and  reliable  Company  was  incorporated  by  the  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania,  March  20,  1849,  the  fir.st  com- 
pany chartered  in  this  city  after  the  disastrous  Fire,  that  occurred  on  the  lOtli  of  April  1845,  and  now  the  oldest  Fire 
and  Marine  Co.  in  the  city,  with  cash  capital  of  $225,000,  Assets  $317,607.25.  The  management  of  this  sound  and  pros- 
perous company  is  not  excelled  by  any  other  similar  organization  in  the  country.  The  directors  were  truly  fortunate 
in  the  selection  of  a  financial  officer  and  general  business  manager  in  the  person  of  Wm.  P.  Herbert,  secretary,  who  has 
been  in  charge  of  the  business  over  a  quarter  of  a  century.  The  vast  number  of  risks,  that  he  has  handled,  the  enor- 
mous amount  of  losses  paid,  the  prompt  adjustment  of  claims  when  necessary,  has  given  the  Western  an  enviable  repu- 
tation, both  at  home  and  abroad.  The  careful  and  judicious  cour.se  pursued  by  the  management,  has  been  the  means 
of  making  the  stock  of  this  company  one  of  the  best  for  investment  to  be  found  in  the  city,  when  we  learn  that  they 
have  paid  their  stockholders  in  dividends  nearly  four  dollars  for  one  invested.  As  an  illustration  of  the  character  ol  the 
management,  and  probity  in  conducting  the  very  large  and  increasing  business  of  this  company,  we  may  refer  to  the 
showing  of  the  handsome  amout  of  A.s.sets  of  $317,607.25,  after  paying  losses  in  30  years  of  their  existence  ot  nearly  1,000,- 
000.  The  managers  have  given  evidense  of  rare  ability  in  selecting  business,  and  their  judgement  has  been  verified  in 
the  success,  which  has  been  acquired.  The  business  of  the  Western  has  bi'en  princifially  of  a  local  character,  and  within 
reach  of  the  officers,  that  an  accurate  examination  of  each  risk  could  be  had.  We  herewith  present  the  names  of  the 
board  for  the  year  1879  : 

President,  Alexander  Nimick,  V.  President  1st  National  Bank,  of  firms  of  Nimick  &  Co., 
Phillips,  Nimick  &  Co.  and  President  .Tacobus  it  Nimick  Mfg.  Co.,  etc.  etc.  R,  Miller  Jr.,  President  Monongahela 
Bridge  company,  David  M.  Long  of  Hubbard,  Bakewell  and  Co.,  John  R.  McCane,  President  Union  National  Bank, 
Charles  J.  Clarke  President  Library  Hall  company^Capt.  Wm.  S.  Evans,  President  of  Missouri  River  Transportation 
company,  Phillip  Requier  of  Requier  and  Brothers,  Wholesale  Grocers  etc.,  William  Jlorrison,  Capitalist,  H.  Sellers 
McKee  of  McKee  and  Bros.,  Glass  Manufacturers,  John  B.  .Jackson  Member  of  city  council,  Hon.  L.  K.  Moorebead, 
President  of  Monongahela  N a V.  Co.  and  President  of  Chamber  of  Commerce,  Hon.  Edwin  H.  Stowe  President,  .fudge 
com.  Pleas  No.  1.,  Wm.  Frew,  first  Vice  President  Standard  Oil  company.  In  this  list  are  found  the  names  of  solid  ineo 
of  Pittsburgh,  and  of  men  who  are  the  architects  of  their  own  fortunes. 

35 


132 


INDUSTRIES   OF  PENNSYLVANIA. 


THE  W£STINGHOUS£  AIR  BRAKE  CO. 

Office  &  H  orliH  :  JAherty  Street,  Jiettveen  24th  and  25th  Streets. 

It  is  tolerably  safe  to  say  that  no  one  special  branch  of  our  manufacturing  industries  has  disseminated  more 
widely  a  knowledge  of  Pittsburgh  and  its  characteristics,  than  the  Westinghouse  Air  Brake  Co.  Certainly  none 
more  entitled  to  copious  mention  in  any  work  professing  to  display  in  its  proper  light,  the  resources,  advantages  and 
development  of  the  Iron  City.  Based  upon  the  masterly  invention  of  George  Westinghonse,  Jr.,  the  manufacture  of 
the  Automilic  Air  Brake  was  coinuienced  by  the  patentee  and  Ralph  Bagaley,  Esq.,  nearly  ten  years  ago,  creating 
an  absolute  revolution  in  tlie  matter  of  handling  railroad  trains,  greatly  increasing  the  safety  of  travel,  and  reducing 
running  expenses,  with  many  otlier  striking  advantages.  The  importance  and  novelty  of  tliis  unique  appliance, 
attracted  at  once  universil  attention  resulting  in  the  formation  of  an  incorporated  Joint  Stock  Company,  with  a 
capital  of  SJOi.1,000  paid  in,  for  the  ])urpose  of  a  more  extensive  manufacture  of  the  Air  Brake.  Of  this  Association, 
Geo.  Westinghouse,  Jr.  was  elected  President,  Ralph  Bagaley  Secretary  and  Treasurer,  and  T.  \V.  Welsh  Superin- 
tendent, and  under  the  management  of  these  gentlemen  to  the  present  time  the  company  has  attained  an  almost 
unparallelod  degree  of  pro.sperity,  extending  its  operations  not  only  throughout  the  entire  United  Stiitesand  Canadas, 
but  introducing  its  inventions  into  Mexico,  Culia,  South  America,  England,  France,  Germany,  Russia,  Scot hmd, 
Ireland,  Australia,  New  Zealand,  India,  and  in  fact  in  alm-ost  every  country  iu  the  world  where  railroads  are  in 
process  of  construction,  or  liave  become  a  necessity. 

The  works  of  the  corporation  are  unusuallycomplete  in  every  mechanical  detail,  they  occupy  an  area  100x264 
feet,  containing  two  engines  and  boilers  aggregating  ninety  horse  power,  and  line  machinery  especially  invented  or 
designed  for  the  work  performed.  One  hundred  and  fifty  skilled  artizaus  are  constantly  employed,  occasioning  an 
annual  disbursement  to  this  source  alone  of  $S4,000.  Besides  the  construction  of  the  original  Automatic  Air  Brake, 
other  devices  involving  much  the  same  principle  have  been  invented  by  Mr.  Westinghouse,  covering  Train  Brakes, 
Freight  Brakes,  Westinghouse  and  Smith  Vacuum  Brakes  and  Locomotive  Driver  Brakes,  all  of  which  are  manu- 
factured bv  tlie  company,  protected  by  numeixnis  patents  in  this  country  and  abroad. 

Geo.  Westinghouse,  Jr.  is  a  native  of  Schenectady,  N.  Y.,  and  is  still  a  young  man.  He  acquired  his  knowledge 
of  meclianics  in  the  Agricultural  Implement  Works  of  his  father  in  his  native  city,  but  removed  to  this  city  in  18(58, 
where  after  combatting  numerous  discouragements  he  finally  established  the  foundations  of  a  signal  success. 

Mr.  Bigaley  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  his  father  Wm.  Bagaley,  Esq.,  was  one  of  the  most  talented  business  men 
this  city  ever  produced  ;  methodical,  enterprising  and  comprehensive  in  character,  he  was  twenty-live  years  ago  a 
representative  man,  and  did  as  much  perhaps  as  any  one,  in  advancing  the  prosperity  of  this  community.  Mr.  Ralph 
Bagalev  from  tlie  inception  of  his  business  career  has  been  constantly  engrossed  in  the  manufacture  of  machinery  in 
some  of  its  many  branches.  As  one  of  the  projectors  and  officers  of  the  Westinghouse  Co.,  as  well  as  proprietor  of  the 
Pittsburgli  Evening  Telegi-aph,  he  is  widely  known,  and  this  in  connection  with  various  interests  in  financial  and 
civic  institutions  has  given  him  an  influence  always  justly  exercised  and  well  deserved.  With  an  annual  revenue 
averaging  half  a  million  dollars,  and  a  practical  usefulness  almost  philanthropic,  it  is  not  a  matter  of  surprise  that  the 
Westrughouse  Air  Brake  Co.  occupies  a  place  iu  the  Industries  of  Pittsburgh  as  honorable  as  it  is  well  merited. 


A.  NORTHROP  &  CO -Sheet  Iron  Roofing  &  Building  Materials.  97  ht  Ave. 

Among  those  industries 
contingcut  upon  or  spring- 
ing from  the  L'on  trade, 
and  the  material  out- 
growth o  f  improvement 
and  invention  may  be 
classed  the  enterprise  of 
the  above  firm,  which  is 
of  such  a  character  and  of 
so  great  a  usefulness  as  to 
entitle  it  to  more  than 
mere  mention  iu  a  publi- 
cation, <1p voted  exclusive- 
ly to  a  detailed  display  of 
the  resources  of  Pittsburgh. 
Composed  as  a  firm  of  A. 
Northrop  and  Henry  S. 
Northrop  his  son,  both 
are  natives  of  Ohio  and 
were  established  in  busi- 
ness at  Elyria  in  that 
State  for  25  years,  prior  to 
their  removal  to  this  city. 
A  finished  mechanic  in 
Tin  and  Sheet  Iron,  with 
a  comprehensive  know- 
ledge of  how  these  mate- 
rials sliould  be  worked  to 
secure    tlie    best    results. 

Mr.  A.   Northrop   became 

inventor  and  patentee  of  certain  improvements  in  Iron  Roofing.  Siding  and  Ceiling,  that  must  eventnallv  7tlect  a 
vast  c.vinge  in  the  metliod  and  expense  of  constructing  buildincrsof  every  description,  and  which  are  now"  produc- 
ing radical  alterations  and  advantages.  By  the  mode  of  application  introduced  by  this  house.  Iron  Rooting  be- 
comes not  only  impervious  to  the  action  of  water  and  fire,  hut  ornamental  and  durable  to  the  last  degree  as  well 
as  exceedingly  economical.  Some  of  the  advantages  claimed  for  it,  which  claims  are  substantialed  by  the  strongest 
testimonials  and  the  most  disinterested  authorities,  are  that  it  not  onlv  possesses  the  features  above  refered  to,  but 
that  It  IS  suitable  for  all  classes  of  buildings,  is  wind  and  lishtning  proof,  simple  of  application.  No  nails  or 
screws  through  the  Sheets,  can  be  perfectly  fitted  to  chimnevs,  skv  lights,  hips,  vallevs  and  gutters  One  of  the 
great  advantage.?  of  this  method  lies  in  the  fact,  that  the  Roof  can  be  taken  apart,  moved  at  pleasure  and  utilized 
as  often  a^  desired,  and  is  so  prepared  for  shipment  with  printed  instructions,  as  to  be  easily  ajiplied  bv  any  ordi- 
nary mechanic.  The  same  advantages  hold  good  in  rearard  to  thp  siding,  which  aftords  a  flawless  protection'  to  all 
weathers  and  all  climates,  as  well  as  addinsi  sreat  strenath  to  the  structure.  The  ceiling  is  perhaps  the  best  ever 
devised,  both  in  appearance  and  for  the  relief  aftbrded  from  falling  plaster,  the  breaking  oft",  of  which  is  only  a 
question  of  time.  Besides  the  manufacture  of  this  valuable  invention  A.  Northrop  &  Co.,  are  large  manufacturers 
and  dealers  in  Sheet  Iron  Cornice,  Gutters,  Fire-proof  Shutters,  Roofing,  Paint,  etc.,  etc.  Their  facilities  are  exten- 
sive and  a  rapidly  increasing  trade,  which  extends  all  over  the  United  States  and  Canada,  demonstrates  the  favor  with 
which  their  improvements  are  being  received  and  appreciated.  To  those  intending  to  construct  new  edifices  or  repair 
old  ones,  this  firm  is  most  heartily  commended,  their  entire  business  policy  being  characterized  by  thoroughness, 
promptness  and  probity,  their  work  speaks  for  itself  wherever  known. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH, 


133 


CHARLES  FREIL,— 5ofl^a  and  Mineral  Waters  and  Bottling  House,  956  Penn  Ave. 

The  bottling  business,  as  conducted  by  Mr.  Charles  Freil  at  No.  956  Penn  Avenue,  is  entitled  to  more  than  a  pass- 
ing notice  in  a  work  devoted  to  the  business  industries  and  interests  of  the  Smoky  City.  Established  in  1SU7  by  the 
present  proprietor,  these  works  now  occupy  two  spacious  buildings,  one,  24x120,  at  the  location  named,  and  one  front- 
ing on  Liberty  Street,  30x100  feet.  They  have  all  the  apparatus  and  appliances  for  carrying  on  an  extensive  bu.siness 
in  the  manufacture  of  Soda  and  Mineral  Waters,  Sar.saparilla,  &c.,  and  for  bottling  Ale,  Porter,  Cider  and  Lager  Beer. 
They  have  a  capacity  for  bottling  2000  dozen  bottles  per  day,  and  the  works  are  as  complete  and  well  arranaged  as  any 
in  the  West.  Mr.  Freil  keeps  four  wagons  constantly  employed  in  delivering  goods,  and  his  trade  extends  through 
the  two  cities,  Western  Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio  and  West  Virginia.  Mr.  Freil  was  born  in  Londonderry,  Ireland, 
in  1846.  He  came  to  the  United  States  in  1860  without  means,  working  his  passage  to  this  country.  Ho  at  lirst  worked 
on  a  fai-m,  afterwards  on  the  river  and  in  several  diflerent  branches  of  industry,  until  he  accumulated  sufficient  capi- 
tal to  establish  himself  in  business.  He  opened  a  tavern  in  1865,  and  met  with  gratifying  success  until  1807,  when  he 
sold  out  and  embarked  in  his  present  business,  in  which,  by  energy  and  enterprise,  he  has  accumulated  considerable 
property,  owning  the  buildings  in  which  he  is  located,  and  other  property  in  the  city.  The  success  that  has  attended 
Mr.  Freil's  enterprises  in  business,  and  the  prominent  position  attained  "in  the  business  community,  starting  without 
means,  is  an  indication  of  great  ability  and  energy.  He  is  a  gentleman,  highly  respected  and  esteemed  by  all  who 
know  him,  for  his  general  qualities,  and  upright,  honorable  life. 


GEO.  DUXCAN  &  ^O^S -Glass  Manufacturers.  70th  St.  South  Side. 

In  a  work  devoted  to  a  minute  display  of  the  resources  and  advantages  of  this  community,  the  Glass  manufactur- 
ing industries  must  occupy  a  position  of  importance  commensurate  with  the  prosperity  and  genenil  development  of 
Pittsburgh  traceable  to  this  source.  Conspicuous  among  those  firms  that  have  added  no  little  to  the  celebrity  of  our 
pi'oducts  in  this  department  of  trade,  the  hou.se  of  Geo.  Duncan  &  Sons  must  always  occupy  a  place  that,  in  many  re- 
spects, eclipses  all  competitors.  This  firm  was  originally  established,  in  1866,  by  Pipley  &  Co.,  assuming  its  present 
title  in  1874,  and  composed  individually  of  Messrs.  Geo.  Duncan,  Jas.  E.  Duncan  and  A.  H.  Heisey,  all  practical 
glass  makers,  with  a  comprehensive  knowledge  and  extended  experience  in  the  business,  and  all  natives  of  this  city, 
the  senior  partner  having  been  engaged  in  this  vocation  for  over  a  quarter  of  a  century.  For  the  specialties,  to  the 
perfect  production  of  which  this  house  is  devoted,  it  has  achieved  a  wide  spread  and  splendid  reputation,  distancing 
all  competitors  in  the  manufacture  of  Table  and  Bar  Glassware  of  chaste  and  elegant  designs,  finished  to  a  wonderful 
degree  of  excellence  ;  engraved,  cut,  stained  and  etched  in  such  a  manner  by  new  processes  and  labor  saving  methods 
as  torival  in  appearance  the  finest  cut  glass,  at  a  vast  reduction  in  price.  It  is  not  saying  too  much  to  assert  that  in  the 
production  of  Table  Sets,  Elaborate  Lamps,  and  superior  Bar  Goods  the  firm  of  Geo.  Duncan  &  Sons  can  not  be  sur- 
passed. 

The  plant  of  the  house  is  extensive  and  occupies  18  lots,  covering  a  total  area  of  about  two  acres,  subdivided  into 
factories,  mould  shops,  packing  rooms,  stock  and  sample  rooms,  offices,  &c.,  &c.  A  powerful  engine  and  boiler  are 
required  to  drive  the  machinery,  and  150  skilled  artizans  are  employed  at  an  average  outlay  of  $1400  per  week.  With 
these  and  other  unequalled  facilities  the  firm  transact  a  trade  averaging  $150,000  per  annum,  and  extending  through- 
out the  United  States,  Mexico,  Cuba,  South  America,  and  other  foreign  countries,  contributing  gi'eatly  to  the  general 
wealth  of  this  community,  and  fostering  to  a  large  degree  its  material  prosperity.  As  a  firm  the  house  of  Geo.  Dun- 
can &  Sons  is  regarded  as  being  at  the  head  of  the  trade,  and  is  justly  entitled  to  the  high  consideration,  resultant  upon 
an  honorable  and  enterprising  career. 


METCALF,  PAUL  &  CO -Verona  Tool  Works,  Office,  No.  7  McCance  Block. 

A  branch  of  those  great  Iron  Industries  that  have  made 
Pittsburgh  the  center  of  this  production  in  the  United  States, 
the  house  of  Metcalf,  Paul  &  Co.  can  not  properly  be  omitted 
from  a  work  exclusively  directed  to  a  detailed  description  of 
the  resources,  development  and  special  advantages  of  this  city. 
Established  by  Messrs.  O.  Metcalf  and  J.  W.  Paul  under  the 
above  style  in"l873,  the  efforts  of  the  firm  wore  directed  to  the 
manufacture  of  .solid  steel  tools,  particularly  such  as  are  used 
in  the  construction  or  repair  of  Rail  Road  tracks.  The  works 
were  erected  at  Verona,  a  few  miles  from  the  city,  on  the  Al- 
legheny Valley  R.  R.,  and  specially  adajtted  in  construction  to 
the  required  purpose,  being  equipped  with  the  best  mechanical 
appliances  that  every  modern  improvement  could  suggest,  and 
such  processes  adapted  for  the  more  perfect  preparation  and 
finisn  of  the  material  used,  as  should  secure  a  product  abso- 
lutely flawless.  In  the  attainment  of  this  desideratum  the 
firm  met  with  the  most  signal  success,  and  the  almost  instant 
celebrity  tliat  followed  led  to  a  trade  that  at  the  present  time 
is  not  limited  to  the  United  States,  but  extends  to  Brazil, 
South  Afric;i,  and  the  West  Indies,  the  South  American  trade 
having  grown  to  such  proportions  as  to  require  the  establish- 
ment of  a  branch  office  at  Rio  Janeiro.  As  manufacturers  of 
solid  steel  tools  exclusively,  the  firm  of  Metcalf,  Paul  &  Co. 
have  really  no  compeer  in  this  country,  and  for  lightness, 
strength,  durability  and  economy  their  work  is  recognized  and 
appreciated  by  every  constructive  engineer  for  its  matchless 
superiority.  The  works  at  Verona  are  ample  in  extent,  cover- 
ing an  area  of  nearly  half  an  acre,  one  50  horse  power  engine  is  required  to  drive  the  machinery,  and  43  skilled  opera- 
tives are  constantly  employed,  making  a  disbursement  necessary  to  this  source  alone  of  about  860,000  annually.  The 
rapid  increase  of  the  business  of  the  house  at  home  has  kept  equal  pace  with  its  foreign  operations,  and  for  greater 
convenience  in  transacting  trade  with  the  West  and  North-West,  a  tributary  establishment,  trade  house  and  office, 
at  No.  40  Dearborn  St.,  Chicago,  affords  in  this  direction  all  the  necessary  facilities. 

Mr.  Metcalf  is  a  native  of  Pittsburgh,  born  in  1840.  He  has  always  made  his  permanent  residence  in  this  city, 
and,  within  the  range  of  his  influence  and  domain,  has  to  an  equal  extent  with  any  other  one  citizen  fostered  and 
conserved,  in  every  possible  way,  the  interests  of  this  city.  The  financial,  clerical  and  general  business  management 
of  the  house  fall  to  his  care,  while  Mr.  Paul,  who  is  also  a  Pittsburgher  by  birth,  gives  his  personal  supervision  to  the 
operative,  manufacturing  departments  of  the  work,  for  which  he  is  admirably  fitted  by  an  enlarged  experience  and 
thorough  education  as  a  mechanician.  During  its^mparatively  short  e.xistance  as  a  firm,  the  house  of  Metcalf,  Paul 
&  Co.  have  achieved  a  success  so  signal  and  complete  as  to  rank  them  with  the  best  and  most  extensive  manufactur- 
ing enterprises  in  this  or  any  other  city.  Closely  identified  with  Pittsburgh,  its  development,  industrial  growth,  and 
general  prosperity,  promoting  all  these  to  the  greatest  degree  possible,  the  proprietors  of  the  Verona  Tool  Works  are 
deservedly  awarded  the  highest  consideration  on  the  part  of  the  community  for  which  they  have  done  so  much. 

37 


134 


INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


T.  W.  W'HlTlEJJcL'Y -Commission  Merchant,  Terra Cotfa  Ware,&c.,244  Penn  Ave. 

The  rapidly  increasing  demand  for  Terra  Cotta  AVare  in  the  shape  of  Flues,  Sewer,  Stove  Pipes,  &c.,  and  the  abso- 
lute necessity  of  these  appliances  in  all  modern  structures,  suggested  the  idea  of  establishing  a  coiumission  agency  in 
this  city  for  tlie  sale  and  storage  of  such  merchandise.  About  one  year  ago,  therefore,  Mr.  Whiteley  commenced  bus- 
iness, representing  the  Excelsior  sewer  pipe  and  lire  brick  works  of  P.  Connor  &  Bros.,  located  at  EUiottsville,  Jeffer- 
son county,  O.,  and  other  leading  potteries  in  Oliio,  including  other  articles  in  the  same,  line,  such  as  Fire  Brick,  Tile, 
White  Lime,  Calcined  and  Land  Plaster,  Cements,  Stone  Crockery,  Lawn  Vases,  Pots,  <&c.  The  wisdom  of  his  enter- 
prise has  already  been  amply  shown  by  an  annual  trade  of  over  520,000,  which  is  fast  developing  into  larger  propor- 
tions, and  affords  conveniences  to  the  general  public  locally  and  at  a  distance  for  making  purchases  at  lowest  rates 
heretofore  unobtainable.  Those  who  desire  any  information  with  reference  to  such  particulars  in  connection  with  the 
business  not  otherwise  easily  got  at,  will  find'Mr.  Whitely  by  correspondence  or  otherwise,  ready  to  import  any 
knowledge  within  his  jurisdiction. 

CHARLES  MAGIHN  &  CO.-Wholesale  Confectioner,  188  Liberty  St. 

Mr.  Charles  Maginn,  proprietor  of  the  "Liberty  Candy  Works"  and  wholesale  Confectioner,  has  been  engaged  in 
business  under  the  present  .<:tyle,  and  at  his  present  location  since  1875.  Previous  to  that  time,  from  1857  until  he  estab- 
lished this  house,  he  was  a  partner  in  the  lirm  of  E.  and  C.  Maginn,  a  concern  which  transacted  an  annual  business  of 
some  5f250,000.  Since  starting  in  Inisiness  for  himself,  Mr.  Maginn's  trade  has  steadily  increased,  until  his  yearly  sales 
reach  the  handsome  sum  of  ^yO,000,  with  fair  prospects  of  rivaling  the  business  of  the  old  firm  in  cours  of  time.  He 
occupies  four  floors  and  basement  of  the  elegant  stone  front  Warehouse,  22x110,  located  at  No.  183  Liberty  Street, 
as  manufactory  and  sales  rooms,  and  employs  about  twenty-five  hands  in  the  various  departments  of  his  establish- 
ment. His  trade  extends  through  Pennsylvania,  Eastern  Ohio,  West  Virginia  and  Maryland,  and  compares  favor- 
ably with  that  of  any  other  house  in  the  same  line.  His  stock  comprises  every  description  of  Fine  Confectionery, 
Canned  Goods,  Foreign  Fruits,  Nuts,  Sardines,  etc.  etc. 

JAS.  W.  ARROTT,— f/r^.  Marine  &  Life  Insurance  Agent,  Office,  167  Wood  St. 

In  presenting  the  name  of  Mr.  Arrott  to  the  public,  it  will  at  once  be  recognized  as  one  well  known  to  all,  as 
associated  in  giving  security  to  the  citizens  of  Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny  county  against  the  ravages  of  the  devour- 
ing element.  His  name  is  a  guarantee,  that  in  case  of  loss,  promptness  will  follow  the  amounts  of  damage  ascer- 
tained, and  quick  payment  will  ensue,  hence  his  popularity  and  success  in  this  city.  During  the  last  20  years  he 
has  written  policies  amounting  to  almost  untold  millions  of  dollars,  in  the  same  time  he  has  adjusted  losses  run- 
ning up  to  hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars.  In  his  agency  he  has  employed  three  clerks,  who  are  constantly 
engaged  in  attending  to  tlie  details  of  the  office,  whilst  Mr.  A.  gives  his  whole  time  to  the  general  management. 
The  following  list  comprises  some  of  the  staunchest  Companies  in  this  country  and  Europe,  which  are  represented 
by  him;  viz.:  Continental  Fire  Insurance  Co.;  German  American  Insurance  Co;  Guaranty  Fire  Insurance  Co.; 
Hanover  Fire  Insurance  Co. ;  Hoffman  Fire  Insurance  Co.  ;  Merchants  Fire  Insurance  Co. ;  Niagara  Fire  Insurance 
Co. ;  Queen  Fire  Insurance  Co. ;  Royal  Canadi.m  Fire  Insurance  Co. ;  Koger  Williams  Insurance  Co. ;  Shawmut 
Insurance  Co. ;  New  York  Life  Insurance  Co. 


GRAY'S  IRON  TJINTI,- Freight  Transportation.  Office.  94  Water  St. 

Contingent  upon  the  industrial  manufactures  of  Pittsburgh,  Gray's  Iron  Line  is  entitled  to  particular  mention 
in  any  records,  from  which  may  be  derived  a  detailed  knowledge  of  the  various  resources  of  this  city.  As  the 
Pioneer  Line  of  Barge  Transportation  of  general  merchandise  from  Pittsburgh  it  was  established  in  1863,  with  a 
view  to  ailbrd  shippers  greater  facilities  in  the  river  transportation  of  heavy  freights  to  points  in  the  West,  North 
and  South- West  from  which  they  would  otherwise  have  been  virtually  cut  off,  the  Iron  Line  at  once  became  a 
permanent  intitution,  conducive  in  the  highest  degree  to  the  advantage  of  manufactures,  and  consequently  to  the 
entire  community.  In  the  line  of  heavy  freight  trans'portation  the  company  gives  special  attention  to  that  of  Steel 
and  Iron  Rails  and  Pittsburgh  manufactures  from  Pittsburgh  to  all  points.  The  Proprietors  of  what  has  now  be- 
come an  enterprise  of  more  than  ordinary  importance,  are  Capt.  R.  C.  Gray  and  Capt.  M.  W.  Bettzhoover,  the 
former  acting  as  general  manager,  W.  P.  JtcConnell  and  J.  H.  Dunlap  being  respectively  secretary  and  superintendent. 

As  the  largest  undertaking  of  the  kind  in  this  part  of  the  country  for  inland  navagation,  and  river  transporta- 
tion the  facilities  of  this  company  are  somewhat  extended  and  consist  of  the  Steamers  Iron  Mountain,  W.  C.  Gray 
Master  ;  Fearless,  Thos.  Greenlee,  Master  and  Ironsides,  Jas.  McDonald  Master,  35  model  barges  for  regular  freights, 
Iron  etc.,  etc.,  and  5  barges  designed  for  carrying  bulk  grain,  having  a  total  capacity  of  8140,000  busliels  with  a 
tonnage  of  1400  tons  each.  For  safety,  speed  and  economy  this  Line  has  justly  achieved  a  matchless  reputation,  as  may 
be  inferred  from  the  continued  addition's  made  to  it,  and  its  long  and  useful  career.  No  men  in  Pittsburgh  are 
better  known,  or  more  highly  esteemed  than  Capts.  Gray  and  Bettzhoover.  Their  connection  with  the  growth  and 
prosperity  of  the  Iron  City  has  been  a  very  intimate  one.  Grays  Iron  Line  is  but  one  of  many  beneficial  enter- 
prises to  "which  they  have  lent  their  names  and  advanced  their  capital,  employing  in  this  branch  of  their  business, 
alone,  over  100  men.  They  may  weU  be  entitled  to  consideration  as  promoting  in  no  small  degree  the  industries  of 
Pittsburgh. 

38 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH. 


135 


JAMi:S  McQUISTON  &  CO -Pittsburgh  Galvanizing  Wks.,  26th  &  Railroad Sts. 

A  very  important  industry  contingent  upon  the  use  and  manufacture  of  Iron,  adding  to  its  durability  appear- 
anoe,  and  adapting  it  for  many  purposes  otherwise  out  of  its  range,  is  the  process  of  (Galvanizing  a  business  of 
wliich  Messrs.  James  McQuiston  and  Co.  make  a  succes.sful  speciality.  Established  in  1S71  at  the  present  location, 
tlie  firm  was  at  first  McQuiston  &  Kraft,  the  latter  however  withdrawing  in  1873  left  the  title  of  the  house  as  at 
present,  the  company  being  nominal.  The  plant  is  a  very  extensive  one,  and  covers  an  area  of  nearly  one  acre, 
being  supplied  with  every  apurtenance  and  apparatus  neccs.sary  for  the  effective  conduct  of  the  business.  The  per- 
fection, which  the  skill  and  assiduity  of  Mr.  McQuiston  has  secured  in  results,  mav  be  illustrated  by  the  fact, 
that  he  alone  has  been  entirely  successful  in  galvanizing  Cast  Iron  Bath  Tubs,  a  desideratum  achieved  only  by 
superior  knowledge  and  experience,  as  well  as  unapproached  facilities.  The  latter  may  be  estimated  by  the  capac- 
ity, which  is  from  6  to  10  tons  of  Wrought  Iron  Pipe  per  day  and  six  tons  Sheet  Iroii,  proving  that  the  establish- 
ment is  second  to  none  in  the  countiy,  and  complete  in  every  re-spect.  The  business  under  the  management  of 
Mr.  McQuiston  is  rapidly  increasing ,  a  very  conclusive  evidence  of  the  ability  with  which  it  is  managed,  and  the 
thorough  excellence  of  tlie  work  turned  out.  When  in  full  operation  20  hands  arc  employed  in  the  work,  many  of 
whom  are  skilled  and  experienced  workmen.  The  enterprise  of  .James  McQuiston  &  Co.  is  heartily  commended  as 
adding  no  little  to  the  industrial  prosperity  of  the  city,  and  filling  a  highly  useful  and  necessary  place.  Prompt, 
reliable  and  enterprising,  the  firm  has  acquired  a  position  to  which  it  is  justly  entitled  by  the  exercise  of  these 
characteristics,  for  which  it  is  widely  known  and  respected.    Galvaniza  100  dozen  Coal  Hods  per  diem. 

CARTER  BROTHERS  &  CO.  -  Wholesale  Grocers,  No.  259  &  261  Liberty  St, 

In  a  history  of  the  advance  and  development  of  Pittsburgh,  with  reference  to  commercial  affairs,  the  Wholesale 
Grocery  trade  must  always  occupy  a  very  prominent  position,  as  having  conduced  in  no  small  degree  to  the  present 
mercantile  importance  of  this  community.  Among  those  houses  whose  extended  transactions  and  high  standing  en- 
title them  to  more  than  casual  mention  is  that  of  Messrs.  Carter  Brothers  &  Co.,  Wholesale  Grocers  and  CofTee  Roasters, 
making  specialties  of  Teas  and  Tobaccos.  Established  Jan.  1,  1867,  by  John  A.  Carter  and  David  A.  Carter  under  the 
above  style,  the  "  Co."  being  nominal,  the  firm  soon  took  a  conspicuous  place  for  its  energy  and  the  rapid  increase  oj 
its  business.  Commencing  with  but  a  comparatively  small  capital,  the  house  at  the  present  time  carries  an  average 
stock  of  from  ?40, COO  to  850,000,  while  their  yearly  sales  will  compare  favoralile  with  that  of  any  other  house  in  the 
same  line  of  business.  The  ample  business  prernises  of  the  firm  ai-e  situated  as  above,  and  consist  of  one  large  build- 
ing, 35x114  feet,  with  steam  elevators  for  hoisting,  and  steam  engine  for  grinding  and  wasting  coffee.  Nine  hands  are 
employed  in  the  various  departments,  the  tradeof  the  house  extending  through  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  West  Vir- 
ginia. The  partners  are  natives  of  Washington  Co.,  Pa.,  came  to  Pittsburgh  12  years  ago,  and  since  that  time  have 
taken  an  active  part  in  promoting  the  general  advantages  of  the  city,  and  have  gained  a  reputation  for  themselves  that 
entitles  them  to  the  esteem  and  consideration  of  the  communitv. 


TOTTEN  &  CO,-Fulton  Foundry,  Cor.  24th  and  R.  R.  Sts. 

Pursuing  a  special  branch  in  the  conversion  and  manufacture  of  iron,  and  conducting  a  business  of  great  magni- 
tude and  importance  to  the  industrial  prosperity  of  the  city,  the  house  of  Totten  it  Co.  is  not  to  be  omitted  from  a 
work  seeking  to  set  forth  in  detail  some  adequate  exhibit  of  the  resources  of  Pittsburgh.  The  business  which  is  now 
conducted,  under  the  above  style,  by  Messrs.  Robt.  C.  Totten  and  N.  B.  Hogg,  was  originally  established  by  the 
former  in  1863,  and  from  its  very  inception  has  not  only  been  eminently  successful,  but  achieved  a  sjjecial  position 
and  reputation  of  its  own,  for  the  manufacture  of  Hollow  Chill  Rolls,  and  Rolling  Mill  Machinery.  In  the  invention 
of  the  Hollow  Chill  Roll,  (protected  by  letters  patent  1869  and  1877,)  Mr.  Totten  became  the  discoverer,  after  years 
of  labor  and  investigation,  of  one  of  the  most  valuable  appliances  known  in  the  manufacture  of  iron.  It  is  no't  the 
intention  in  this  work  to  explain  the  principles  upon  which  this  roll  is  constructed,  or  from  which  its  superior  merits 
are  derived.  The  success  attendant  upon  its  introduction  to  the  trade  is  the  highest  guarantee  of  its  usefulness,  90 
mills  having  been  supplied  with  them  during  the  past  two  years,  over  .520  rolls  being  in  operation.  Of  these  Messrs. 
Totten  &  Co.  are  sole  manufacturers,  and  possess  ample  facilities  for  supplying  them  in  any  length,  and  from  5  to  36 
inches  in  diameter.  Besides  this  important  improvement  the  firm  are  the  only  manufacturers  of  Chilled  Rolls  cast 
to  shape,  securing  iidvantages  in  the  uniform  density  and  durability,  of  grooved  surfaces  never  before  attained,  and 
possessing  other  merits  that  have  stood  the  severest  tests  during  the  past  12  years. 

The  plant  of  the  firm  is  located  on  24th  St.,  and  covers  an  area  of  some  three  acres,  the  machine  shop  being  70x120 
feet,  and  the  foundry  85x225  feet,  containing  much  machinery  of  remarkable  size  and  power,  including  can  turn  fly 
wheels  twenty-five  feet  in  diameter,  chill  rolls  30x108  inches,  one  planing  machine  ten  feet  wide  liy  thirty-six 
feet  long,  being  the  largest  piece  of  mechanism  of  the  kind  in  the  United  States,  except  one  at  the"  Cliarleston 
Navy  Yard,  and  other  appliances,  operated  by  two  powerful  steam  engines  and  boilers.  Some  idea  of  the  capacity  of 
the  works  may  be  indicated  by  the  fact  that  a'  plate  for  moulding  plate  glass  was  constructed  here,  weighing  84,000  lbs., 
which  was  planed  on  one  side  to  a  perfect  surface,  being  perhaps  the  most  ponderous  work  of  the  kind  ever  executed 
in  the  country.  In  the  manufacture  of  Heinles  Combined  Friction  and  Cog  Pinions  the  firm  enjoy  a  monopoly, 
and  are  noted  as  well  for  their  various  makes.  Roll  Pinions,  Gearings  and  Mill  Machinery.  The  senior  partner 
was  formerly  connected  with  the  Fort  Pitt  Foundry,  whose  products  in  the  casting  of  heavy  ordinance  have  a  world 
wide  repute.  Here  Mr.  Totten  acquired  the  practical  and  metallurgical  knowledge  that  has  been  of  such  manifest 
usefulness  in  his  present  enterprise,  and  which,  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century,  has  connected  him  with  the 
industrial  interests  of  Pittsburgh.  The  testimonials  and  flattering  commendations  received  unsought  by  the  firm 
during  the  past  few  years,  would  fill  many  pages  of  this  volume.  It  is  enough,  however,  to  say,  in  this  connection, 
that  no  house  occupies  a  higher  place,  or  is  more  entitled  to  the  po.sition  achieved  than  Messrs.  Totten  &  Co.  of  the 
Fulton  Foundry. 

Messrs.  Totten  &  Co.  are  now  filling  an  order  from  England  for  Hollow  Chill  Rolls,  and  expecting  other  orders 
from  Europe.  They  are  largely  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  Nai!  Machines,  having  erected  most  of  the  largest 
Nail  Factories  West  of  the  Allegheny  Mountainvas  well  as  some  in  the  East.  They  have  recently  sent  to  England 
Nail  Machinery  for  cutting  steel  nails,  a  branch  that  must  also  become  prominent  in  the  near  future  in  this  country. 
They  have  erected  some  30  first-class  Rolling  Mills  in  the  past  15  years,  more  than  any  other  similar  establishment  in 
the  country,  and  of  necessity  have  the  most  modern  patterns  for  this  class  of  work. 

39 


136  INDUSTRIES    OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 

S,  MORROW  &  QO -Manufacturers  of  street  Lamps,  Cor.  Market  St.  &  First  Ave. 

The  firm  of  S.  Morrow  &  Co.  is  of  late  formation,  but  this  statement  should  not  be  construed  to  convey  the  idea 
that  the  members  of  the  firm  are  novices  in  the  line  of  business  in  which  they  are  engaged.  The  founder  of  the  house, 
S.  Morrow,  Esq.,  was,  previous  to  liis  death  in  February,  1878,  for  4.5  year-;  identified  with  the  manufacturing  interests 
of  tins  city,  and  established  the  business  of  whicli  liis  present  successors  are  now  the  worthy  representatives.  The 
new  firm,  doing  business  under  the  style  of  "  S.  Morrow  &  Co.,"  is  composed  of  Mr.  J.  Liloud  Lytle  and  Mr.  James 
Morrow,  the  son  of  the  former  proprietor,  who  succeeds  as  a  partner,  witlr  a  full  knowledge  of  the  lamp  business  and 
tiie  wants  of  trade.  With  every  facility  before  possessed,  and  the  addition  of  new  and  improved  machinery,  and  the 
infusion  of  fresh  vigor  and  enterprise,  the  present  firm  may  be  relied  upon  as  not  only  keeping  up  the  standard  of  per- 
fection in  the  products  that  characterized  the  house  of  S.  Morrow,  but  making  advancement  in  every  detail  that  the 
times  require  and  pursuing  a  course  creditable  to  themselves  and  to  the  Iron  City.  To  this  end  they  will  continue  to 
manufacture  the  Round  Globe  Street  Lamp  (of  which  S.  Morrow  was  the  inventor),  which  has  long  been  acknowledged 
to  be  the  neatest  and  most  consistent  lamp  for  illuminating  streets,  parks  and  entrances  that  has  ever  been  produced  in 
this  country,  and  other  special  and  ordinary  designs  for  stock  in  trade  and  to  order,  including  the  Square  City  Street 
Lamp,  both  for  gas  and  with  gasoline  tank  attachment,  appropriate  for  use  in  city  or  town.  In  this  line  of  industry 
this  constitutes  the  only  manufactory  of  Street  Lamps  in  our  city,  and  have  the  most  complete  equipments  for  carry- 
ing on  the  bnsiness  West  of  the  mountains.  As  a  firm  that  of  S.  Morrow  &  Co.  is  of  the  most  highly  commendable 
character,  and  to  old  patrons  of  the  former  proprietor,  and  to  all  others  throughout  the  country,  who  wish  estimate.s 
for  either  public  or  private  contracts,  we  would  respectfully  call  attention  to  this  house,  believing  that  we  are  serving 
the  purpose  of  this  work,  in  so  doing,  to  tlie  greatest  advantage  to  the  public. 

UNION  CHAIN  WORKS,-/?^/fer  &  Co.,  29th  and  R.  R.  Sts. 

The  manufacture  of  Chain  of  every  description  is  carried  on  extensively  by  the  firm  of  Eeiter  &  Co.,  at  the  corner 
of  29th  and  R.  R.  Sts.  The  present  firm  was  establislied  in  1878,  but  Mr.  Reiter,  Sr.,  has  been  for  many  years  promi- 
nently identified  with  the  manufacturing  interests  of  this  city,  having  been  one  of  the  original  founders  of  the  La 
Belle  Steel  Works.  They  manufacture  in  their  extensive  works,  which  are  well  located,  conveniently  ai-ranged  and 
fitted  with  excellent  machinery,  driven  by  a  fine  engine,  a  very  superior  quality  of  chains.  The  greatest  care  is 
taken  to  produce  none  but  first-class  work,  and  no  chains  of  an  inferior  quality  are  permitted  to  be  sent  out  from  this 
establishment,  all  being  submitted  to  a  thorough  practical  test  before  going  to  their  customers.  The  iron  used  is  the 
best  quality  and  highest  grades  to  be  had.  The  purpose  and  design  of  the  firm  is  to  make  an  A.  No.  1  chain,  equal  in 
all  respects  to  the  most  celebrated  English  brands.  Wherever  their  chains  have  gone  or  been  used  they  have  given  the 
highest  satisfaction.  They  employ  none  but  skilled  workmen,  who,  by  the  system  of  testing  employed  in  the  estab- 
lishment, are  stimulated  to  the  greatest  care  in  their  work.  They  manufacture  now  at  the  rate  of  600  tons  of  chain 
per  annum,  and  are  having  a  steadily  increasing  demand  for  their  products  in  difTerent  parts  of  the  country. 

Mr.  Geo.  Reiter,  senior  member  of  the  firm,  was  born  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  but  has  for  many  years  resided  in  Pitts- 
burgh, and  has  been  largely  intei'csted  in  the  manufacture  of  Iron  and  Steel,  and  closely  identified  with  other  import- 
ant industries  and  the  general  interests  of  the  city.  He  is  well  and  favorable  known,  and  is  a  highly  respected  and 
honored  citizen.  Mr.  Geo.  Reiter,  Jr.,  was  born  in  Pittsburgh,  and  lias  grown  up  in  the  Iron  industries  with  which 
his  father  has  been  identified.  He  is  the  general  manager  and  superintendent  of  the  works.  Mr.  W.  C.  Reiter  has 
ciiar^ge  of  the  office  business  and  books  of  the  firm.  Both  the  sons  are  young  possessed  of  energy  and  business  experience, 
and  the  establishment  is  one  in  which  the  Irou  City  may  feel  a  justificable  pride.  Father  and  sons,  in  establishing  their 
enterprise,  which  in  a  measure  is  a  new  one  in  this  city,  bring  into  its  management  large  experience  in  a  business 
point  of  view,  and  great  energy.  They  are  men  of  the  very  higliest  character,  and  the  firm  is  every  way  reliable  and 
trustworthy,  and  fully  merits  the  high  esteem  in  which  it  is  held,  and  the  largest  success  in  their  enterprise. 


BRIDGE  &  'BOWMA.'^, -Practical  Plumbers,  No.  28  West  Ohio  St.,  Allegheny. 

The  Plumbing  establishment  of  Bridge  &  Bowman,  located  at  No.  28  West  Ohio  St.,  Allegheny,  was  founded  in 
1871  by  the  present  proprietors.  They  occupy  a  three  story  brick  building,  20x70  feet,  and  employ  on  an  average  six 
skilled  workmen.  Their  weekly  pay-roll  amounts  to  about  $75.  For  the  past  three  years  their  business  has  averaged 
?18,000  per  annum,  but  previous  to  the  "hard  times,"  commencing  in  1876,  it  would  reach  a  much  larger  sum.  Both 
members  of  the  firm  are  practical  plumbers.  Steam  and  Gas  fitters,  and  they  are  general  dealers  in  Gas  Fixtures,  Lead 
Pipe,  Sheet  Lead,  Hydrants,  Pumps,  &o.  Their  trade  is  located  principally  in  the  city  and  its  immediate  vicinity, 
and  will  compare  favorably  with  that  of  any  similar  establishment.  Mr.  Bridge  is  a  na'tive  of  England,  and  was  born 
in  1839,  and  came  to  this  country  when  a  child.  Mr.  Bowman  was  born  in  Allegheny  City  in  1848,  and  has  always  re- 
sided there. 

BAKEWELL,  PEARS  &  CO -Pittsburgh  Flint  Glass  Works,  South  Side. 

Among  those  firms  which  are  most  intimately  connected  with  the  history  of  Pittsburgh,  its  infant  struggles,  growth 
and  subsequent  prosperity,  sharing  and  promoting  every  matter  of  public  interest,  the  house  of  Bakewell,  Pears  &  Co. 
will  assuredly  take  a  prominent  position.  For  three-quarters  of  a  century  its  career  has  been  closely  allied  to  tlie  Glass 
trade  in  all  its  various  stages,  and  to  a  marked  degree  conducive  to  the  thrift  and  importance  that  places  this  branch  of 
our  manufactures  upon  so  solid  a  footing.  Established  in  1808,  under  the  style  of  Bakewell,  Payn  &  Bakewell,  the  suc- 
cess of  the  enterprise,  as  the  first  of  its  kind  west  of  the  Alleghany  mountains,  was  assured  from  its  inception.  In  1840 
the  firm  name  was  changed  to  its  present  style  by  the  admi-sion  of  Mr.  J.  P.  Pears,  who,  for  30  years,  until  his  death  in 
1874,  was  one  of  the  most  prominent  of  our  glass  manufacturers.  The  present  firm,  whose  individual  members  are — 
Beuj.  B.  Canipl>en,  Thomas  C,  Benj.  B.,  and  Harry  P.  Pears,  succeeded  to  the  business  in  1878,  These  gentlemen  are 
df'scended  from  the  original  founders  of  the  enterprise,  and  may  be  said  to  have  an  acquired  as  well  as  inherited  knowl- 
edge of  the  Glass  trade,  which  is  evidently  turned  to  the  best  interests  of  the  house,  in  securing  a  general  superiority  of 
work  in  those  specialties  for  which  the  firm  has  become  celebrated.  In  18-54  the  plant  of  Bakewell,  Pears  A  Co.  was 
removed  from  its  ancient  site  on  the  ground  now  occupied  by  the  B.  &  0.  R.  R.  depot  to  its  present  location  in  Bingham 
St.,  South  Side.  In  making  this  change  various  improvements  were  made,  and  the  factories  considerably  enlarged  and 
more  perfectly  adapted  to  the  modern  requirements  of  the  business.  The  establishment  now  occupies  anarea  of  several 
acres,  consisting  of  2  furnaces,  10  pots  each;  2  warehouses,  40x125  each,  and  iron-clad;  store  house,  packing  room,  cut- 
ting shops,  offices,  and  other  buildings,  supplied  with  one  engine  and  boiler  for  driving  the  machinery — 25  horse  power, 
and  engaging  the  labor  of  125  artizans  and  others,  necessitating  a  weekly  disbursement  of  over  $1,400.  The  wares  uumu- 
factured  by  this  house  are  mainly  in  the  line  of  all  descriptions  of  Crystal  Glass  and  Cut  Table  Ware,  Bar  Service,  Drug- 
gists' Furniture,  Lantern  Glasses,  and  all  sorts  of  blown  and  pressed  goods,  together  with  the  finest  cut,  etched  and 
engraved  ware,  for  which  they  have  achieved  a  reputation  unsurpassed,  if  equalled,  by  any  competitor  in  the  country. 
With  such  a  product  and  such  a  history,  it  is  not  too  much  to  assert  that  the  firm  of  Bakewell,  Pears  &  Co.  is  regarded 
in  every  respect  as  being  representative  of  the  Glass  trade,  and  the  general  enterprise  of  the  community. 


CITY   OF   PITTSBURGH.  137 


JOHN  GA'NG'WISCH^-Jlllegheny  Valley  Brewery,  Foot  of  46fh  Street. 

The  aunual  increase  in  the  consumption  of  malt  liquors,  has  not  only  been  of  tlie  highest  advantage  to  the  agri- 
cultural producer  of  gi-ain,  but  in  afibrding  a  channel  for  the  occupation  of  labor  and  capital,  has  done  much  to  en- 
hance the  industrial  thrift  of  the  community,  both  iu  the  employment  of  numerous  operatives  and  the  suggestion  of 
more  temperate  and  frugal  habits,  on  the  part  of  the  public  at  large.  Engaged  in  tiiis  useful  industry,  Mr.  John 
Gaugwisch  established  the  Allegheny  Valley  Brewery  in  1876  after  a  long,  varied  and  comprehensive  experience. 
Born  in  Baden,  Germany  in  1821,  Mr.  Gangwisch  came  to  the  United  States  when  27  years  of  age,  first  having  acquired 
a  thorougli  knowledge  of  brewing  both  in  apractical  and  theoretical  manner.  Here  he  worked  for  many  years  as  fore- 
man in  the  establishment  of  John  Beck,  the  pioneer  brewer  of  this  city,  engaging  subsequently  in  business  for  liim- 
self,  in  company  with  two  others,  as  partners,  and  purchasing  a  planing  mill  on  Liberty  St.,  which  was  fitted  up  and 
adapted  fur  use  in  his  special  vocation.  This  property  being  purchased  eventually  by  the  P.  R.  R.  Co.,  he  afterwards 
erected  the  Union  Brewery  before  the  construction  of  the  present  plant.  The  Allegheny  Valley  Brewery  is  one  of 
the  most  prominent  establishments  of  the  kind  in  the  city,  it  represents  an  investment  of  over  $50,000  and  is  adapted 
to  tlie  business,  by  the  introduction  of  every  modern  appliance  or  appointment  necessary  for  the  perfection  of  the 
product,  and  supplied  with  ample  cellars  60  feet  deep,  surmounted  by  ice  houses,  securing  at  all  times  a  low  and  even 
temperature.  Tlie  buildings  are  extensive  and  cover,  in  connection  with  yards  and  ice  ponds,  an  area  of  not  less  than 
one  acre,  having  a  capacity  of  10,000  barrels,  at  which  it  is  now  running,  with  a  large  local  trade,  to  supply  which 
three  wagons  are  required,  heavy  shipments  being  made  daily  to  the  surrounding  country. 

Mr.  E.  J.  Reinhardt,  a  nephew  of  Mr.  Gangwisch  and  for  many  years  book-keeper  for  the  Smithfield  National 
Bank,  has  charge  of  the  books  and  general  business  of  the  concerns,  and  is  well  fitted  for  the  responsibilities  of  the  po- 
sition. The  trade  mark  of  the  establisliment  as  indicated  in  all  their  barrels,  is  blue  and  green,  while  the  excellence 
of  the  Beer  produced  is  testified  to  hy  the  favor  it  has  secured,  being  considered  equal  in  flavor,  color  and  purity  to 
any  brand  made  in  tiie  United  States. 

T.  &  J.  T.  McC AN CE -Merchant  Tailors,  No.  196  Liberty  St. 

There  is  perhaps  no  firm  in  Pittsburgh,  in  the  same  line  of  business,  that  is  better  or  more  widely  known  than 
that  of  Messrs.  T.  &  J.  T.  McCance.  Established  in  18-15,  and  during  the  34  years  tliat  have  since  elapsed,  identified 
with  the  growth,  industries  and  prosperity  of  the  city,  the  house  is  certainly  deserving  of  more  than  brief  mention. 
With  ample  facilities  for  a  large  and  increasing  business  the  house  of  Messrs."  McCanee  have  more  than  ordinary  ad- 
vantages to  otfer  their  customei's.  As  importers  direct  of  the  finest  fabrics  of  France  and  England,  an  unusually 
choice  assortment  of  these  goods  will  always  be  found  in  hand,  together  with  tlie  best  products  of  American  looms. 
Twenty  skilled  operatives  are  employed  in  the  custom  department,  two  cutters  and  several  sewers.  The  premises  are 
of  the  most  spacious,  consisting  of  sales  and  exhibition  room,  26x110  feet,  located  as  above,  stocked  with  the  choicest 
goods  known  to  the  trade.  As  a  firm  the  house  of  T.  &  J.  T.  McCance  occupy  a  position,  and  nave  attained  a  repute, 
that  emanates  from  years  of  toil  and  patient  endeavor,  supplemented  by  those  qualities  of  commercial  and  personal 
integrity  that  have  always  been  at  tlie  basis  of  their  transactions,  entitling  them  to  the  esteem  and  respect  of  the  com- 
munity, with  whose  progressive  development  they  have  been  so  closely  allied. 

A  VERM  ANN  &  CO -Dry  Goods,  Trimmings,  Carpets,  Wall  Paper,  etc. 

The  very  large  and  prosperous  establishment  of  A  vermann  &  Co.  is  located  on  Penn  Avenue,  between  3^d  and  34th 
Sts.,  with  a  branch  on  same  avenue,  near  41st  St.,  at  both  of  which  places  they  are  doing  a  large  and  prosperous  trade. 
The  business  was  first  started  by  B.  Averraann,  in  1867,  near  the  present  location,  in  a  small  room,  and  with  small  capi- 
tal. It  increased  so  rapidly  that  in  a  short  time  he  was  compelled  to  move  into  the  large  store  room  now  occupied  by 
the  firm.  It  is  20  feet  front  by  7o  feet  in  depth,  and  is  filled  with  a  very  large,  complete  and  choice  assortment  of  the 
various  goods  in  their  line  to  the  amount  of  $20,000.  Mr.  Rud.  Wesierman  and  Mr.  Henry  Avermann  were  admitted 
into  partnership  with  Mr.  B.  Avermann  after  removal  to  the  new  rooms.  The  firm  is  one  of  the  most  prosperous,  in 
their  line  of  trade,  in  that  portion  of  the  city  in  which  they  are  located.  The  business  has  been  from  the  commence- 
ment in  the  charge  of  Mr.  Henry  Avermann,  to  whose  popularity,  enterprise,  ability  and  business  tact  is  mainly  due 
the  great  success  of  the  establishment,  and  the  large  annual  business,  amounting  to  $25,000,  they  are  now  doing.  The 
branch  store  near  41st  St.  is  in  charge  of  a  younger  brother  of  Mr.  H.  Avermann,  wlio  also  displays  the  same  business 
qualifications  as  his  brother,  and  is  doing  a  very  fine  "business. — Mr.  Bernard  Avermann,  the  senior  member  of  the 
firm,  was  born  in  Germany  iu  1824,  and  came  to  the  United  States  about  32  years  ago  ;  has  worked  nearly  ever  since 
at  Shoenberger's  Iron  Works,  accumuliting,  while  working  there,  his  capital^ "to  start  the  business  of  which  he  is  now 
the  honored  head,  and  from  which  he  is  now  deriving  so  liand.some  an  income. 

G.  A.  SCHNABEL,-^arm^^  Manufactory,  Penn  Ave.  &  81st  Street. 

Among  the  many  branches  of  industry,  which  have 
contributed  to  the  wide  spread  reputation  of  Pittsburgh 
as  a  manufacturing  centre,  that  of  Carriage  Building  in 
its  various  branches,  is  one  of  the  most  important.  The 
superiority  of  Pittsburgh  Wagons  and  Carri:iges  is  ac- 
knowledged wherever  they  have  been  used  One  of  the 
leading  manufactories  in  this  line,  is  that  of  Mr.  G  A. 
Schnaliel,  whose  extensive  works  are  located  at  the  cor- 
ner of  Penn  Ave.  and  31st  Street.  Tlie  business  was  es- 
tablished in  1S(!0  by  Mr.  Martin  Schnabel,  fa-ther  of  the 
present  proprietor,  who  conducted  it  until  his  death, 
which  occurred  in  1873,  when  Mr.  G.  A.  Schnabel  suc- 
ceeded. The  main  buildings  are  two  in  number  at  the 
location  named,  one  24x05,  and  one  48x130  with  numer- 
ous other  smaller  buildings  and  a  spacious  yard.  Mr. 
Schnabel  carries  a  stock  of  aV)out  510,000  and  manufac- 
tures every  description  of  Light  Carriages,  Express  and 
Road  Wagons,  Spring  and  Coach  Top  Wagons,  and 
Vehicles  of  every  kind  required,  paying  esjiecial  atten- 
tion to  ordered  work.  He  aims  at  the  highest  degiee  of 
excellence,  and  the  greatest  durability  in  all  work  turned 
out,  and  the  reputation  of  this  establishment  for  relia- 
bility keeps  a  full  force  of  skilled  workmen  employed  all  the  time,  and  the  trade  which  is  principally  local  at 
present,  is  gradually  extending  to  different  parts  of  the  country.  Mr.  Schnabel  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  18,'i4,  and 
was  educated  to  the  business  in  his  father's  establishment,  acquiring  a  thorough  and  complete  knowledge  thereof, 
on  every  detail  and  department.  He  is  a  young  man  of  fine  business  ability  and  attainments  energetic,  enterpris- 
ing reliable,  and  is  pushing  his  already  large  bu>ine,ss  with  commendable  zeal  and  vigor. 


138  INDUSTRIES   OF   PENNSYLVANIA. 


THOMPSON,  EPPING  &  CARPENTER-%5fo«^  Steam  Pump  Works. 

So.  SS2  JPenn  Are. 

Iti  tlio  inamifaoturo,  dosi;j;ii  and  invention  of  Steam  Pumps,  it  is  safe  to  assert  that  no  livin  in  the  West  lias  achieved 
a  liighec  ivpiilaliou  than  that  of  Messrs.  Thoinpsoii,  Kpping  A:  Carpenter,  whose  phmt  is  loeated  as  ahove,  and  wlio,  from 
tl\e  extent  and  eharaeler  of  the  business  iransaeted,  are  entitled  to  special  mention  in  this  work.  The  firm  which  was 
organized  in  1S77  succeeded  to  the  trade  and  eU'eets  of  the  t'onperi^c  Keystone  Works,  which  were  established  in  ISO:'.. 
The  premises  occupied  consist  of  one  lar,«e  two-story  main  buiUlins,  l(H).N.r20,  and  a  foundry  less  c.\tensive,  covering  an 
area  in  all  of  over  lialf  an  acre,  divided  into  niaeliinc  shops,  pattern  rooms,  foundry,  I'ic.,  &c.,  employing  "2.")  skilled  work- 
men, and  forming  the  base  of  operations  for  a  business  that  ranges  over  the  entire  United  States.  The  members  of  the 
firm  are  all  natives  of  I'ittsbnrgli,  ami  are  as  folliiws:  J.  D.  Thompson,  Henry  Epping,  and  \\'.  II.  Carpenter,  the  latter 
having  charge  of  the  general  business  ;  the  general  management  being  in  the  hands  of^Mr.  Epping.  The  products  of  the 
house  are  mainly  in  the  line  of  Steam  I'uiniis,  many  of  which  are  mainifactnred  under  letter.s  patent  owned  by  and 
awarded  to  the  tirm.  In  Cooper  rumps  may  lie  mentioned  tlie  rinngcr  P.inler  Feed  rump,  the  I'iston  I'nmp,  the  I'iston 
Mine  riimp.  tiie  Phinger  Mine  rump,  and  the  Vertical  rump,  besides  ilie  Keystone  Steam  Pump  and  the  I'pping  l>ircct 
Acting  Pump — all  being  adapted  and  specially  litted  for  certain  uses,  which  they  perfectly  subserve,  as  shown  liy  testi- 
monials from  the  highest  authorities,  including  engineers,  mechanicians  and  niannfaetui'ers  that  would  occuiiy  many 
pages  of  this  work.  In  addition  to  the  manufacture  of  Steam  rumps.  Brass  Castings  for  Kolling  Jlills,  Engine  and  Kail- 
road  Work,  are  mado  to  order,  the  facilities  of  the  establishnieiu  insuring  the  best  class  of  work  at  the  least  possible 
expense.  In  every  respect  the  house  ot  Messrs.  Thompscni,  KppingiV:  Carpenter  is  a  most  desirable  one  with  which  to 
est.;»hlish  permanent  business  relations.  Prompt,  thorough  and  honorable,  no  tirm  can  ofl'er  more  pronounced  advan- 
tages, or  guarantee,  in  the  accomplishment  of  every  work  undertaken,  more  satisfactory  results. 

BIRMINGHAM  FOUNDRY  and  Machine  Shop-Manufacturers 

of  Jiolliiig  jilHI  Catitiiiffs,  C'nKtinr/s  for  (^lass  Works,  Etc.,  Cor.  'Jlst  titid  Ular-y  Sis. 

In  the  iron  interest,  Pittsburgh  stands  specially  prominent;  her  iron  product'  are  tmsur|iassed  wherever  introduced. 
Among  the  prominent  and  reliable  establishments  in  this  branch  of  industry,  and  one  that  is  entitled  to  a  brief  notice 
in  this  volume,  is  that  above  mentioned;  not  because  of  its  magnitude  <n- specialties,  but  for  its  ample  facilities  and 
superior  productions.  It  was  established  by  Geo.  E.  Fisher  ,  Peter  Wentzel,  and  others.  It  has  enlarged  its  facilities 
and  kept  apace  with  the  times.  It  has  a  capital  invested  of  not  less  than  §.ii),OlU).  The  machinery  and  material  neces- 
sary to  prosecute  the  business  successfully  involves  an  expenditure  of  Sir>,0(iO.  An  annual  business  of  some  $;?0,OtHi  is 
done,  even  iiv  these  times,  wlien  low  prices  and  general  depression  is  prevalent.  The  works  occupy  three  buildings,  with 
a  frontage  on  21st  of  41  f.'ct,  and  a  depth  of  SS  feet.  In  addition  to  these  commodious  Uuildings,  the  grounds  attache<l 
and  used  for  business  purposes  cover  an  area  120x1-10  feet.  The  foundry  and  machine  shop  are  spacious  and  complete 
in  all  their  rcquireinents.  ICighteen  skilled  mechanics  are  employed,  at  an  expense  of  $1,000  per  luonth.  The  motive 
power  to  propel  the  various  machinery  is  furnished  by  a  2tl-luirse  power  engine.  The  trade  of  this  establislnuent  is 
principally  local  and  in  a  healthy,  gi'owing  condition.  The  owners  are  energetic,  using  every  legitimate  means  to 
extend  and  enlarge  their  trade.  They  rely  for  their  increase  and  prosperity  on  their  promptness  and  the  suiierior  char- 
acter of  all  work  iiroduced.  They  take  special  pride  in  their  ability  for  turning  out.  machinery  and  eastings  adapted  for 
glass  works.  The  tirm  consists  of  Geo.  L.  Fisher,  D.  ,T.  Thomas,  and  Peter  Wentzel.  Mr.  Fisher  was  born  in  Germany 
ill  tSli),  -Mr.  Thomas  was  born  in  Pittsburgh  in  18:52.  Mr.  Weut/.el  was  born  in  Germany  in  1830.  He  came  to  Pitts- 
burgh in  ISlt.  They  are  all  we'l  and  favorably  known  in  business  circles.  Their  enterprise  and  good  social  standing 
entitle  them  to  respect  and  coufldence  as  citizens  and  successful  business  men. 

WILLIAM  T A.TRMKN,- Undertaker  &  Embalmer,  41  West  Ohio  St.,  Allegheny. 

This  is  one  of  the  oldest  undertaking  establishments  in  the  two  cities,  having  been  established  over  half  a  century 
ago  by  Mr.  Robert  Fairman,  father  of  the  present  proprietor,  who  died  Oct.  o,  1S7S,  in  his  72d  year,  and  successfully 
conducted  the  business  for  -l:>  years.  Mr.Wm.  Fairman  has  been  in  business  for  himself  some  15  years,  but  is  now  con- 
ducting the  old  business  established  by  his  father.  He  occupies  a  three-story  brick  building,  18x120,  at  the  location 
above  named,  and  carries  a  full  stock  of  Caskets,  Cotlins,  Shrouds,  aiul  all  things  pertaining  to  the  business.  He  also 
embalms  bodies  by  the  most  approved  iirocesses,  and  at  reasonable  rates.  His  annual  business  amounts  to  about  SlO.OOO 
in  the  two  cities  and  surrounding  towns.  Mr.  Fairman  was  born  in  Allegheny  Citv  in  1840,  and  is  a  lifelong  resident  of 
the  city. 

C.  C.  'H.T^C'K.'EL,,- Merchant  Tailor,  No.  131  Federal  St,  Allegheny. 

Among  the  luany  merchant  tailoring  establishments  of  Pittsburgh  and  Allegheny,  we  commend  Mr.  C.  C.  Heekel, 
now  located  at  No.  i:U  Federal  St.,  -Vllegheny  City.  ^Ir.  II.  has  been  in  business  for  himself  siitce  ISlio.  His  present 
salesi'oom  is  13x7o  feet,  and  his  stock  consists  of  a  fine  and  seasonable  assortment  of  the  latest  styles  and  most  desirable 
fabrics  for  gentleiueu's  wear  of  both  foreign  and  domestic  manufactttre,  selected  expressly  for  this  market,  which  he  is 
prepared  to  make  to  order  into  Garments  or  Suits  in  the  latest  and  most  fashionable  manner.  Fine  Press  Suits,  for 
instance,  made  in  the  best  luanner  for  S20,  upward.  He  carries  a  stock  of  about  S!,000  to  S4,000,  and  his  annual  busi- 
ness reaches  §16,000.  He  employs  10  tirst-class  workmen,  and  allows  no  work  to  go  out  of  an  inferior  quality.  Mr. 
Heekel  was  born  in  Germany  in  1834,  and  came  to  this  country  in  1849. 

ISAAC  TATTluOR -Importer  and  Wholesale  Dealer  in  Dry  Goods,  dc,  129  Wood  St. 

The  many  advantages  possessed  by  the  city  of  Pittsburgh,  as  a  commercial  as  well  as  manufacturing  center,  should 
not  be  overlooked  by  those  who  have  hitherto  regarded  it  as  simply  the  grand  headquarters  of  the  iron  and  glass  trades 
of  the  United  States.  With  facilities  unsurpassed  by  those  of  her  sister  cities,  Pittsburgh  has  become  an  important 
commercial  metropolis,  and  purchasers  from  abroad  are  rapidly  becoming  convinced  of  the  fact  that  they  can  purchase 
Pry  Goods  anei  other  articles  here  as  low  as  in  the  New  York  "or  Philadelphia  markets,  and  at  a  considerable  .saving  of 
time,  freight  and  other  expenses.  In  connection  with  the  Pry  Goods  trade,  the  house  of  Isaac  Taylor,  at  No.  12i)  Wood 
St.,  may  be  mentioned  as  one  of  the  most  prominent  in  our  city.  Established  in  18,51,  the  business  since  that  time 
has  been  conducted  by  Mr.  Taylor  in  person,  who  now  occupies  the  entii'e  building  of  four  floors  and  basement,  at 
the  number  above  named,  giving  employment  to  seven  clerks  and  assistants,  and  a  number  of  ti'aveling  salesmen,  with 
an  extensive  trade  tbrougliout  the  western  portion  of  Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  A'irginia  and  West  Virginia.  Mr.  Taylor 
imviorts  a  portion  of  his  foreign  goovls  direct,  and  bis  domestic  fabrics  are  purchased  directly  of  the  manufacturers.  The 
various  departments  of  his  establishment  are  well  supplied  with  the  most  desii-able  articles  required  by  the  retailer  or 
country  merchant,  and  it  has  ever  been  his  aim  to  treat  his  customers  in  such  a  manner  as  to  retain  tlieir  confidence 
and  respect. 

42 


CITY    OF   FlTTSiiUKGH,  loJj 


J.  P.  SMITH,  SON  &  CO.-Lamps  and  Glassware,  No.  189  Liberty  St. 

Pitlsl)urgh  is  noted  tliiouj^liout  the  courjlry  as  tli<;  lir.a<limart(;rs  of  tlie  Glass  trado  of  th(;  Uniti-il  Status,  and  that 
shr;  is  justly  ciititlijd  to  that  proud  position  may  hi;  readily  helieved  after  even  a  cursory  glance  through  some  of  the 
li'ading  estahlislinients  of  the  Smi;ky  City  engaged  in  that  line  of  husiness.  Prominent  among  her  representative 
houses  we  may  mention  that  of  J.  1'.  Smith,  Sou  it  Co.,  wliich  occupies  the  entire  four  stories  and  basement  of  tlie 
s|jaci(nis  brick  warehouse  at  No.  189  Liberty  St.,  22x110,  and  filled  from  cellar  to  attic  with  a  magniticenlly  arranged 
ami  judiciou.sly  selected  stock  of  Lamps  in  every  variety,  line  cut  Glass  Ware,  Silverware,  Bronzes,  Majcjlica  Ware, 
Vases  and  articles  of  utility  and  verlu  in  almost  endless  variety.  This  house  was  established  in  18(;o  \>\  J.  P.  Smith, 
ICsi).,  who  continued  the  business  alone  until  1870,  when  his  son,  Mr.  Wm.  L.  Smith,  was  admitted,  the  firm  name 
ami  style  Viecoming  as  above.  Mr.  S.  li.  Findley  has  been  the  competent  and  efficient  head  book-keeper  of  the  estab- 
lishment since  ISGD.  In  1870  the  l)usiness  transacted  by  this  house  did  not  exceed  §70,000,  but  in  1878  it  had  reached 
the  handsome  .sum  of  $108,000.  The  (inn  employs  seventeen  assistants,  and  in  addition  to  the  above,  five  traveling 
salesmen,  representing  the  interests  of  the  house  all  through  the  Southern  and  Western  States.  The  business  is 
d